Energy conversion engineering lab manual full

5,141 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
2 Comments
7 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
5,141
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
143
Comments
2
Likes
7
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Energy conversion engineering lab manual full

  1. 1. DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ENERGY CONVERSION LABORATORY MANUAL (06AEL58) 2011-2012 COMPILED BY : HAREESHA N G Lecturer REVIEWED BY : Wg Cdr M R vaggar (Retd) Associate prof and Head
  2. 2. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 SYLLABUS AIRCRAFT ENERGY CONVERSION LABORATORY Subject Code : 06AEL58 No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Total no. of Lecture Hrs : 42 IA Marks: 25 Exam Hours : 03 Exam Marks: 50 PART - A (INDIVIDUAL EXPERIMENTS) 1) Determination of Flash point and Fire point of lubricating oil using Abel Pensky and Pensky Martins Apparatus. 2) Determination of Caloric value of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. 3) Determination of Viscosity of lubricating oil using Redwoods, Saybolts and Torsion Viscometers. 4) Valve, Timing/port opening diagram of an I.C. engine (4 stroke/ 2stroke). 5) Use of planimeter. 21 Hours PART - B (GROUP EXPERIMENTS) 6) Performance Tests on I.C. Engines, Calculations of IP, BP, Thermal efficiencies, SFC, FP, heat balance sheet for a) Four stroke Diesel Engine b) Four stroke Petrol Engine c) Multi-cylinder Diesel/Petrol Engine, (Morse test) d) Two stroke Petrol Engine e) Variable Compression Ratio I.C. Engine 21 Hours Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 1
  3. 3. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 LIST OF EXPERIMENTS PART-A 1) Determination of Flash point and Fire point of diesel using Abel Pensky Apparatus 2) Determination of Flash point and Fire point of lubricating oil using Pensky Martins Apparatus 3) Determination of Caloric value of gaseous fuel using JUNKER’S gas Calorimeter 4) Determination of Viscosity of lubricating oil using Redwoods Viscometer 5) Determination of Viscosity of lubricating oil using Saybolts Viscometer 6) Determination of Viscosity of lubricating oil using Torsion Viscometer 7) Port opening diagram of an 2 stroke petrol engine 8) Valve Timing diagram of 4 stroke Diesel Engine 9) Use of Digital/Analog Plani-meter PART-B 10) Performance Test on Four stroke, Diesel Engine. Calculations of IP, BP, Thermal efficiencies, SFC, FP and to prepare heat balance sheet. 11) Performance Test on Four stroke Petrol Engine. Calculations of IP, BP, Thermal efficiencies, SFC, FP and to prepare heat balance sheet 12) Performance Test on Multi-cylinder Petrol Engine, (Morse test). Calculations of IP, BP, Thermal efficiencies, SFC, FP and to prepare heat balance sheet 13) Performance Test on Two stroke Petrol Engine. Calculations of IP, BP, Thermal efficiencies, SFC, FP and to prepare heat balance sheet 14) Performance Test on Variable Compression Ratio, 4S Petrol Engine. Calculations of IP, BP, Thermal efficiencies, SFC, FP and to prepare heat balance sheet Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 2
  4. 4. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 Experiment No. 1: ABEL’S FLASH POINT APPARATUS AIM: To determine the flash point of diesel by Abel’s flash point apparatus. APPARATUS: Abel’s flash point apparatus, Thermometers. THEORY: Flash point: The flash point is the lowest temperature, to which a lubricant must be heated before its vapor, when mixed with air, will ignite but not continue to burn. Fire point: The fire point is the temperature at which lubricant combustion will be sustained. The flash and fire points are useful in determining a lubricant’s volatility and fire resistance. The flash point can be used to determine the transportation and storage temperature requirements for lubricants. Lubricant producers can also use the flash point to detect potential product contamination. A lubricant exhibiting a flash point significantly lower than normal will be suspected of contamination with a volatile product. Products with a flash point less than 38o C (100oF) will usually require special precautions for safe handling. The fire point for a lubricant is usually 8 to 10 percent above the flash point. The flash point and fire point should not be confused with the auto-ignition temperature of a lubricant, which is the temperature at which a lubricant will ignite spontaneously without an external ignition source. Outline of the methods: The sample is placed in the cup of the Abel apparatus and heated at a prescribed rate. A small test flame is directed into the cup at regular intervals and the flash point is taken as the lowest temperature at which application of the test flame will cause the vapour above the sample to ignite with a distinct flash inside the cup. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 3
  5. 5. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 DESCRIPTION: The Abel’s flash point apparatus is mainly used to determine the flash point of fuel oils flashing between 22 0C to 49 0C. It consists of a sealed water bath with a provision of an air chamber to hold the oil cup and circulate cold water for below ambient determination and an external heater for above ambient determinations. The oil cup is provided with a lid and sliding ports for the introduction of test flame. Within the oil cup a circular marking to indicate the level of oil to be taken for the test. The whole arrangement is mounted on a cylindrical enclosed stand. PROCEDURE: 1) Clean the oil cup with any solvent and wipe it dry. 2) Fill water into the water jacket to its full level and insert into the cylindrical stand. 3) Pour water into the air chamber, which surrounds the oil cup to a depth of 38 mm. 4) Pour fuel oil to be tested into the oil cup up to the circular mark and place the oil cup into the air chamber of the water bath. 5) Close it with the lid having sliding ports. 6) Insert the water and oil thermometers in their respective holders. 7) Keep the entire set up on a heater and heat the water at a very slow rate. 8) Maintain a low flame on the wick and apply the flame to the oil surface by sliding the port at every 20 rise in temperature of the oil under test. 9) Record the temperature at which the first flash occurs and report as flash point. 10) To determine the flash point of fuel oils below room temperature, circulate cold water in the water bath to at least 15 0 C below the expected flash point of the fuel oil sample and follow steps 8 & 9. OBSERVATION AND TABULAR COLUMN Type of oil Used: S.N. Temperature Observation (Yes or No) Flash Point Fire Point 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 RESULT: The flash point of given oil is = The fire point of given oil is = oC C o Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 4
  6. 6. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 Experiment No. 2: PENSKY MARTEN’S FLASH POINT APPARATUS AIM: To determine the flash point of lubricating oil by Pensky Marten’s apparatus. APPARATUS: Pensky Marten’s apparatus, thermometers. THEORY: In the Pensky-Marten’s closed cup flash point test, a brass test cup is filled with a test specimen and fitted with a cover. The sample is heated and stirred at specified rates depending on what it is that's being tested. An ignition source is directed into the cup at regular intervals with simultaneous interruption of stirring until a flash that spreads throughout the inside of the cup is seen. The corresponding temperature is its flash point. Pensky-Martens closed cup is sealed with a lid through which the ignition source can be introduced periodically. The vapour above the liquid is assumed to be in reasonable equilibrium with the liquid. Closed cup testers give lower values for the flash point (typically 5-10 K) and are a better approximation to the temperature at which the vapour pressure reaches the Lower Flammable Limit (LFL). Outline of Method: the sample is heated in a test cup at a slow and constant rate with continuous stirring. A small test flame is directed into the cup at regular intervals with simultaneous interruption of stirring. The flash point is taken as the lowest temperature at which the application of the test flame causes the vapour above the sample to ignite momentarily. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: Figure: Pensky Martens apparatus Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 5
  7. 7. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 DESCRIPTION: This apparatus is used to determine the flash point of fuel oils and lubricating oils. Flashing above 49 0 C. It consists of an oil cup with a circular marking for oil level indication. A lid to cover the oil cup with sliding shutters with ports, oil stirring mechanism and dipping wick holder, cast iron oil cup holder (air bath), electric heater with control. PROCEDURE: 1) Install the apparatus on a table near a 230V, 50Hz, 5amps single-phase power source. Keep the electrical heater on the table. Position the oil cup holder (air bath) on the heater. Insert the oil cup into the bath and position it. 2) Pour oil to be tested into the oil cup up to the mark. 3) Close the lid. 4) Connect the heater to the electrical power source and heat the oil at a slow steady rate of 20C /min with the help of the regulator. Keep stirring the oil with the stirring mechanism. 5) Maintain a small flame on the wick. 6) Introduce the flame to the oil surface by operating the circular handle, which makes the maintained flame to dip into the oil cup by opening the shutter. This is done at every half minute, only after the sample oil reaches 150 to 17 0 C before the expected flash point. 7) Record the temperature at which first flash occurs and report as flash point of the sample oil. 8) To stop the experiment, switch of the heater and allow it to cool. OBSERVATION AND TABULAR COLUMN: Lubricating oil used: S.N. Temperature Observation (Yes or No) Flash Point Fire Point 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 RESULT: The flash point of given oil is = The fire point of given oil is = oC oC Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 6
