IDT MAGAZINE – Second Issue ر IDT Page 2 “Dear my friend, I hope you are in excellent health and you are doing best in your daily life. I am writing my letter telling you a surprise I found In the Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University. Do you remember the last time we spoke about our dreams in powerful and competitive Egyptian industry? I never forget this day. We thought what if the industry here in Egypt is developed and how this development can change the face of life in Egypt. Do you remember? Our dream in more jobs for Egyptian citizens Do you remember? Our dream in strong economy leads Egypt to higher position between nations. The surprise, my friend, is that I found a group of engineering students who started this dream. I found the hope and the first steps towards tomorrow’s dream. I found youth’s enthusiasm, youths who are called “Industrial Development Team- IDT”.” This was a letter from an Egyptian citizen love his country and wants it to be the top. Mohammad Ghareeb IDT 09 president
IDT MAGAZINE – Second Issue ا م ا Page 3 The importance of plastic industry comes from it is considered as the main complementary industry for many others Imagine no pens, no TVs, no PCs, no mobile that’s all plastic complete it So in this issue we will explore the history of this industry then in other issue we will sail more in this important industry Plastics History pale yellow when heated, was It was the game of billiards used to replace glass in the that provided the unlikely The history of plastics goes 18th century. The original cause for its eventual back more than 100 years - breakthrough for the first commercial success. The however, compared to other semi-synthetic plastics American Hyatt brothers materials, plastics are material - cellulose nitrate - were attempting to develop a relatively modern. Their occurred in the late 1850s substitute for the ivory usage over the past century and involved the modification billiard ball and in so doing has enabled society to make of cellulose fibers with nitric came up with a process for huge technological advances acid. Cellulose nitrate had manufacturers using a to take us towards the new many false starts and nitrate cellulose composition. Millennium. Pre-20th Century financial failures following its Celluloid was thus born and Although we think of plastic invention by a Briton, was patented in 1870 - its as a modern invention, there Alexander Parkes, who early commercial success lay have always been "natural exhibited it as the worlds in dental plates for false polymers" such as amber, first plastic in 1862. Firstly teeth. tortoiseshell and horn. These known as Parke sine, then materials behaved very much 1900s Xylonite, it began to find like manufactured plastics However, the flammability of success in the production of and were often put to similar cellulose nitrate prevented objects such as ornaments, uses to todays materials - its use in mass production knife handles, boxes and for example, horn, which rapid molding techniques. The more flexible products such becomes transparent and early 1900s saw the as cuffs and collars.
IDT MAGAZINE – Second Issue Page 4 development of cellulose hairdryers, radio cabinets, 1922 - First spectacles acetate to get around this ashtrays and cameras. molded in cellulose acetate problem. This was widely Bakelite also had the benefit (in France) used as safety film to stiffen of looking similar to wood, so The 20s saw the production and waterproof the fabric was a popular choice for car of the first moldable light- wings and fuselage of early dashboards and knobs. colored plastic, made by airplanes. Casein It was also used to combining carbon dioxide and formaldehyde was also impregnate paper or fabric ammonia with formaldehyde. developed at this time. Based to make high pressure The resulting product, urea on fat-free milk and rennin, laminates for the emerging formaldehyde, could be used this could be hardened and telecommunications industry. to great visual effect and was shaped to make buttons, highly popular in making buckles and knitting needles. The first patent for PVC was tableware. By adding colored registered in 1914. Cellophane Bakelite - a hard, dark plastic powder to the white mixture, was also discovered during - was discovered by Leo it was possible to produce this period. Baekeland, a Belgian-born patterns which looked like chemist in 1907 and was the The 1920s marble, alabaster or stone, first truly synthetic plastic to in 1922 a German chemist, so for the first time, plastics be