Wenden (1986) stated that learners were able to
deliberate their beliefs on the effective ways to learn
the second language which includes the language
itself and the choose of strategies.
Abraham and Vent (1987) and Horwitz (1987)
claimed that explanation of their choose of a specific
LLSs are based on the learners’ beliefs on language
learning. Thus, the learners’ beliefs about the
language somehow affect their use of those
White (1993) stated that LLS used by specific age
groups of learner of French and Japanese in New
Zealand and discover that learners that aged above
thirty tend to use metacognitive strategies in term of
self-management than the younger ones.
Ramirez (1986) identified that successful learning
behaviors were depend on the task itself. He also
stated that certain strategies were engaged according
to the different levels of study.
Studies show that females tend to use more effective
strategies than males. Oxford (1988) studied seventyeight subjects and claimed that females use extra
strategies than males based on four SILL factors
- Authentic language use
- General strategies
- Searching for and communicating meaning
- Self-management strategies
While on the other hand, studies show that males
use more of specific strategies than the females.
Tran’s (1988) did some research on Vietnamese
immigrant from age 40 to 92, in the USA concluded
that males exploit better on the usage of strategies
than females did. These males manage to improve
their language skills by taking extra courses on
English, speak with friends and even listening to the
radio in English.
Language learners’ motivation are significant with
the selection and use of strategies. Oxford (1989)
discussed that learners tend to learn languages for
altered intention as well as resolutions and this
might be influenced by the chose of certain effective
O’ Malley and Chamot (1990) recognized that
beginners or new students conveyed less use of the
strategies than those who are from the intermediate
Anderson and Vandergrift (1996) stated that the
supremacy of cognitive strategy used by students
degenerated as the level of proficiency increased.
Hence, they claimed that whenever the level of
proficiency increased, so does the use of