  8. 8. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 Experiment No. 3: JUNKERS GAS CALORIMETER AIM: To determine calorific value of gaseous fuel by Junkers gas calorimeter APPARATUS: The apparatus mainly consists of a cylindrical shell with copper coil arranged in two pass configuration with water inlet and outlet to circulate through the copper coil, a pressure regulator, a wet type gas flow meter & a gas Bunsen burner, temperature sensors for measuring inlet, outlet water temperature, and for flue gas temperature, a 2000ml measuring jar. Figure: Experimental setup of junker’s gas calorimeter DESCRIPTION: Determination of calorific value (heat value) of combustible gases is essential to assess the amount of heat given away by the gas while burning a known amount of gas to heat a known amount of fluid (water) in a closed chamber. PROCEDURE: 1. Install the equipment on a flat rigid platform near an uninterrupted continuous water source of ½” size and a drain pipe. 2. Connect the gas source to the pressure regulator, gas flow meter and the burner respectively in series 3. Insert the thermometer / temperature sensors, into their respective places to measure water inlet and outlet temperatures and a thermometer to measure the flue gas temperature at the flue gas outlet Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 7
  9. 9. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 4. Start the water flow through the calorimeter at a study constant flow rate and allow it to drain through over flow. 5. Start the gas flow slowly and light the burner out side the calorimeter 6. Regulate the flow of gas at a steady rate to any designed flow (Volume) 7. Insert the burner into the calorimeter and allow the out let water temperature to attain a steady state 8. Swing the out let to a 1000 ml jar and start. The stop watch simultaneously, record the initial gas flow meter reading at the same time 9. Note down the time taken to fill 1000ml and at the same time the final gas flow reading recorded by the gas flow meter 10. Tabulate all the reading and calculate the calorific valve of the gas under test 11. Repeat the experiment by varying the water flow rate or gas flow for different conditions. 12. After the experiment is over stop the gas flow, water flow, and drain the water from the calorimeter, keep the equipment clean & dry. OBSERVATIONS: Density of water ρw = 1000Kg/m3 Volume of gas burnt Vg in liters = Density of gas ρ g = 0.22Kg/m3 Cpw = 1 K Cal/kg K Time taken to collect 1 liter of water : _________ sec TABULAR COLUMN: 1 Volume of Volume of gas Water inlet water collected Burnt in liter Temperature in liter (Vw) (Vg) T1 oC 1 2 1 S. N Water outlet Change in Cv of Temperature Temp of water gas T2 oC ǻT= (T2-T1) KCal/kg CALCULATION: CV gas = Vw × ρ w × CPw × ∆T Vg × ρ g Where ρw = Density of water Vg = Volume of gas burnt in liters ρ g = Density of gas Cpw = Specific heat of water RESULT: Calorific value of given gaseous fuel is = K Cal/Kg Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 8
  10. 10. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 Experiment No. 4: REDWOOD VISCOMETER AIM: To determine the viscosity of diesel using redwood viscometer at different temperatures. APPARATUS: Redwood Viscometer, 50ml Receiving flask, thermometers and stopwatch DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUS: Redwood viscometer Consists of a cylindrical oil cup furnished with a gauge point, agate / metallic Orifice jet at the bottom having a concave depression from inside to facilitate a ball with stiff wire to act as a valve to start or stop oil flow. The outer side of the orifice jet is convex, so that the oil under test does not creep over the lower face of the oil cup. The oil cup is surrounded by a water bath with a circular electrical immersion heater and a stirring device. Two thermometers are provided to measure water bath temp. & oil temperature under test. A round flat-bottomed flask of 50ml marking, to measure 50 ml of oil flow against time. The water bath with oil cup is supported on a tripod stand with leveling screws. Figure: Experimental Setup Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 9
  11. 11. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 PROCEDURE: 1) Clean the oil cup with a solvent preferably C.T.C (Carbon Tetra chloride) and wipe it dry thoroughly with a paper napkins or a soft cloth (do not use cotton waste) and the orifice jet with a fine thread. 2) Keep the water bath with oil cup on the tripod stand and level it. 3) Pour water into the water bath up to 15 to 20mm below the top portion 4) Keep the ball (valve) in position and pour clean filtered oil sample (use strainer not coarser than BS 100 mesh) to be tested into the oil cup up to the gauge point and cover it with the lid. 5) Take a clean dry 50ml flask and place it under the orifice jet of the oil cup and center it. 6) Lift the ball (valve) and simultaneously start a stop watch and allow the oil into the receiving flask. 7) Adjust the receiving flask (50ml) in such a way that the oil string coming out of the jet strikes the neck of the flask to avoid foaming (formation of air bubbles) on the oil surface. 8) Wait till the oil level touches the 50 ml mark stop the watch and record the time in sec. 9) Repeat the experiment at different temperatures above ambient. 10) Plot the relevant graphs NOTE: For conducting experiment at different temperatures above ambient on Redwood Viscometer, connect the heater of the water bath to a 230V, 50Hz, 5amps power source through a dimmer stat. Heat the water to any desired temperature while continuously stirring the water with the stirring device and occasionally the oil sample with the thermometer. Once the temperature of the oil reaches the required temperature follow steps 6, 7 and 8. OBSERVATION: 1. Type of oil used: 2. Weight of the empty flask: TABULATION: S. N Temp. of the oil in 0 C Time for collecting 50 ml. of oil in t (sec) Wt. of the measuring jar (W1) in gms Wt. of the measuring jar + 50CC of oil (W2) in gms Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 Density of oil ȡ in kg/m3 Kinematic Viscosity (Ȗ) m2/s Dynamic Viscosity (ȝ) Pa/s 10
  12. 12. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 CALCULATIONS: B· § 1) Therefore, KinematicVis cos ity (γ ) = ¨ A × t − ¸ × 10 −6 in m2/s t ¹ © Note: 1 centistokes = 1x10-6 m2/s; 1 stoke = 1cm2/sec (Kinematic Viscosity) 1 poise = 0.1N S/m2 (Pa. S) (Absolute viscosity) (w2 − w1 ) × 103 2) Density of the given oil is ρ = in Kg/m3 50 3) Absolute Viscosity µ = Ȟ * ȡ in Pa.S or N S/m2 Plot the following graphs Abs Visc Kine Visc Temp Temp RESULTS: Mass density of given oil is _________________Kg/m3 Kinematic viscosity of given oil is _____________ m2/S Absolute viscosity of given oil is _______________ N S/m2 CONCLUSION: Kinematic viscosity, absolute viscosity was determined and relevant graphs were drawn. Viscosity varies with temperature and has negative exponential trend. Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 11
  13. 13. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 Experiment No. 5: SAYBOLT VISCOMETER AIM: To determine viscosity of the given oil using Say Bolt Viscometer at different temperatures expressed in terms of Saybolt seconds. APPARATUS: Say Bolt Viscometer, 60ml receiving flask, thermometers & stopwatch. DESCRIPTION: The apparatus mainly consists of a standard cylindrical oil cup surrounded with a water bath with an immersion heater and a stirring device. The apparatus is supplied with two S.S. Orifice jets namely Universal jet & Furol jet, which can be fitted at the bottom of the oil cup as per our requirement. A rubber cork stopper arrangement is provided also at the bottom to facilitate start and stop the oil flow from the Viscometer. Two thermometers are provided to measure water bath temperature and oil temperature under test. A round flat-bottomed flask with a 60-ml marking on the neck is provided to measure 60 ml of oil flow against time. The oil cup with the water bath is supported on a stand with levelly screws. PROCEDURE: 1. Clean the oil cup with a solvent preferably C.T.C (Carbon Tetra chloride) and wipe it dry thoroughly with a paper napkins or a soft cloth (do not use cotton waste) and the orifice jet with a fine thread. 2. Keep the water bath with oil cup on the tripod stand and level it. 3. Pour water into the water bath up to 15 to 20mm below the top portion. Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 12
  14. 14. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 4. Close the Orifice opening from bottom with the rubber cork provided. Pour oil to be tested into the strainer by keeping the strainer on the oil cup until the oil fills up in the oil cup as well as in side well. Withdraw the excess oil in the side well and position the thermometers in water bath and oil cup. 5. Take a clean dry 60ml flask and place it under the orifice jet of the oil cup and center it. 6. Pull the rubber cork open and simultaneously start a stopwatch and allow the oil into the receiving flask. 7. Adjust the receiving flask (60ml) in such a way that the oil string coming out of the jet strikes the neck of the flask to avoid foaming (formation of air bubbles) on the oil surface. 8. Wait till the oil level touches the 60 ml mark, stop the watch and record the time in sec. 9. Repeat the experiment at different temperatures above ambient. 10. Use specific nozzle suitable for lubricant or oil. NOTE: For conducting experiment at different temperatures above ambient on Saybolt Viscometer, connect the heater of the water bath to a 230V, 50Hz, 5amps power source through a dimmer stat. Heat the water to any desired temperature while continuously stirring the water with the stirring device and occasionally the oil sample with the thermometer. Once the temperature of the oil reaches the required temperature follow steps 6, 7 and 8. TABULATION: Type of oil used:Weight of the empty flask:S.N Temp. of the oil in 0 C Time for collecting 60CC of oil in t (sec) Wt. of the measuring jar (W1) in gms Wt. of the measuring jar + 50CC of oil (W2) in gms Density of oil ȡ in kg/m3 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 Kinematic Viscosity Ȗ m2/s Dynamic Viscosity ȝ in Pa/s 13