patented. Made from Hermann Staudinger, made a were not just a functional carboxylic acid and discovery which would choice, but also an aesthetic formaldehyde, Bakelite resin change the whole face of the one. These urea resins also was normally reinforced with plastics industry. Through found important industrial fillers (either fibers or wood working with synthesized applications in varnishes, flour). rubber, he found that plastics laminates and adhesives. are made from chains of Bakelite brought plastics into In 1921 the first injection thousands of molecules linked consumers lives in a variety molding machine was together, known as "super of ways. Its excellent designed. polymers" - a find which insulating properties made it prompted the invention of The 1930s an ideal material for many new plastics. Two developments during the
IDT MAGAZINE – Second Issue Page 5 30s swept the plastics polymerization during also invented at this time, and industry into mass storage was found. by 1935 it was starting to be production. Firstly, used in aircraft cockpit manufacturers learnt how manufacture and in other ّب وا ا to produce plastics from protective screens. petroleum - polystyrene, ّب أ ا اء ر آن دم ُ ا وآ ن أ ء The first epoxy resins were acrylic polymers and و ، وه ،و اء ل: آ أ وا أ developed in Switzerland in polyvinyl chloride were all ، آ ا ا و 1938. Main applications at made in this way. Secondly, .ي ا ءا أ : ً، ل ا that time were in dentistry injection molding, which had ن ،ا اء وا أ آ أ and medicine, and, due to always been problematical, ء ف. إ أ ي، و ُ ن ، د أن أ their adhesive qualities as a became much improved and ُ ّ ً، ن ً ا constituent of glue, plastics fully automated in 1937. ِ ْ ِ ور ا . became an increasingly Both developments were أ و ً وأ ب َ ا common sight in the home as good news for the ن ا . راح ا م ا . ا ـ دة ، آ ا urea formaldehyde became consumer as they brought ا م آ ا مَم ً more widespread. This was down the price of the end- و و ا : ا ةو ا an era when, for the first product and put plastics ّإ ا ن آ time, consumers were within easy grasp of . وإذا آ هاا .ا ، وا دآ demanding convenience, everyone. Development of ن إ . وا ت ا و ن mainly because fewer people PVC continued apace with : و ،ا أة ا ؟و ا ء ى أ were employing domestic the first use in insulating ا أة . ور ،إ ح staff. As a result, hygienic, electric cables in 1930. ر ا ء ر ّة ا ه و easy-to-clean surfaces and Polyamide was also . و labor saving devices were ز ُ ِ و ع وإذا ا developed at this time, and . و ده becoming popular. An polystyrene was first attractive, light-colored, produced commercially in hard-wearing plastic, urea 1937 when an economic formaldehyde suited modern way of preventing Polymethyl methacrylate lifestyles perfectly and was (acrylic or "Perspex") was used to make items such as
IDT MAGAZINE – Second Issue Page 6 molded egg cups, cruet sets, discovered at the end of the laminates such as Formica, light fittings, cream makers 20s, but was not put to great first popular in the United and picnic sets. use until the 40s. Consisting States where they were used of long filaments which could widely in espresso bars and The 1940s be spun and woven or knitted, dinettes. At the same time, World War II meant a huge the new plastic was used to molded melamine boost for plastics. as a make everything from formaldehyde resin was domestically generated parachutes to upholstery. becoming widely used as a resource which had by this component in tableware and time become relatively cheap, PVC really took off during became a popular alternative plastic was able to take over this decade and into the to china - so much so that by from imported materials. In 1950s. It could be used, the late 1950s, as much as terms of design technology, among other things, to make 50% of all dinnerware sold consumer products was molded using this benefited from the new material. A first for the techniques which had car industry: 1956 saw the been developed out of major use of plastics in necessity during the car body design when the war. The production of (Evertek) ا ر ا ه ا ا roof of a Citroen DS was plastics which are still ات و ا ا ة ا اق ا ا آ made from unsaturated used widely today - such د ا آ ا ا ر إ ا لا ا ي ةو ا وا ا ا polyester reinforced with as polyethylene, . ى ا ـ981 د ر د ه ر إ ىا تا fiberglass. The polystyrene, polyester, ا ط . combination of polyester PET and silicones - all ثو و ا أ ار و ود و راد اف ام 1 ي و آ رت ام and fiberglass became a grew during the popular choice thereafter wartime period. Silicones, for records. This discovery was in the production of body example, became widely used particularly well-timed parts for cars and boats. as water repellants and in considering the boom of the heat resistant paints. popular music industry in this Polyethylene was first era. The 1950s The 50s saw discovered in 1933, but it was Nylon, the first totally man- the growth of decorative in the 50s that the material made fiber, had been