  15. 15. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 CALCULATIONS: B· § 4) Therefore, KinematicVis cos ity (γ ) = ¨ A × t − ¸ × 10 −6 in m2/s t ¹ © Note: 1 centistokes = 1x10-6 m2/s; 1 stoke = 1cm2/sec (Kinematic Viscosity) 2 poise = 0.1N S/m2 (Pa. S) (Absolute viscosity) (w2 − w1 ) × 103 5) Density of the given oil is ρ = in Kg/m3 50 6) Absolute Viscosity µ = Ȟ * ȡ in Pa.S or N S/m2 Plot the following graphs Abs Visc Kine Visc Temp Temp RESULTS: Mass density of given oil is _________________Kg/m3 Kinematic viscosity of given oil is _____________ m2/S Absolute viscosity of given oil is _______________ N S/m2 CONCLUSION: Kinematic viscosity, absolute viscosity was determined and relevant graphs were drawn. Viscosity varies with temperature and has negative exponential trend. Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 14
  16. 16. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 Experiment No. 6: TORSION VISCOMETER AIM: To determine the viscosity of given oil using torsion viscometer APPARATUS: Torsion Viscometer, sample oil & thermometer DESCRIPTION: The torsion viscometer consists of a flywheel with a pointer suspended in horizontal position by means of a torsion wire. The wire is fixed to the torsion head at the top. Adopters are used to adjust the length of the wire. Surrounding the flywheel, there is a circular scale graduated in degrees. A Cylinder is attached to the flywheel. The instrument is supported on a tripod with leveling screws. The apparatus consists of a device to hold a solid cylinder and a flywheel by means of a Torsion wire with end connectors. A release pin is provided to hold the flywheel in 0 0 horizontal position. The flywheel is, surrounded by a graduated scale in degrees (0 to 360 ). A pointer is attached to the flywheel to indicate the angular movement of the flywheel. Oil cup to hold the oil under test; Figure: Experimental setup of Torsion viscometer PROCEDURE: 1) Install the apparatus on a plain flat table and level it with leveling screws. 2) Insert the torsion wire with end connectors into the tube vertically downwards with the top end connector of the wire fixed to a stationary head 3) Insert the bottom end connector of the wire into the top portion of the flywheel and secure it. Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 15
  17. 17. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 4) Fix the solid cylinder to the bottom portion of the flywheel. 5) Pour clean filtered oil to be tested into the oil cup up to about 5mm to 10mm below the top of the oil cup and place it on the platform provided and properly position it. 6) Slightly lift the top stationery head so that the flywheel along with torsion wire is free to rotate horizontally and position the pointer of the flywheel exactly in front of the release pin. 7) Adjust the pointer of the flywheel to zero degree by turning the stationary head either way with absolutely no torsion in the wire and tighten the stationary head. 8) Lift the oil cup along with the platform in such a way that, the solid cylinder under the flywheel completely immersed in the oil under test. 9) Manually give one full rotation to the flywheel (00 to 00) and secure it in the release pin. 10) Now the apparatus is ready for the test 11) Slowly pull the release pin back without disturbing the set up. 12) The flywheel starts rotating and completes one full rotation (00 to 00) and moves beyond zero purely by virtue of its momentum. This angler movement beyond zero (over swing) is recorded and the viscosity of the oil under test in Redwood seconds is obtained from the graph provided. To conduct the experiment above ambient, the oil is heated in a separate container to above 50 C to 70 C beyond the desired oil temperature and follow steps 5 to l2 TABULATION: Type of oil used:S.N Temp. of the oil in 0 C Angular rotation on the disk in degrees Corresponding redwoods seconds from graph GRAPH: Plot the graph of temperature verses redwood seconds RESULTS: Kinematic viscosity of given oil in terms of redwood seconds is ____________ Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 16
  18. 18. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 Experiment No. 7: PORT TIMING DIAGRM (Cut section petrol engine) AIM: To draw port timing diagram for a given 2stroke petrol engine. THEORY: In this type of engines, ports which take charge of air and fuel mixture and removes exhaust from the cylinder itself, by virtue of position of piston. When piston moves inside the cylinder it closes & opens ports. In two stroke engines one revolution of crank shaft completes one cycle. Figure shows the timing diagram for a two-stroke cycle engine. It consists of a circle upon which are marked the angular positions of the various cycle events. The diagram is for a vertical engine; for a horizontal engine the diagram would appear on its side. With the twostroke cycle the inlet and exhaust ports open and close at equal angles on either side of the BDC position. This is because the piston in this type of engine is also the inlet and exhaust valve, so port opening and closing will occur at equal angles on either side of the dead centre position. Angles shown are representative only. Figure: Port Timing diagram of 2 Stroke petrol Engine INLET PORT: Through which mixture of fuel and air enters the crank casing. EXHAUST PORT: Through which the burnet (exhaust) gas exits TRANFER PORT: Through which air and fuel mixture enters the cylinder head PROCEDURE: 1. Fix a reference pointer on the body of the engine near the flywheel, Identify the ports. 2. Find out the direction of rotation of the crank shaft. 3. Mark the TDC position and BDC position on the flywheel. 4. Mark the opening and closings of the inlet, Exhaust and Transfer ports. 5. Using the protractor fixed on the flywheel, find out the angular position of the piston 6. Name the events IPO , IPC, EPO, EPC , TPO, and TPC. Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 17
  19. 19. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 OBSERVATION & RESULTS: SI. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Event IPO IPC TPO TPC EPO EPC Position of the crank BTDC ATDC BBDC ABDC BBDC ABDC Angular position from the nearest dead centre RESULT: Draw the port timing diagram Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 18
  20. 20. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 Experiment No. 8: VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM AIM: To draw valve timing diagram for given engine and calculate different periods. THEORY: In a four stroke engine opening and closing of valves and fuel injection do not take place exactly at the end of dead centre positions. The valves open slightly earlier and close after that respective dead centre position .The fuel injection also occurs prior to the full compression ie before the piston reaches the dead centre position. Both the valve operates at some degree on either side in terms of crank angle from dead centre position. When an intake valve opens before top dead center and the exhaust valve opens before bottom dead center, it is called lead. When an intake valve closes after bottom dead center, and the exhaust valve closes after top dead center, it is called lag. On the exhaust stroke, the intake and exhaust valve are open at the same time for a few degrees around top dead center. This is called valve overlap. Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 19
  21. 21. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 PROCEDURE: 1. Rotate flywheel freely by hand, fix a reference point on the body of the engine near the flywheel 2. Now while rotating, observe piston at TDC (Top dead centre) and mark with chalk on flywheel with reference to the point 3. Similarly by rotating, mark the position of bottom dead center (BDC). It is to be observed that it takes to rotation of flywheel to complete one cycle of operation. (one cycle is suction , compression, power & exhaust strokes) 4. Now identify inlet and exhaust valves. 5. Find out direction of rotation of flywheel (crank shaft) 6. Bring flywheel to TDC position (pointer). 7. Go on rotating flywheel slowly and observe position (functioning) of both the valves. 8. Now observe when inlet valves opens mark it on flywheel (inlet valve open – (IVO) 9. Slowly rotate flywheel, and observe when inlet valve closes –( IVC.) 10. Rotate further observe when exhaust valve opens (EVO ) 11. Rotate further & observe when exhaust valve closes (EVC). 12. Using the protractor fixed on the flywheel, find out the angular position of the piston 13. Name the events IVO, IVC, EVO, EVC, 14. Then draw spiral diagram with data in marking on flywheel. CALCULATIONS: 1. Angle of overlap = IVO angle + EVC angle TABULAR COLUMN: S.No Event No Position Crank 1 IVO 2 IVO 3 EVO 4 of Angle ș In degrees EVC Where: BTDC – Before top dead centre, ABDC – After bottom dead centre BBDC – Before bottom dead centre, ATDC – After top dead centre RESULT: Plot the Valve Timing Diagram on graph sheet, show Angle of overlap Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 20
  22. 22. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 PLANIMETER Amsler's Polar and Linear Planimeters In 1854. Jakob Amslcr invented the polar planimeter a brilliant and simple device for measuring the area of a region. Schematic drawings of polar and linear planimeters are shown in Figures. The main part of each is a movable rod, called the tracer arm. With a tracer point at one end (labeled T). A wheel is attached to the rod with its axis parallel to the rod. The wheel is equipped with a scale typically calibrated in square inches or square centimeters. It is similar to a map reader wheel in that it can roll both forwards and backwards, and we will call it the measuring wheel. In a linear planimeter, the end of the tracer arm opposite the tracer point is restricted to follow a linear track, along which it can slide freely. In contrast, in a polar planimeter, the tracer rod is hinged to a second rod, the pole arm, forming an elbow. The end of the pole arm opposite the hinge, called the pole, is fixed so that the pole arm can pivot around it consequently the elbow follows the arc of a circle as it moves. To operate a planimeter, the user selects a starting point on the boundary of the region to be measured, places the tracer point there, and sets the counter on the wheel to zero. The user then moves the tracer point once around the boundary of the region, as shown in Figure. The tracer point is typically a stylus or a point marked on a magnifying glass to facilitate the tracing. In a polar planimeter, as the tracer point moves, the elbow at die hinge will flex and the angle between the pole arm and the tracer arm will change. In a linear planimeter, the end of the tracer arm in the track will slide along the track. In both planimeters the wheel rests gently on the paper, partially rolling and partially sliding, depending on how the tracer point is moved. If the pointer is moved parallel to the tracer arm, the wheel slides and does not roll at all. If the pointer is moved perpendicular to the tracer arm, the wheel rolls, and does not slide at all. Motion of the pointer in any other direction causes the wheel to both roll and slide. When the tracer point returns to the starting point, the user can read the area from the scale on the wheel. Fig: Polar plani meter Fig: Linear planimeter DIGITAL PLANIMETER Figure: Digital plani-meter Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 21
  23. 23. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 Experiment No. 09: USE OF DIGITAL/ANALOG PLANIMETER AIM: To determine the area of the regular and irregular plane surfaces and to calculate Percentage error in the measurement. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Digital or Analog planimeter, drawing board with sheet, scale, etc. THEORY: For regular surface area can be obtained by calculation, but for irregular surface it is very difficult to calculate area, which can be obtained by integrating the area. The integration of the area is complicated, to overcome this difficulty; a mechanical device called planimeter is used. Planimeter is a form of integrator which converts graphical area into numerical values. planimeter consists of two arms hinged at a point. One arm is a pivot arm and the other arm is the tracing arm. The tracing arm is moved along the boundary of the plane area whose area is to be determined. DESCRIPTION: The planimeter mainly consists of: 1. Tracing arm with main scale, vernier scale, Rotating disc and rotating drum with vernier scale 2. Pivot arm with a ball point at one end and a cylindrical weight with pin at the other end. 3. Magnifying lance. PROCEDURE: 1. Keep the drawing board on a plain table. 2. Fix the drawing sheet containing the regular or irregular shape of drawing (With the help of drawing board pins.) of which the surface area is to be determined. 3. Take out the Planimeter (Tracing arm and pivot arm) from the box and place it on the drawing board. 4. Set the main scale of the tracing arm to the specified set point with the vernier scale “zero” coincide with the main scale setting (use magnifying lens if required) 5. Place the tracing arm horizontally with the tracing point on the periphery of the drawing whose surface area to be determined. 6. Fix the pivot arm approximately perpendicular to the tracing arm, by inserting the ball point into its appropriate position on the tracing arm and press the pin on the other side of the pivot arm against the board in position. 7. Roughly move the tracing arm along the periphery of the drawing in clock wise direction to ascertain free and easy movement of the tracing arm and bring back to the starting point. 8. Now carefully rotate the scale drum manually by thumb so that rotating disc indicates “zero”, and the “zero” of the drum scale coincide with “zero” of the its Vernier scale “zero” . 9. Ascertain that the tracing point is on the periphery of the drawing Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 22
  24. 24. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 10. Now slowly move the tracing pin along the periphery of the drawing in clock wise direction without miss lifting the tracing pin or moving away from the line of the drawing and come back to the starting point. 11. Carefully record the reading indicated by the rotating disc as well as the drum scale with the vernier scale and declare the area in appropriate units. FORMULAE USED: 1. Measured area = M * (Final Reading ~ Initial Reading) Where M is multiplier constant = 2. (Actual area - Measured area) Percentage error = --------------------- ----------------- 100 Actual area OBSERVATION & TABULATION: S.N Shape of the figure Initial reading Final reading Measured area Actual area % Error 1 2 5 3 4 RESULT: 1. Area of the irregular surface is ____________ 2. Percentage error is ___________ Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 23
  25. 25. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 SECTIONISED AUTOMOBILE MPFI ENGINE MODEL AIM: To demonstrate the working of an Automobile 4 cylinder, 4 stroke , inline, water cooled MPFI maruti engine DESCRIPTION: The model of sectioned engine assembly of Maruti is been made out of original Maruti MPFI engine assembly for demonstration. The Maruti engine assembly is: In line, Four cylinder, 4 stroke petrol engine with 1000 cc cylinder capacity. The Engine is fitted here with maximum parts and accessories of the engine like four cylinders, the cylinder block, Cylinder heads, valve ports, piston, Connecting rod, inlet and Exhaust manifolds, Water pump, oil pump, oil sump, Alternator, Ignition coil, oxygen sensor, coolant sensor, Temperature sensor, cmp sensor etc to clearly demonstrate the internal constructional details . The entire system will be suitably painted with different colors ( duco paint), all the hardwares and gears will be electroplated. Different colour codes are been provided for different parts and accessories for easy identification . The colour code is as listed below. 1. The colour for Air is Blue (suction) 2. The colour for Exhaust smoke is P.O Red 3. The colour for Oil sump is Yellow 4. The colour for water pump is light Blue 5. The colour for Cut portion is Signal Red The engine assembly is coupled to a reduction gear unit through the flywheel of the engine assembly, which is then coupled to a single phase AC motor, so that by running the electric motor the entire function of the engine can be easily observed. Figure: Cut section of a 4 stroke, 4 cylinder engine Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 24
  26. 26. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 INSTALLATION: 1. Clean the model off dust, Wipe the same with soft cloth along the old remains of the oil. 2. Freshly oil the engine model, oiling has to be done at the friction points such as piston, connecting rod, valves , cam, oil pump, fuel injection pump etc, 3. Connect the plug to a 15 amps 230 V AC socket 4. Switch on the engine model to demonstrate the working of the pistons, valves oil pump, water pump, etc. MAINTENANCE: There are only few maintenance points to be considered 1. The engine model has to be dusted regularly and should be kept covered when not in use 2. Oiling has to be done along the friction points such as piston, connecting rod, valves, cam, oil pump, fuel injection pump etc. once in every five days. 3. Check and change the V belt connected to the reduction gear unit and AC motor once in every one year 4. Greasing for the Gear pinion has to be done once in every month. OPERATION: 1. The plug has to be connected to a 15 amps 230V AC socket 2. Once the engine model is switched ON, the movement of the pistons, opening of the valves, rotation of the water pump, oil pump etc can be observed. So that the working of the different parts and accessories can be demonstrated. CAUTION: 1. Keep hands off the engine model while it is running as all the moving parts are cut exposed and the risk of getting hurt is more 2. Use Teaching sticks to demonstrate while the model is switched ON and running. Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 25
  27. 27. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 Experiment 10: 2-STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER AIR COOLED PETROL ENGINE AIM: To conduct performance test on 2 stroke,1-cylinder petrol engine and to draw the Heat balance sheet. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 2 stroke, single cylinder petrol engine test rig, Stop watch, etc THEORY: Heat engine is a device which converts heat energy into mechanical work. Engine performance is an indication of the degree of success with which it is doing its assigned job, i.e. the conversion of the chemical energy in to the useful work. The degree of success is compared on the basis of 1) specific fuel consumption 2) brake mean effective pressure 3) specific power output 4) Specific weight etc. The engine performance can be obtained by running the engine at constant speed for variable load by adjusting the throttle. PROCEDURE: 1. Check the petrol in the petrol tank and keep the gear lever in neutral position. a. Start the engine by using kick start. choose the top gear and set the engine speed to 650 rpm , make it constant by using the accelerator. 2. Apply load on the engine by operating the electrical loading switches of the alternator in steps. Use accelerator to engine speed to 650rpm, allow some time so that speed stabilizes. 3. Keep the speed constant and note down the b. Time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption. c. Voltmeter and ammeter readings d. Monometer reading e. Speed of the engine f. Temperature of inlet air and exhaust gas 4. Repeat the experiment for different loads 5. Tabulate the readings and calculate the brake power, heat input, air-fuel ratio, specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency. 6. Plot the graph Qin V/S BP, SFC V/S BP and Șb th V/S BP SPECIFICATIONS: Bore (D) = 57mm Stroke (L) = 57mm Orifice diameter (d) = 25mm Compression ratio: 7.4 : 1 Cylinder capacity: 150CC OBSERVATIONS: Water density, ȡw Calorific value of petrol, CV Acceleration due to gravity, g Petrol density, ȡp : 1000 kg/m3 : 47,500 KJ/kg : 9.81 m/sec 2 : 750 Kg/m3 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 26