IDT MAGAZINE – Second Issue Page 7 really took off thanks to a was a huge advantage. This lemon squeezers and bottle new, safer production led to the introduction of a stoppers. method. The new material range of innovative new The so called "Space Race" which had a high melting products in the fashion world, began in the late 60s. point and could be used including soft and hard foams Plastics played an important where other plastics had with a protective skin, wet- part in the production of failed, was used for dustbins, look polyurethane and spacecraft components and baby baths and chemical transparent acrylic. Home equipment: its lightness and containers. It was also the decor also benefited, where versatility made it a material material behind one of the eccentric designer furniture of choice. most famous symbols of such as inflatable chairs and suburban life: The 1970s Tupperware. Plastics were playing an The 1950s increasing "behind the During the 50s plastics scenes" role in became a major force in technological advances the clothing industry. which began to take off Polyester, Lycra and during this decade. In acrylic lights became "must nylon were easy to wash, engineering and the emerging haves" for fashion-conscious needed no ironing and were computer industry, new consumers. often cheaper than their "super polymers" were natural alternatives and, as a 1960 saw the first use of PVC beginning to replace metals. result, were hugely popular to bottle mineral water. Among other things, the with consumers tired of the hygienic nature of plastics tyranny of housework. The first domestic items meant that use in medicine made from molded became increasingly The 1960s polypropylene were important. However, on the In a decade renowned for its developed from 1963 style front, the 70s saw an emphasis on style and onwards - including combs, inevitable backlash against fashion, the fact that plastics the synthetic swinging had become highly developed
IDT MAGAZINE – Second Issue Page 8 sixties, with consumers such as computers, fiber products we buy from these favoring a return to natural optic cables and telephones outlets. materials like wood, cotton, all use plastics widely in their Laminates saw a revival in steel and leather. This trend design to provide strength, the interior design world. But coincided with a world energy light weight, insulation and unlike the decorative crisis and resulting shortage flexibility. Transport also has laminates of the 60s, the new of materials and for the first started using plastics more breed was at the upper end of and only time in the history of widely. Plastics use in cars the market. The Milan plastics, there was a slump in jumped 11% between 1974-88, Furniture Show in 1981 the industry. and in the 1980s, the first showed "The New flight tests of the all-plastics The Punk craze in the late International Design" - aircraft took place. 70s provoked a slight furniture using multicolored resurgence of plastics among Shopping habits have also plastic laminates which were consumers with vinyl used in changed enormously with the sold at anything from £2,000 clothes and fashion emergence of super- and upwards. accessories. hypermarkets and less and Plastics became so highly less purchase of fresh foods The 1980/90s developed that they could not from dedicated suppliers. only imitate but in some the explosion in global Plastics are now widely used cases exceed the communications during the performance of the real in packaging and play a key 80s and 90s has been made thing! For example PVC which role in helping transport largely possible through the looks like leather, and solid maintain the freshness of the surfaces which imitate use of plastics. Equipment ﻫﺒّﺖ ﻋﺎﺻﻔﺔ ﻫﻮﺟﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻔﻴﻨﺔ ﺑﻌﻴﺪًا ﻋﻦ اﻟﺴﻮاﺣﻞ. ﻓﻐﺮق ﻛﻞّ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎن ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﺪا رﺟﻞ واﺣﺪ اﺳﺘﻄﺎع أن ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪ .وﻳﻜﺎﻓﺢ ﺣﺘﻰ وﺻﻞ إﻟﻴﺠﺰﻳﺮة ﺻﻐﻴﺮة ﻣﻬﺠﻮرة ﺑﻨﻰ اﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻛﻮﺧًﺎ ﺻﻐﻴﺮًا وأﺳﻠﻢ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﷲ. ﻛﺎن ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﻄﻌﺎم واﻟﺸﺮاب اﻟّﺬي دﻓﻌﺖ ﺑﻪ اﻷﻣﻮاج إﻟﻰ .اﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮة ﻣﻤﺎ ﻛﺎن ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﻔﻨﻴﺔ اﻟﻐﺎرﻗﺔ ، وﺑﻌﺾ اﻷﻋﺸﺎب اﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﺎن ﻳﻠﺘﻘﻄﻬﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ وﻫﻨﺎك .ﻛﺎن ﻳﻘﻀﻲ اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎت ﻓﻮق اﻟﺼﺨﻮر اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮة ﻳﻠﻮّح ﺑﻴﺪه ﻟﻌﻞّ ﺳﻔﻴﻨﺔ ﺗﺮاه ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﻓﺘﺄﺗﻲ ﻟﻨﺠﺪﺗﻪ وﻓﻲ ﻳﻮم ﻣﻦ أﻳّﺎم اﻟﺼﻴﻒ اﻟﺤﺎرّة، ﺻﻌﺪإﻟﻰ اﻟﺼﺨﺮة ﻛﻌﺎدﺗﻪ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ إﻟﻰ اﻷﻓﻖ اﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ، وﻟﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﻈﺮ اﻟﺘﻔﺖ وإذ . ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻴﺮان ﺗﻠﺘﻬﻢ ﻛﻮﺧﻪ اﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﺣﺘّﻰ أﺗﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ . ﻗﻨﻂ اﻟﻤﺴﻜﻴﻦ وأﺧﺬ ﻳﻔﻜّﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻗَﺪَره، ﻟﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺳﻠّﻢ أﻣﺮه ﻟﻠﻪ وﻗﺎل : إنّ ﻟﻲ رﺑّﴼ رﺣﻴﻤﴼ ﻟﻦ ﻳﻀﻴّﻌﻨﻲ وﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺴﺎء، وﺻﻠﺖ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮة ﺳﻔﻴﻨﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮة و ﻗﺎل اﻟﻘﺒﻄﺎن ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺒﻨﺎ: "ﻟﻘﺪ رأﻳﻨﺎ اﻟﻨﺎر اﻟﺘﻲ أﺿﺮﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﺪﻟّﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ."وﺟﻮدك، ﻓﺄﺗﻴﻨﺎ ﻟﻨﺠﺪﺗﻚ . (( ﻓﻘﺎم ﻳﺤﻤﺪ ﷲ وﻳﺮدّد ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ : )) وﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﻮﻛّﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﷲ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺴﺒﻪ
IDT MAGAZINE – Second Issue ي ن Page 13 Tomas عا دا وا ا ء آ دور ا م ا و وا ا ا ا ا ما ب ا م م ة وا ر د وا وا دور اداري ن ا و :ه ا In 1914, ا زا ا دار ز ن ون أ ا أ Thomas Edison, أا ا اث و ا دآ ء وا at age 67, lost . أ أو وز أي اف أو ا his factory, ت ا اء إن أآ ا ل :ة ا ا which was worth .ء أ أو ه ا a few million dollars, to fire. إ اد أ اد ا د آ : ع ا ن ا It had very little ع را ا insurance. No longer a young ل أن آ ا ا ء وا ا ا ا :ء أراء ا man, Edison . ول و إ ا watched his و آ ا ة ا :ء ا lifetime effort ةو ا go up in smoke and said, "There إ ا إ دة is great value in disaster. All ءا ا تإ our mistakes are burnt up. Thank ع ار لإ ا ا ارات ا و او عو ذة ا ارات ا God we can أن دة ن ا ا ارات ا ق دا ع ا start anew." In أآ وا رات و ا دا أآ spite of disaster, ع ار لإ ا ه آ ا ات ه ك ا أي آ ن أن رآ ا Three weeks later, he invented the phonograph.
IDT MAGAZINE – Second Issue Page 14 ا ت ا ت ا ا آ The designer!! Three ءو ا :ت ا ا اآ ف ى ا ا ح أي وا عأ أ با engineering ت ا ن رآ ن أن ا و students were gathered ا اع دا ا ا together : ا اع دا ا ر ا أ رآ discussing the possible possible designers ا اع دا ا of the human ل اع أن ا :ا اع ا ح ا body. إ د ا اع و One said, "It was ا ا ت ا دة ه :ص ا تو ا آ ا اع a mechanical را ء أ ء ا اع ا ال و أ ا engineer. Just ه آ ه ا ن ا ء ا :آن لأ ا ا look at all the ؟ ا joints." ثا ن ت ل أن آ ا : أ ء ا اع ا ه م Another said, ءأ ء آ تا أو تا إ رة ا ء ا وأن ``No, it was an ا ت electrical آ كا أن آ ع ا اع ه engineer. The ا ً ّ nervous system .ن آ و وآ ن ا ا ك وز آن has many . أا "اً " ر ل ا ز وآ ن آ أ ب ا thousands of "ا ً " لا ز ا و إ ى ا ات ُ إ electrical ذ ؟ او ل ا ً ً ا connections. . ا ز وأ The last said, "اً " لا ز ا was ``actually it was . ا ة ا ز و a civil , ا اس وا م جا و ، ً ّ ا ً ون م ّ engineer. Who ..ع إ ا أن ّ أن اآ آ و else would run a أ ّ وأول و م ل ا ا أن أ ً ـ ا toxic waste وا ر ا ا ز أن أ ا اس أن ا رو pipeline through . ذ ا ,و إ و ل أ أدرك ا ن ا a recreational ذ ؟ ا "اً " أ ت و area? ً ن ُ م .. َ َ َ ُ ا ا ز أ ا آ ا ا ... ن ً ( ا ا ا ّ وآ ل ر ل ا ) ا
IDT MAGAZINE – Second Issue ي ن Page 15 WHAT ROBOTS LEARN As the tasks that we ask of robots—especially service robots designed to help Just staying humans—grow more aloft is complicated, teaching robots impressive. how to perform those tasks Unlike airplanes has grown ever more that glide on complex. That’s why robot wings, developers may want to look helicopters are at the work of a group of inherently Stanford University unstable researchers building systems. All autonomous helicopters. They they really want to do is fall robot simply copy the moves have taught their robotic out of the sky. “If you don’t of the team’s expert radio helicopters to fly the same provide feedback, it will control pilot, Garrett Oku. way humans learn—by copying crash,” said Pieter Abbeel. He Performance changed with someone who knows how to do and fellow graduate students wind speed, sudden gusts, it. Adam Coates, Timothy Hunter, temperature, and humidity. and Morgan Quigley developed These robots don’t just fly. the helicopter under the Finally, the programmers They perform a whole range direction of Andrew Ng, an developed artificial of aerobatic stunts, such as assistant professor of intelligence algorithms to traveling flips, rolls, loops computer science. analyze Oku’s routines. Even with pirouettes, stall-turns though Oku’s piloting varied with pirouettes, inverted tail At first, Abbeel and Coates with each flight, the AI system slides, and maneuvers with tried to teach helicopters was able to abstract the ideal such exotic names as the aerobatics by writing trajectory Oku sought. knife-edge, slapper, computer code for each Eventually, the autonomous hurricane, and the tic-toc, specific maneuver. This helicopter learned to fly the which involves swinging from proved workable (but not routine better and more side to side. Not only do the elegant) for novice-level flips consistently than Oku himself. robotic helicopters perform and rolls. It failed entirely for these tricks, but they do them the tic-toc and other complex The helicopter carries better than their human pilots. maneuvers. Nor could the accelerometers, gyroscopes,
IDT MAGAZINE – Second Issue Page 16 and magnetometers that helicopters that can search pilots in the world can,” Ng measure its position, for land mines in battle zones said. direction, orientation, velocity, or map the spread of wildfires Stanford’s autonomous acceleration, and spin 20 in real time. “In order for us helicopters are a step in that times per second. The AI to trust helicopters in these direction. They also showcase system analyzes the data in sort of mission-critical the type of algorithms that order to adjust the vehicle’s applications, it’s important may simplify teaching robots flight path. that we have very robust, to provide complex services very reliable helicopter to their human masters. According to Ng, the goal is to controllers that can fly maybe create autonomous as well as the best human ا ..... ان ........ ر و .... و .....د أه ا ور ا ر ا و ....... ا ا و ..... ا و ... ل ىا ...ب وراو .. ا .. و .... ور ا و ..... ..... ثا .... م و دي .... أو ... أ .... ن .... ه و .... ا أ ....ا م ... ه و
IDT MAGAZINE – Second Issue ي زوون Page 17 Paretos Principle - The 80-20 Rule 80- How the 80/20 rule can help you to be more effective?! In 1906, Italian their own areas of became known as economist Vilfredo expertise. Quality Paretos Principle or Pareto created a Management pioneer, the 80/20 Rule. You mathematical formula Dr. Joseph Juran, can read his own to describe the working in the US in description of the unequal distribution of the 1930s and 40s events in the Juran wealth in his country, recognized a universal Institute article titled observing observing that twenty principle he called the Jurans Non-Pareto Non- percent of the people "vital few and trivial Principle. Principle. owned eighty percent many" and reduced it of the wealth. to writing. What It means the 80/20 Rule means In the late 1940s, Dr. In an early work, a lack that in anything a few Joseph M. Juran of precision on Jurans (20 percent) are vital inaccurately attributed part made it appear and many (80 percent) the 80/20 Rule to he that he was applying trivial. are trivial. In Paretos Pareto, calling it Paretos observations case it meant 20 Paretos Principle. about economics to a percent of the people While it may be broader body of work. owned 80 percent of misnamed, Paretos The name Paretos the wealth. In Jurans Principle or Paretos Principle stuck, initial work he Law as it is sometimes probably because it identified 20 percent be called, can be a very sounded better than of the defects causing effective tool to help Jurans Principle. 80 percent of the you manage problems. effectively. As a result, Dr. Jurans observation of the Project Managers Where It Came From "vital few and trivial know that 20 percent After Pareto made his principle many", the principle of the work (the first observation and that 20 percent of percent 10 percent and the last created his formula, something always are 10 percent) consume many others observed responsible for 80 80 percent of your similar phenomena in percent of the results, time and resources.