  28. 28. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 TABULAR COLUMN: S.N. Speed in RPM Time for 10cc of fuel supply (t) in sec Manometer reading (hm) in mm h1 h2 hm Temperature in oC Inlet air Ta Exhaust Air (Tg) Voltmeter Reading (V) Volts Ammeter Reading (I) Ampere 1 2 3 4 5 FORMULAE USED: 1. Mass of the fuel consumed m f = fuel consumed in cc × 10 −6 × ȡ p in kg/s t where ȡ p is density of petrol = 750 kg/m 3 t = time taken for10cc of fuel consumptio n in sec Therefore Total Fuel Consumed (TFC) = m f × 60 × 60 in Kg/Hr 2. Mass of air supplied m a = Va × ρ a in kg/min where Va is a actual volume of air intake = 60 C d A o 2gh a in m 3 /min C d = 0.62 A o = area of the orifice (πd 2 /4) h a = manometer reading in mtrs ρ a = density of air Pa/RTa in kg/m 3 g = 9.81 m/s2 h × 1000 × ρ water ha = manometer in meters of air ρ air Where ha = head of air in meters h manometer = manometer reading in mm ȡwater = 1000Kg/m3 ρ air = pa RTa Where ρ air = Density of air in Kg/m3 pa = Atmospheric pressure = 1.01325 Bar = 1.01325x105 N/m2 R = Real gas constant = 287 J/KgoK Ta = Room temperature Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 27
  29. 29. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 To calculate ρ air use the following relation ρ air = 1.01325 × 10 5 in Kg/m3 287 × (273 + Ta ) 3. Brake Horse Power (BHP) = V ×I in KW 1000 × η g Where, V = Voltmeter reading I = Ammeter reading Șg = Efficiency of Generator = 0.75 4 5. Air - Fuel Ratio = ma mf Heat input Q = m f × C V in kW where m f is the mass of fuel supplied in kg/s CV 6. Specific fuel consumptio n 7 is the calorific valvue of the fuel in kJ/kg mf ×3600 inkg/kWHr BP (SFC) = Volumetric efficiency η vol = actual vol of air supplied Vact × 100 Theoratica l air supply Vth Theoratica l air supply Vth = Swept volu me = L × A × N in m 3 /min wher e A = πD 2 /4 in m 2 L and D are the stroke and bore of the engine. Va = Actual Volume of air supplied in m3/min BP 8 Brake thermal efficiency η bth = × 100 Heat input Q HEAT BALANCE SHEET: Heat input Heat supplied by the KW in % fuel Total input Heat Output KW in % a)Heat equivalent to BP b) Heat carried by exhaust gases = mg * Cpg (Tg-Ta) mg= ma+ mf c)Heat unaccountable 1-(a+b) Total output Specific heat of air = Cpg = 1.005KJ/KgoC ma = Mass of air supplied in Kg/s mf = mass of fuel supplied in Kg/s Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 28
  30. 30. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 RESULT SHEET S.N. Mass of fuel supplied (mf) in Kg/s Mass of air supplied(ma) in Kg/s AirFuel Ratio BHP in KW SFC in Kg/KW Hr Heat input in KW Brake thermal efficiency Volumetric efficiency 1 2 3 4 5 CONCLUSION: Two stroke petrol engine performance was conducted and heat balance sheet worked out and relevant graphs were drawn. Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 29
  31. 31. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 Experiment 11: 4-STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE FOUR STROKE, SINGLE CYLINDER, WATER COOLED, MECHANICAL LOADING, DIESEL ENGINE AIM: To Conduct Performance Test on the given engine four stroke, single cylinder, water cooled, mechanical loading, diesel engine and to draw the Heat balance sheet and to obtain PV diagram at No load and Max load, and plot the performance plots APPARATUS REQUIRED: 4 stroke, single cylinder diesel engine test rig, Stop watch, interfacing of the engine with computer to obtain the PV diagram with pressure sensor mounted in the cylinder. THEORY: Heat engine is a device which converts heat energy into mechanical work. Engine performance is an indication of the degree of success with which it is doing its assigned job, i.e. the conversion of the chemical energy in to the useful work. The degree of success is compared on the basis of 1) specific fuel consumption 2) brake mean effective pressure 3) specific power output 4) Specific weight etc. The engine performance can be obtained by running the engine at constant speed for variable load by adjusting the throttle. In this experiment engine is mechanically loaded and experiment is carried out. The test rig consists of 4S diesel engine connected to rope brake dynamometer with exhaust calorimeter. It has a provision to measure transient pressure, through a cylinder mounted pressure sensor, having a water cooling system, to avoid over of heating pressure sensor. The pressure signal is fed to a computer through an interface unit in the control panel for generating pressure volume (PV) curve to evaluate work done employing a plani meter, subsequently. PROCEDURE: 1. Check the diesel in the diesel tank and keep the lever in neutral position. 2. Ensure the water supply to the pressure sensor, engine cooling head and exhaust calorimeter. 3. Start the engine by operating the decompression lever and cranking the crank shaft. 4. Apply the load on the brake drum by rotating the wheel of the spring balance 5. Allow the fuel to flow through the burette. 6. Note down the a. Time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption. b. The load on the engine c. Monometer reading d. Speed of the engine e. Temperature of inlet air and exhaust gas f. Water meter of the exhaust calorimeter. 7. Repeat the experiment for different loads 8. Tabulate the readings and calculate the brake power, indicated power, heat input, air-fuel ratio, specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency, mechanical efficiency. 9. Plot the graph Qin V/S BP, mf V/S BPSFC V/S BP , Șith V/S BP, Șbth V/S BP Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 30
  32. 32. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 10. To obtain the PV diagram, a) Turn on the computer, open the interfacing software. b) Take PV diagram and Pș diagrams individually. c) Take the print out after taking the soft data on a pen drive, if needed. SPECIFICATION OF THE ENGINE: Make: Rated power output: Bore: Stroke: Compression ratio: Cylinder capacity: Kirloskar 5HP, 1500rpm 80mm 110mm 16.5:1 553 cc OBSERVATION: Radius of the brake drum: Diameter of the orifice: Calorific value of diesel: Density of Diesel: Diameter of the rope: Orifice meter constant: Water meter reading: 190mm 15 mm 43000KJ/Kg 850Kg/m3 ___________ 0.62 __________in seconds TABULAR COLUMN: S. N. Engine Speed in rpm Spring Balance reading in Kg (F) F1 F2 (F1˜F2) Time taken for 10cc of fuel supply (t) in seconds Manometer reading (hm) h1 h2 hm Temperature readings T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 1 2 3 4 5 Air inlet temperature (T1) Engine cooling head water inlet temperature (T2) Engine cooling head water outlet temperature (T3) Calorimeter water outlet temperature (T4) Exhaust gas inlet Temperature (T5) Exhaust gas outlet temperature (T6) Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 31
  33. 33. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 FORMULAE USED: 1. 2. fuel consumed in cc × 10 −6 × ȡ d in kg/s Mass of the fuel consumed m f = t where ȡ d is density of diesel = 850 kg/m 3 t = time taken for10cc of fuel consumptio n in sec Mass of air supplied m a = Va × ρ a in kg/min where Va is a actual volume of air intake = 60 C d A o 2gh a in m 3 /min C d = 0.6 A o = area of the orifice (πd 2 /4) h a = manometer reading in mtrs ρ a = density of air Pa/RTa in kg/m 3 g = 9.81 m/s2 h × 1000 × ρ water ha = manometer in meters of air ρ air Where ha = head of air in meters h manometer = manometer reading in mm ȡwater = 1000Kg/m3 ρ air = pa RTa 3 Where ρ air = Density of air in Kg/m pa = Atmospheric pressure = 1.01325 Bar = 1.01325x105 N/m2 R = Real gas constant = 287 J/KgoK Ta = Room temperature To calculate ρ air use the following relation ρ air = 3. 1.01325 × 10 5 in Kg/m3 287 × (273 + Ta ) 2 × π × ( F × R) × N in kW 60 × 1000 where Fis a net load acting on the brake drum = (F1 - F2) × 9.81 in N Brake power (BP) = F1 & F2 are spring balance reading in kgs R is a radius of the brake drum in meters N is the speed of the dynamomete r in RPM 4 Indicated Power (IP) = BP + FP where FP is the frictional power obtained from the graph m f V/S BP Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 32
  34. 34. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 5 6 Air - Fuel Ratio = 2011-12 ma mf Heat input Q = m f × C V in kW where m f is the mass of fuel supplied in kg/s CV is the calorific valvue of the fuel in kJ/kg m f × 3600 in Kg/KW-Hr BP m f × 3600 Specific fuel consumption based on IP, SFC = in Kg/KW-Hr IP 7. Specific fuel consumption based on BP, SFC= 8 Volumetric efficiency η vol = Theoratica l air supply actual vol of air supplied Vact × 100 Theoratica l air supply Vth Vth = Swept volu me = L × A × N/2 in m 3 /min wher e A = πD 2 /4 in m 2 L and D are the stroke and bore of the engine. BP 9 Mechanical Efficiency = × 100 IP BP 10 Brake thermal efficiency η bth = × 100 Heat input Q 11 Indicated thermal efficiency η ith = IP × 100 Heat input Q RESULT SHEET: Mass of air supply ma in kg/sec Mass of fuel supply mf in kg/sec BP in kW Air – Fuel ratio ISFC in kg/kWhr BSFC in kg/kW-hr Heat input in kW Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 Vol Eff Șvol Mech Eff Șmech Thermal efficiency Șith Șbth 33