IDT MAGAZINE – Second Issue Page 18 You can apply the on the 20 percent that 80 percent of your 80/20 Rule to almost matters. results you should anything, from the Of the things you do focus your limited time science of management during your day, only 20 on managing only that to the physical world. percent really matter. 20 percent, the Those 20 percent superstars. You know 20 percent produce 80 percent of of you stock takes up your results. Identify The theory is flawed, 80 percent of your and focus on those as we are discussing warehouse space and space things. When the fire here because it that 80 percent of drills of the day begin overlooks the fact your stock comes from to sap your time, that 80 percent of 20 percent of your remind yourself of the your time should be suppliers. 20 percent you need to spent doing what is focus on. really important. Also 80 percent of your sales will come If something in the Helping the good from 20 percent of has schedule has to slip, if become better is a your sales staff. something isnt going better use of your time to get done, make sure than helping the great 20 percent of your its not part of that 20 becomes terrific. staff will cause 80 percent. Apply the Pareto percent of your Principle to all you do, problems, but another There is a management but use it wisely. 20 percent of your theory floating around staff will provide 80 at the moment that Manage This Issue percent of your proposes to interpret Paretos Principle, the production. Paretos Principle in 80/20 Rule, should such a way as to serve as a daily It works both ways. produce what is called reminder to focus 80 Superstar percent of your time How It Can Help You Management. Management. and energy on the 20 The value of the percent of you work Pareto Principle for a The theorys that is really important. manager is that it supporters claim that Dont just "work reminds you to focus since 20 percent of smart", work smart on your people produce the right things.
IDT MAGAZINE – Second Issue News Page 19 The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008 Harald zur Hausen Françoise Barré-Sinoussi Luc Montagnier Germany b. 1936 France b. 1947 France b. 1932 1/2 of the prize 1/4 of the prize 1/4 of the prize German Cancer Research Regulation of Retroviral World Foundation for Centre Infections Unit, Virology AIDS Research and Heidelberg, Germany Department, Institut Prevention Pasteur Paris, France "For his discovery of Paris, France human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer" "For their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus" or vir The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008 Yoichiro Nambu Makoto Kobayashi Toshihide Maskawa shihide USA b. 1921 Japan b. 1944 Japan b. 1940 1/2 of the prize 1/4 of the prize 1/4 of the prize Enrico Fermi Institute, High Energy Accelerator Kyoto Sangyo University; University of Chicago Research Organization Yukawa Institute for Chicago, IL, USA (KEK) Theoretical Physics Tsukuba, Japan (YITP), Kyoto University Kyoto, Japan "For the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous "For the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry broken symmetry in which predicts the existence of at least three families of subatomic physics" quarks in nature"
IDT MAGAZINE – Second Issue Page 20 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008 Osamu Shimomura Martin Chalfie Roger Y. Tsien USA b. 1928 USA b. 1947 USA b. 1952 1/3 of the prize 1/3 of the prize 1/3 of the prize Marine Biological Columbia University University of California Cali Laboratory (MBL) New York, NY, USA San Diego, CA, USA Woods Hole, MA, USA "For the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP" or The Nobel Prize in The Nobel Peace The Sveriges Riksbank Prize Literature 2008 Prize 2008 in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel No 2008 Paul Krugman Jean-Marie Gustave Le Martti Ahtisaari USA b. 1953 Clézio Finland b. 1937 Princeton University France b. 1940 "For "F his important efforts, Princeton, NJ, USA "Author of new departures, on several continents and "For his analysis of trade or poetic adventure and over more than three patterns and location of sensual ecstasy, explorer of decades, to resolv resolve economic activity" a humanity beyond and international conflicts" below the reigning civilization"
IDT MAGAZINE – Second Issue عا د Page 21 What Is Production Control? اﻹﻋﻼن واﻷﻋﻤﻰ ﺟﻠﺲ رﺟﻞ أﻋﻤﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ إﺣﺪى ﻋﺘﺒﺎت ﺑﻨﺎء واﺿﻌﴼ The production control organization was ﻗﺒﻌﺘﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻗﺪﻣﻴﻪ وﺑﺠﺎﻧﺒﻪ established established in the early 1970s to provide a QA ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﻣﻜﺘﻮب ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ function for the legacy environment. These " أﻧﺎ أﻋﻤﻰ أرﺟﻮﻛﻢ were its functions: ." ﺳﺎﻋﺪوﻧﻲ second- • Provide second-level production support ﻓﻤﺮّ رﺟﻞ إﻋﻼﻧﺎت • Participate in the disaster recovery process/drills ّﺑﺎﻷﻋﻤﻰ ووﻗﻒ ﻟﻴﺮى أن • Reject new applications or major revisions to ﻗﺒّﻌﺘﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺤﻮي ﺳﻮى production applications in production prior to thorough ﻗﺮوش ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻓﻮﺿﻊ testing and documentation اﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ . ودون أن • Breed technical resources ﻳﺴﺘﺄذن اﻷﻋﻤﻰ أﺧﺬ • Maintain scheduling requirements ﻟﻮﺣﺘﻪ وﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﺒﺎرة • Provide centralized أﺧﺮى وأﻋﺎدﻫﺎ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ ownership/accountability for key processes . وﻣﻀﻰ ﻓﻲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ such as change management, storage ﻻﺣﻆ اﻷﻋﻤﻰ أن ﻗﺒﻌﺘﻪ management, etc. ﻗﺪ اﻣﺘﻸت ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮوش • Maintain system management toolstools ، واﻷوراق اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ • Assist senior systems programmers in ﻓﻌﺮف أن ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ وأدرك أن ﻣﺎ ﺳﻤﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ّﺻﻮت اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺳﺮ installation, support, and documentation ذﻟﻚ اﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻓﺴﺄل أﺣﺪ • Provide training to other groups within IT اﻟﻤﺎرة ﻋﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻜﺘﻮب on newly installed system management tools : ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ اﻵﺗﻲ " ﻧﺤﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺼﻞ اﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ Production Control versus Applications ﻟﻜﻨّﻨﻲ ﻻ أﺳﺘﻄﻴﻊ رؤﻳﺔ Development . "ﺟﻤﺎﻟﻪ functions In the 1970s, one of the primary functions of ﻻ ﻧﺪﻋﻮك ﻟﻠﺘﺴﻮّل ﺑﺎﻟﻄّﺒﻊ the production control group was to accept or decline new systems/applications from ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎن ﺣﺎﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ applications development into what the ﺧﻼل ﻫﺬه اﻟﻘﺼّﺔ infrastructure support staff considered the : اﻟﺮّﻣﺰﻳّﺔ وﻟﻜﻦ ﻧﻘﻮل ﻟﻚ mission- sacred mission-critical production environment. " ﻏﻴّﺮ وﺳﺎﺋﻠﻚ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺴﻴﺮ " اﻷﻣﻮر ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﺐ
IDT MAGAZINE – Second Issue Page 22 Their job was to ensure RAS. On the other hand, the application development charter was to design, develop, and deploy a system into production as quickly as possible. Two Worlds Clash Nothing would enter the holy temple (data center) until the proper the documentation was provided, the appropriate staff was trained, and the application went through a very thorough QA process. The production control staff had ﺑﺪون اﻻت ﺣﺎﺳﺒﺔ as much power to decline a new system being ﻓﻲ ﻧﺎس ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﻞ deployed into production, as did the ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﺪة ﺑﺪون ﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﺘﺐ وﻻ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ applications development staff for bypassing وﺑﻤﺠﺮد ﻣﺎ ﺑﺘﻔﻜﺮ ﺑﺲ the normal process to expedite a system into وﺗﻮﻣﺎس ﻓﻮﻟﺮ ﻛﺎن واﺣﺪ production. There was no bargaining; it was ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺎس دي ..ﺗﻮﻣﺎس production controls way or the system would ﻛﺎن ﻋﺒﺪ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎت end up in the departments broom closet, not اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪة وﻛﺎن اﻣﻲ ﻣﺎ supported by the production control group. ﺑﻴﻌﺮﻓﺶ ﻻ ﻳﻜﺘﺐ وﻻ caused. You can imagine the friction this caused. ﻳﻘﺮأ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺪه ﻋﺮف ﻳﺤﺴﺐ ﺧﻼل This dictatorial type of behavior by the دﻗﻴﻘﺔ وﻧﺼﻒ ﻛﺎم ﺳﺎﻋﺔ production control staff lasted throughout ﻣﻮﺟﻮدة ﻓﻲ 07 ﺳﻨﺔ the 70s and midway through the 80s. The !!! و5.71 ﻳﻮم one- mainframe process was one-sided in favor of the production control group. In the late 80s and throughout the 90s, as most companies companies transitioned to client/server computing in a decentralized environment, they did away with the production control function, and with it went the production QA function. Along with production QA went RAS. RAS was an afterthought. Some companies tried to keep this organization intact by changing the function dramatically. The perception was that production control was bureaucratic. As technology was evolving at a torrid pace in the late 80s and through the 90s, this perception became a