  35. 35. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 HEAT BALANCE SHEET: 1 Heat input Q = m f × C V in KW 2 Heat equivalent of BP = BP in KW 3 Heat carried by the cooling water = m w × Cpw (T3 - T2 ) in KW where m w mass flow rate in kg/sec Cpw specific heatof water = 4.18 kJ/kg - K T3 & T2 out let & inlet temp of water. 4 Heat carried by the Exhaust Gases = m g × Cpg (T6 - T1 ) in KW where m g mass flow rate of Gas in kg/sec = m a + m f Cpg specific heat of exhaust gas = 1.005 kJ/kg - K T1 & T6 Room & Exhaust gas temp . HEAT BALANCE SHEET: Heat input 1) By combustion of fuel Total input KW in % Heat Output KW in % 2) Heat equivalent to BP 3) Heat carried by the cooling water 4) Heat carried by exhaust gases 5) Heat unaccountable 1-(2+3+4) Total output CONCLUSION: 1) 2) 3) 4) Performance of 4 stroke, single cylinder diesel engine was carried out. Heat balance sheet for the engine worked out with unaccounted heat loss. PV diagram and Pressure vs crank angle diagrams were obtained. Performance plots were drawn. Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 34
  36. 36. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 Experiment 12: 4 STROKE PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG FOUR STROKE, SINGLE CYLINDER, AIR COOLED, ENGINE COUPLED TO ELECTRICAL DYNAMOMETER AIM: To Conduct Performance Test on the given engine, to obtain heat balance sheet and draw performance curves APPARATUS REQUIRED: Engine coupled to Electrical Dynamometer, Measurement and control panel, Load bank, Temperature Sensors. PROCEDURE: 1. Ensure water level in the manometer to approximately half the full scale in both the manometer limbs 2. Ensure oil level in the engine sump up to the dip stick mark, Fill required amount of fuel (petrol) in the fuel tank 3. Check fuel line for any leakages, tighten if necessary (open all the valves in the fuel line up to the engine inlet, do not turn the knob to “Start’) 4. Connect the engine test rig to the 3 phase electrical source, all the three mains indicators glow 5. Ensure the direction of rotation of the engine is as desired by momentarily pushing the push button starter (refer arrow mark on the guard for correct direction of rotation) 6. Switch ‘on’ the console switch, all the digital indicators glow and indicate respective readings 7. Start the engine by pushing the push button starter and release after the engine gets started 8. Wait until the engine stabilizes at its rated speed (Governed engine) of 2800 to 3000 rpm indicated on the digital rpm indicator 9. Switch ‘on’ the heat dissipating fan on the load Bank. Now the engine is ready for loading 10. Record the following readings on no load condition. Voltmeter reading, Ammeter reading Rpm indicator reading, (not essential in this case) Manometer reading, time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption (To record fuel consumption against time close the fuel line valve on the right hand side of the burette and simultaneously start the stop watch and record the time until 10 cc of fuel is consumed) and temperatures T1 & T2 11. Switch ‘on’ first two switches and allow the engine to stabilize, Record all the readings 12. Continue loading the engine by switching ‘on’ the load switches in pairs in steps (two switches per step) up to full load and record all the readings at each step,, as indicated in step 13. To stop the engine remove load by switching “off” the load switches, bring the engine to no load condition 14. Push the engine “off” push button and hold it unit the engine completely stops 15. Close all the three fuel valves in the fuel line. 16. Tabulate all the readings obtained at each step and calculate Brake power (BP) weight of fuel Consumed (wf), specific fuel consumption (Sfc), Brake thermal efficiency (Ș Bth) and air fuel ratio (A/F) 17. Plot the graph Qin V/S BP, mf V/S BPSFC V/S BP , Șith V/S BP, Șbth V/S BP Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 35
  37. 37. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 SPECIFICATIONS: ENGINE Make Compression ratio Cylinder bore Stroke length Displacement : VILLIERS : 4.67:1 : 70 mm : 66.7 mm : 256 CC ALTERNATOR Rating Speed Voltage Efficiency : 2 KVA : 2800-3000 rpm : 220 V AC : 70% Manometer Air Tank Orifice Thermocouple : U tube, water filled, 30 cm : Made from MS, 300 x 300 x 300 cm : Circular, 20 mm dia : Fe- K (J type) OBSERVATIONS: Cylinder bore, D Stroke length, L Water density, ȡw Calorific value of petrol, CV Acceleration due to gravity, g Petrol density, ȡp Specific heat of air, Cpg : 70 mm : 66.7 mm : 1000 kg/m3 : 47,500 Kj/kg : 9.81 m/sec 2 : 750 Kg/m3 o : 1.005KJ/Kg C TABULAR COLUMN: S.N. Speed in RPM Time for 10cc of fuel supply (t) in sec Manometer reading (hm) in mm h1 h2 hm Temperature in oC Inlet air Ta Exhaust Air (Tg) Voltmeter Reading (V) Volts Ammeter Reading (I) Ampere 1 2 3 4 5 6 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 36
  38. 38. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 FORMULAE USED: 1. Mass of the fuel consumed m f = fuel consumed in cc × 10 −6 × ȡ p in kg/s t where ȡ p is density of petrol = 750 kg/m 3 t = time taken for10cc of fuel consumptio n in sec Therefore Total Fuel Consumed (TFC) = m f × 60 × 60 in Kg/Hr 2. Mass of air supplied m a = Va × ρ a in kg/min where Va is a actual volume of air intake = 60 C d A o 2gh a in m 3 /min C d = 0.62 A o = area of the orifice (πd 2 /4) h a = manometer reading in mtrs ρ a = density of air Pa/RTa in kg/m 3 g = 9.81 m/s2 h × 1000 × ρ water ha = manometer in meters of air ρ air Where ha = head of air in meters h manometer = manometer reading in mm ρ air = pa RTa Where ρ air = Density of air in Kg/m3 pa = Atmospheric pressure = 1.01325 Bar = 1.01325x105 N/m2 R = Real gas constant = 287 J/KgoK Ta = Room temperature To calculate ρ air use the following relation ρ air = 1.01325 × 10 5 in Kg/m3 287 × (273 + Ta ) 3. Brake Horse Power (BHP) = V ×I in KW 1000 × η g Where, V = Voltmeter reading I = Ammeter reading Șg = Efficiency of Generator = 0.70 4 Air - Fuel Ratio = ma mf Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 37
  39. 39. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 5. 2011-12 Heat input Q = m f × C V in kW where m f is the mass of fuel supplied in kg/s CV is the calorific valvue of the fuel in kJ/kg m ×3600 6. Specific fuel consumption, SFC = f inkg/kWHr BP actual vol of air supplied Vact × 100 7 Volumetric efficiency η vol = Theoratica l air supply Vth Theoratical air supply Vth = Swept volume = L × A × N/2 in m3 /min where A = πD 2 /4 in m 2 L and D are the stroke and bore of the engine. Va = Actual Volume of air supplied in m3/min BP 8 Brake thermal efficiency η bth = × 100 Heat input Q RESULT SHEET S.N. Mass of fuel supplied (mf) in Kg/s Mass of air supplied(ma) in Kg/s AirFuel Ratio BHP in KW SFC in Kg/KW Hr Heat input in KW Brake thermal efficiency Volumetric efficiency 1 2 3 4 5 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 38
  40. 40. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 HEAT BALANCE SHEET: 1 Heat input Q = m f × C V in KW 2 Heat equivalent of BP = BP in KW 3 Heat carried by the Exhaust Gases = m g × Cpg (Tg - Ta ) in KW where m g mass flow rate of Gas in kg/sec = m a + m f Cpg specific heat of exhaust gas = 1.005 kJ/kg - K Ta & Tg Room & Exhaust gas temp . HEAT BALANCE SHEET: Heat input Heat supplied by the Total input KW in % fuel Heat Output KW in % a)Heat equivalent to BP b) Heat carried by exhaust gases = mg * Cpg (Tg-Ta) mg= ma+ mf c)Heat unaccountable 1-(a+b) Total output CONCLUSION: 1) Performance of 4 stroke, single cylinder diesel engine was carried out. 2) Heat balance sheet for the engine worked out with unaccounted heat loss. 3) Performance plots were drawn. Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 39
  41. 41. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 Experiment 13: VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO, 4 STROKE PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG FOUR STROKE, SINGLE CYLINDER, AIR COOLED, ENGINE COUPLED TO ELECTRICAL DYNAMOMETER AIM: To conduct performance test on the given engine APPARATUS REQUIRED: Engine coupled to Electrical Dynamometer, Measurement and control panel, Load bank, Temperature Sensors, stop watch PROCEDURE: 1. Ensure water level in the manometer to approximately half the full scale in both the manometer limbs 2. Ensure oil level in the engine sump up to the dip stick mark, Fill required amount of fuel (petrol) in the fuel tank 3. Check fuel line for any leakages, tighten if necessary (open all the valves in the fuel line up to the engine inlet, do not turn the knob to “Start’) 4. Connect the engine test rig to the 3 phase electrical source, all the three mains indicators glow 5. Ensure the direction of rotation of the engine is as desired by momentarily pushing the push button starter (refer arrow mark on the guard for correct direction of rotation) 6. Switch ‘on’ the console switch, all the digital indicators glow and indicate respective readings 7. Put the switch to motor position, turn on the ignition button, push the START button, and slowly rotate the MOTOR CONTROL knob to start the engine, once the engine starts, bring the MOTOR CONTROL knob to zero position and turn off the motor by pushing the STOP button. 8. Change the switch to GENERATOR position; use the FIELD CONTROL knob to excite the generator voltage, set the FIELD VOLTAGE to 150 volts. 9. Wait until the engine stabilizes at its rated speed (Governed engine) of 2800 to 3000 rpm indicated on the digital rpm indicator 10. Switch ‘on’ the electrical loading switches on the load Bank. Now the engine is ready for loading 11. For every load note down the readings. 12. To stop the engine remove load by switching “off” the load switches, bring the engine to no load condition, Push the engine “off” push button 13. Close all the fuel valves in the fuel line. 14. Tabulate all the readings obtained at each step and calculate Brake power (BP) weight of fuel Consumed (wf), specific fuel consumption (Sfc), Brake thermal efficiency (Ș Bth) and air fuel ratio (A/F). 15. Plot the graph Qin V/S BP, mf V/S BP, SFC V/S BP , Șith V/S BP, Șbth V/S BP Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 40
  42. 42. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 SPECIFICATIONS: ENGINE Make Compression ratio Cylinder bore Stroke length Displacement : MK-25, Crompton Greaves : Variable from 2-8:1 : 70 mm : 66.7 mm : 256 CC ALTERNATOR Rating Speed Voltage : 3 KVA : 2800-3000 rpm : 220 V AC Manometer Air Tank Orifice : U tube, water filled, 30 cm : Made from MS, 400 x 400 x 400 cm : Circular, 12 mm dia OBSERVATIONS: Cylinder bore, D Stroke length, L Water density, ȡw Calorific value of petrol, CV Acceleration due to gravity, g Petrol density, ȡp : 70 mm : 66.7 mm : 1000 kg/m3 : 47,500 Kj/kg : 9.81 m/sec 2 : 750 Kg/m3 TABULAR COLUMN: Comp Ratio S. N. Spee d in RP M Time for 10cc of fuel supply (t) in sec Field Voltage (V) Volts Field Current (I) Amps Temperature in oC Manometer reading (hm) in mm h1 h2 hm T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 1 2 3 4 5 T1 = Air Inlet temperature T3 = Exhaust gas calorimeter water outlet T5 = Exhaust gas outlet T2 = Exhaust gas calorimeter water inlet T4 = Exhaust gas inlet Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 41
  43. 43. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 MOTORING TEST TABULAR COLUMN S.N. Engine Speed Motor Voltage Motor Current FORMULAE USED: 1. Mass of the fuel consumed m f = fuel consumed in cc × 10 −6 × ȡ p in kg/s t where ȡ p is density of petrol = 750 kg/m 3 t = time taken for10cc of fuel consumptio n in sec Therefore Total Fuel Consumed (TFC) = m f × 60 × 60 in Kg/Hr 2. Mass of air supplied m a = Va × ρ a in kg/min where Va is a actual volume of air intake = 60 C d A o 2gh a in m 3 /min C d = 0.62 A o = area of the orifice (πd 2 /4) h a = manometer reading in mtrs ρ a = density of air Pa/RTa in kg/m 3 g = 9.81 m/s2 × 1000 × ρ water h in meters of air ha = manometer ρ air Where ha = head of air in meters h manometer = manometer reading in mm ρ air = pa RTa 3 Where ρ air = Density of air in Kg/m pa = Atmospheric pressure = 1.01325 Bar = 1.01325x105 N/m2 R = Real gas constant = 287 J/KgoK Ta = Room temperature To calculate ρ air use the following relation ρ air = 1.01325 × 10 5 in Kg/m3 287 × (273 + Ta ) Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 42
  44. 44. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 3. Brake Horse Power (BHP) = 2011-12 V ×I in KW 1000 × η g Where, V = Voltmeter reading I = Ammeter reading Șg = Efficiency of Generator = 0.75 4 5. Air - Fuel Ratio = ma mf Heat input Q = m f × C V in kW where m f is the mass of fuel supplied in kg/s CV is the calorific valvue of the fuel in kJ/kg m ×3600 inkg/kWHr 6. Specific fuel consumptio n (SFC) = f BP actual vol of air supplied Vact × 100 7 Volumetric efficiency η vol = Theoratica l air supply Vth Theoratica l air supply Vth = Swept volu me = L × A × N/2 in m 3 /min wher e A = πD 2 /4 in m 2 L and D are the stroke and bore of the engine. Va = Actual Volume of air supplied in m3/min BP 8 Brake thermal efficiency η bth = × 100 Heat input Q RESULT SHEET S.N. Mass of fuel supplied (mf) in Kg/s Mass of air supplied(ma) in Kg/s AirFuel Ratio BHP in KW SFC in Kg/KW Hr Heat input in KW Brake thermal efficiency Volumetric efficiency 1 2 3 4 5 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 43
  45. 45. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 HEAT BALANCE SHEET: 1 Heat input Q = m f × C V in KW 2 Heat equivalent of BP = BP in KW 3 Heat carried by the cooling water = m w × Cpw (T3 - T2 ) in KW where m w mass flow rate in kg/sec Cpw specific heatof water = 4.18 kJ/kg - K T3 & T2 out let & inlet temp of water. 4 Heat carried by the Exhaust Gases = m g × Cpg (T5 - T1 ) in KW where m g mass flow rate of Gas in kg/sec = m a + m f Cpg specific heat of exhaust gas = 1.005 kJ/kg - K T1 & T5 Room & Exhaust gas temp . Heat input Heat fuel supplied by the Total input KW in % Heat Output KW in % a)Heat equivalent to BP b) Heat carried away by cooling water c) Heat carried by exhaust gases d) Heat unaccountable a-(b+c) Total output CONCLUSION: 1) Performance of 4 stroke, single cylinder VCR petrol engine was carried out. 2) Heat balance sheet for the engine worked out with unaccounted heat loss. 3) Performance plots were drawn. Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 44
  46. 46. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 Experiment 13: MULTI CYLINDER PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG (MORSE TEST) FOUR STROKE, FOUR CYLINDER ENGINE COUPLED TO EDDY CURRENT DYNAMOMETER AIM: To Conduct Performance Test, Morse Test & to draw heat balance on given multi cylinder engine to find the overall efficiency of the engine. INTRODUCTION: The engine is four stroke, Four cylinder, water cooled, petrol driven automobile Engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer mounted on a strong base, and is complete with air, fuel, temperature, load, and speed measurement system. DESCRIPTION: The test rig comprises of the following: 1. Four stroke, Engine coupled to Eddy current Dynamometer, with the arrangement to cutoff the cylinder 2. Measurement and control panel 3. Temperature Sensors. PROCEDURE: 1. Install the Engine test rig near a 230V 5A 50Hz electrical power source and an un interrupted constant head water source. 2. Check all electrical connections, water level in manometer, and oil level in engine sump. 3. Ensure water flow into the engine jacket & exhaust gas calorimeter 4. Open both the valves of 3 way Manifold, make fuel flow to engine directly 5. Start the engine with self start key, Throttle the engine to the rated speed (2000 rpm). 6. Now take readings of manometer, temperature, Fuel consumption against time. 7. Load the engine in steps of 2Kgf up to 10Kgf (full load) keeping the speed constant by operating the throttle knob (accelerator) suitably to maintain the speed at 2000 rpm. 8. Record the following readings at each step. a) Manometer difference b) Time taken in Sec for 10cc fuel consumption by closing valve on your right hand side of the burette (line coming from fuel tank to burette) so that the fuel is drawn from burette. c) Load at each step as indicated on the Dial spring balance d) Speed of the engine in rpm e) Temperatures at different location ( T1 to T6) 9. Plot the graph Qin V/S BP, mf V/S BP, SFC V/S BP , Șith V/S BP, Șbth V/S BP Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 45
  47. 47. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 SPECIFICATION: ENGINE: Type Cylinders Starting Ignition : Four stroke, vertical, in line, water cooled, Petrol Engine : Four : Self : Spark DYNAMOMETER Make Type Display : Powermag : Eddy current Brake : Spring balance (Dial type) 25 kg capacity Manometer Air Tank Orifice Temperature Sensor speed Sensor : U tube, water filled, 30 cm : Made from MS, 400 x 400 x 400 cm : Circular, 20 mm dia : CrAl : Magnetic pickup, located on the coupling shaft. OBSERVATION: Water density, ȡw Calorific value of petrol, CV Acceleration due to gravity, g Petrol density, ȡp Torque arm length (R) Efficiency of dynamometer (Șd) Atmospheric pressure, pa Real gas constant, R : 1000 kg/m3 : 47,500 Kj/kg : 9.81 m/sec 2 : 750 Kg/m3 : 250mm : 85% : 1.01325 Bar = 1.01325x105 N/m2 : 287 J/KgoK Cylinder head cooling water flow rate = _____________liters/min Exhaust gas calorimeter cooling water flow rate = __________ liters/min TABULAR COLUMN: S. N. Engine Speed in rpm Load in Kgf 1 hm T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 8 5 h2 6 4 h1 Temperature readings 4 3 Manometer reading (hm) 2 2 Time taken for 10cc of fuel supply (t) in seconds 10 T1 - Water inlet, T2 - Water jacket outlet, T3 – Calorimeter water outlet T4 - Exhaust gas inlet to calorimeter, T5 – Exhaust gas outlet from calorimeter T6 – Air inlet temperature Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 46
  48. 48. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 CALCULATIONS: fuel consumed in cc × 10 −6 × ȡ p 1. Mass of the fuel consumed m f = 2. t = time taken for10cc of fuel consumptio n in sec Mass of air supplied m a = Va × ρ a in kg/min t where ȡ d is density of petrol in kg/s where Va is a actual volume of air intake = 60 C d A o 2gh a in m 3 /min C d = 0.62 A o = area of the orifice (πd 2 /4) h a = manometer reading in mtrs ρ a = density of air Pa/RTa in kg/m 3 g = 9.81 m/s2 h × 1000 × ρ water ha = manometer in meters of air ρ air Where ha = head of air in meters h manometer = manometer reading in mm ȡwater = 1000Kg/m3 ρ air = pa RTa 3 Where ρ air = Density of air in Kg/m Ta = Room temperature To calculate ρ air use the following relation ρ air = 3. Brake power (BP) = 1.01325 × 10 5 in Kg/m3 287 × (273 + Ta ) 2 × π × ( F × R) × N in kW 60 × 1000 × η d where Fis a net load acting on the dynamomete r in N R is a radius of the torue arm in mm 6 N is the speed of the dynamomete r in RPM η d = Efficiency of the dynamometer = 85% Heat input Q = m f × C V in kW where m f is the mass of fuel supplied in kg/s CV is the calorific valvue of the fuel in kJ/kg m f × 3600 in Kg/KW-Hr 8. Specific fuel consumption based on BP, SFC= BP 10 Brake thermal efficiency η bth = BP × 100 Heat input Q Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 47