IDT MAGAZINE – Second Issue Page 22 throughout reality throughout IT. Sometimes it took Mothers day several weeks to put a system into A man stopped at a flower production. The intent was good, but it shop to order some flowers to really slowed the deployment of new be wired to his mother who systems, which in turn angered the user lived two hundred miles community. The bureaucracy was away. unbearable. got As he got out of his car he noticed a young girl sitting The centralized production control staff on the curb sobbing. He asked her what was wouldnt dare say no to new systems or wrong and she replied, "I applications being deployed into a wanted to buy a red rose for production environment, regardless of my mother. whether they followed a process or seventy- But I only have seventy-five procedure. Support responsibilities were cents, and a rose costs two pretty much contained to mainframe dollars." their applications. Because of their The man smiled and said, "Come on in with me. Ill bureaucratic process and dictatorial buy you a rose." behavior, the newer client/server He bought the little girl her off- technology was off-limits. rose and ordered his own mothers flowers. A few companies still had a centralized As they were leaving he production control staff supporting all offered the girl a ride home. applications, but their responsibilities were She said, "Yes, please! You whatever very limited. If for whatever reason (such can take me to my mother." She directed him to a as poor operations documentation) they where cemetery, where she placed declined to accept the new system into the the rose on a freshly dug corporate production environment, the grave. customer/owner of the new system would The man returned to the construct their own systems, even if it flower shop, canceled the meant installing the server in a broom wire order, picked up a closet. Once the system was declined by bouquet and drove the two production control, the customer had no hundred miles to his mothers house. choice but to install the server wherever possible— possible—because they still had a business to support.
IDT MAGAZINE – Second Issue Page 23 Once a system went into production status, it became certified production-ready, production-ready, and consequently was located in the corporate data center. The buck stopped with How tall a particular production control. If the system was hotel was???!! unstable (unable to maintain 99.9% uptime An Engineering Student, a availability), there was no one to point Physics Student, and a Mathematics student were each fingers at but themselves. Production given $150 dollars and were told failure controls failure during this legacy to use that money to find out exactly how tall a particular hotel environment and even in todays network was? world was determined by postponement of All three ran off, extremely communication or lack thereof. keen on how to do this. The Physics student went out, purchased some stopwatches, a Production control waited until the number of ball bearings, a calculator, and some friends. He Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) had them all time the drop of ball was complete before they would start bearings from the roof, and he then figured out the height from communicating communicating with applications the time it took for the bearings development staff regarding their system to accelerate from rest until they requirements. There was very little impacted with the sidewalk. The Math student waited communication between applications until the sun was going down, development and the entire then she took out her protractor, plumb line, measuring tape, and staff— infrastructure support staff—especially scratch pad, measured the length production control. of the shadow, found the angle the buildings roof made from the ground, and used trigonometry to Production control was never involved in involved figure out the height of the pre- any of the pre-production activities. building. These two students bumped Systems were literally thrown over the into the Engineering student the wall into production. Production control next day, who was nursing a really bad hangover. When was never involved until applications asked what he did to find the development said their systems were height of the building he replied: "Well, I walked up to the bell ready. Nine times out of ten, the systems hop, gave him 10 bucks, asked (in were not (in the eyes of the him how tall the hotel was, and infrastructure support staff) ready for hit the coffee inside for happy hour!" production.
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