  49. 49. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 MORSE TEST PROCEDURE: 1. Start the engine with the water flow into the engine jacket. 2. Load the engine to its full load (5 Kgf ) at rated rpm. (2000 rpm) 3. Cut off first cylinder, the engine speed drops, bring the engine speed to its rated speed by decreasing the load on the engine (Do not operate the throttle knob). 4. Record the load as indicated on the load indicator. (Dial spring balance) 5. Cut off Second cylinder, while replacing the first cylinder back into working Condition simultaneously (as the engine is a Four cylinder engine, ensure always three cylinders are in working condition) 6. Record the load on the engine, adjust the speed if deviated from the previous cut off. by adjusting the load only 7. Cut off the third cylinder while replacing the second one in to working Condition, follow step 6. 8. Similarly cut ‘off’ the fourth cylinder while replacing the third cylinder into working condition, follow step 6. TABULAR COLUMN FOR MORSE TEST SL No. Cylinder condition 1. All Cyl. running 2. 1st Cyl. cutoff 3. 2nd Cyl. cutoff 4. 3rd Cyl. cutoff 5. Engine Load W Brake power Indicated speed N (kgf) in KW power in KW (rpm) 4th Cyl. cutoff CALCULATIONS: 1) Total Brake power, BPT = 2πN (W × R ) in KW ( With all cylinders running) 60,000 × η d Where, N W R ηd 2) Brake power, BPi = = = = = Engine speed in rpm. Net load on the engine in N (W in kgf x9.81) Radius of the torque arm = 250mm Efficiency of the dynamometer 2πN (Wi × R ) in KW ( With ith cylinder cutoff) 60,000 × η d Where, i= 1, 2,3,4 Wi = load on the dynamometer to bring the speed of the engine to rated speed with ith cylinder cutoff η d = Efficiency of the dynamometer Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 48
  50. 50. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 3) Indicated power of ith cylinder, IPi = BPT -BPi where i= 1,2,3,4 4) Total Indicated power, IPT= (IP1+ IP2+ IP3+ IP4) 5) Frictional power, FP = IPT-BPT 6. Over all oeeficienc y , η o = BPT IPT RESULT SHEET: Mass of air supply ma in kg/sec Mass of fuel supply mf in kg/sec BP in kW Air –Fuel ratio BSFC in kg/kW-hr Heat input in kW Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 Thermal efficiency Șbth 49
  51. 51. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 HEAT BALANCE SHEET: 1 Heat input Q = m f × C V in KW 2 Heat equivalent of BP = BP in KW 3 Heat carried by the jacket cooling water = m w × Cpw (T2 - T1 ) in KW where m w mass flow rate in kg/sec Cpw specific heatof water = 4.18 kJ/kg - K T2 & T1 out let & inlet temp of water. 4 Heat carried by the Exhaust Gases = m g × Cpg (T5 - T6 ) in KW where m g mass flow rate of Gas in kg/sec = m a + m f Cpg specific heat of exhaust gas = 1.005 kJ/kg - K T5 & T6 Room & Exhaust gas temp . 5. Heat carried away by calorimeter water = m w × Cpw (T3 - T1 ) in KW Where T3 = Calorimeter water outlet T1 = Inlet temperature of water 6. Heat lost by frictional power = FP in KW HEAT BALANCE SHEET: Heat input 1) By combustion of fuel Total input KW in % Heat Output KW 1) Heat equivalent to BP 2) Heat carried by the jacket cooling water 3) Heat carried by exhaust gases 4) Heat carried by calorimeter water 5) Heat lost by frictional power 6) Heat unaccountable (1-(2+3+4+5)) Total output CONCLUSION: 1) Performance of 4 stroke, four cylinder petrol engine was carried out and evaluated IP, FP and overall efficiency. 2) Heat balance sheet for the engine worked out with unaccounted heat loss. 3) Performance plots were drawn. 4) Morse test was conducted to find overall efficiency of the engine. Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 50 in %
  52. 52. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 VIVA QUESTIONS 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) What are lubricants? Define flash and fire points. What is the significance of flash point and fire point measurement? List the flash point and fire points of different fuels. List the flash point and fire points of lubricating oils Define the flash point and fire point of a lubricating oil. What should be the flash point of a good lubricant? Ans. A flash point must be at least above the temperature at which the lubricant is to be used to avoid the risk of a fire hazard. 8) What are the factors that affect the flash and fire points? Ans. Moisture, vapor pressure, apparatus used, frequency of application of test flame, rate of heating the test oil, and so on. 9) What is the significance of a flash point and fire point measurement? 10) What happens to the flash point of an oil if it is contaminated with moisture? Ans. If moisture is present in the lubricating oil, it increases the flash point because steam prevents vapor from igniting. 11) What are lubricants? 12) What are the units of viscosity? 13) What is the effect of temperature on the viscosity of liquid and gas? 14) What is kinematic viscosity? 15) What is the unit of kinematic viscosity? 16) Mention the names of other viscometers. 17) What is viscosity? Discuss its significance for a lubricant. 18) What is kinematic viscosity? Ans: The coefficient of viscosity bv density is called the kinematic viscosity. 19) What is the unit of kinematic viscosity? 20) Mention the names of other viscometers. Ans: Ostwald viscometer and Saybolt viscometer. 21) What is viscosity? Discuss its significance for a lubricant. 22) Define valve timing in four stroke petrol engine? 23) What is overlapping? 24) What is inlet valve? 25) What is exhaust valve? 26) What do you mean by ignition? 27) What are the various types of ignition systems that are commonly used? 28) Describe the working principle of 2-Stroke petrol Engine? 29) Describe the working principle of 4-Stroke petrol Engine? 30) What is Suction Stroke? 31) What is compression Stroke? 32) Describe Expansion / Power Stroke? 33) Describe Exhaust Stroke? 34) What are the construction details of a four stroke petrol Engine? 35) What is the main deference in 2-Stroke Petrol Engine and 4-Stroke Petrol Engine? 36) Describe the working principle of 2-Stroke Diesel Engine? 37) Describe the working principle of 4-Stroke Diesel Engine? 38) Explain the air-fuel ratio? Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 51
  53. 53. Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12 39) What is Injection Timing? 40) What are the methods of available for improving the performance of an engine? 41) Distinguish between power and specific output? 42) Define the morse test? 43) What is transmission dynamometer? 44) What is need of measurement of speed of an I.C. Engine? 45) What is a smoke and classify the measurement of a smoke? 46) What is the break power of I.C. Engines? 47) What is volumetric efficiency? 48) What is air fuel ratio in two stroke single cylinder petrol engine? 49) What is air delivery ratio in two stroke single cylinder petrol engine? 50) Explain an automatic fuel flow meter? 51) Define the friction power? 52) Define Willian’s lines methods? 53) What is break power ? 54) Define speed performance test on a four-stroke single – Cylinder diesel engine? 55) What is Air rate and A/F ratio in a four-stroke single – Cylinder diesel engine? 56) What is combustion phenomenon? 57) What is indicated power ? 58) Mention the simplified various assumptions used in fuel Air-cycle Analysis 59) What are the different Air – Fuel Mixture on which an Engine can be operated? 60) Define the carbonation ? Ans. It is the process of mixing air and petrol mixture and vaporize and atomize that mixture. 61) What is clearance volume ? Ans. When piston moves from B.D.C. to T.D.C. the volume left above in the cylinder is called clearance volume. 62) What is swept volume? Ans. The volume covered by piston while moving from B.D.C. to T.D.C. is known as swept volume. 63) What is the compression ratio? 64) Explain the air-fuel ratio? 65) What is Injection Timing? 66) What are the methods of available for improving the performance of an engine? 67) Distinguish between power and specific output? 68) What is the importance of specific fuel consumption? 69) What is the torque of an engine? 70) Define the morse test? 71) What is transmission dynamometer? 72) What is need of measurement of speed of an I.C. Engine? 73) What is the break power of I.C. Engines? Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 52
  54. 54. 1 - Temperature Indicator 2 - Generator Current 3 - Engine Speed indicator 4- Monometer 8 - Generator Voltage 7 - Temperature Channel Selector 5- Pipette 6 - Fuel Tank 2 Stroke, Petrol Engine 11 - Mains 12- Electrical Loading Switches 10 - Air Tank 9 - Ignition On 15- Coupling 16- A.C. Generator 17- Heating Coil 13- Console Switch 14- Petrol Engine
  55. 55. 14 13 9 15 10 2 4 200WX10 11 3 5 7 - Fuel tank 1 - Fuse 2- Temperature Channel selector 8 - Fan and Load Bank 3 - Ampere meter 9 - Mains 4 - Volt meter 10 - RPM indicator 5 - Manometer 11- Fan and load Switches 6 - Burette 12 - Air tank 8 1 4 Stroke, Petrol Engine 6 16 17 12 17 - Coupling 18 - Alternaotr 16 - Petrol Engine 15 - Console Switch 14- Engine Stop 13 - Engine start 7 18
  56. 56. 1 - Feild Voltage 2 - Engine Speed indicator 3 - Motor Voltage 4 - Manometer 5 - Burette 6- Fuel tank 21 14 15 9 3 22 23 24 18 19 20 12 4 25 5 7 - Feild Current 8 - Temparature Indicator 9 - Motor Current 10 - Feild Control 11 - Temperature channel selector 12 - Motor control 16 17 11 8 7 10 2 1 4 Stroke, V.C.R Petrol Engine 26 13 -Air tank 14 - Voltmeter 15 - Ammeter 16 - Motor switch 17 - Mains 18 - Start 19 - Light 6 27 13 20 - Stop 21 - Intching 22 - Ignition ON 23 - Mains ON 24 - Electric Load switches 25 - Rotameter 26 - Engine 27 - Coupling 28 - Generator 28
  57. 57. 1 - Feild Voltage 2 - Engine Speed indicator 3 - Motor Voltage 4 - Manometer 5 - Burette 6- Fuel tank 21 14 15 9 3 22 23 24 18 19 20 12 4 25 5 7 - Feild Current 8 - Temparature Indicator 9 - Motor Current 10 - Feild Control 11 - Temperature channel selector 12 - Motor control 16 17 11 8 7 10 2 1 4 Stroke, V.C.R Petrol Engine 26 13 -Air tank 14 - Voltmeter 15 - Ammeter 16 - Motor switch 17 - Mains 18 - Start 19 - Light 6 27 13 20 - Stop 21 - Intching 22 - Ignition ON 23 - Mains ON 24 - Electric Load switches 25 - Rotameter 26 - Engine 27 - Coupling 28 - Generator 28
  58. 58. 12 7 6 5 2 3 7 - Console switch 8 - Air tank 9 - Engine 3 - Pipette 10 - Coupling 4 - Fuel Tank 11 -Rope brake dynamometer 5 - Temperature channel selector 12 - Computer 6 - Mains ON 1 - Manometer 2 - Engine Speed indicator 1 4 Stroke, Diesel Engine 4 9 8 10 11

×