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PANCREAS
By
Dr. Faraza Javaid
PANCREATIC ISLETS
The endocrine pancreas consists of
cluster of cells, known as islets (islets
of Langerhans), scattered throughout
the gland.
Pancreatic hormones are secreted
directly into the blood stream and
circulate throughout the body.
CELLS TYPES
There are 3 main types of cells in islets:
Alpha cells – secrete Glucagon
Beta cells – secrete insulin
Delta cells – secrete somatostatin (IH)
INSULIN
Insulin main function is to lower raised blood
nutrients levels, not only glucose but also
amino acids and fatty acids.
Major actions are:
 Acting on cell membrane and stimulating
uptake of glucose by muscle and
connective tissues
 Increase conversion of glucose to glycogen
 Synthesize protein
 Promote fatty acid synthesis and fat
storage in adipose tissue
 Decrease glycogen breakdown into glucose
GLUCAGON
Glucagon increases blood glucose levels by
stimulating:
Conversion of glycogen to glucose
SOMATOSTATIN
This hormone is produced by hypothalamus
and islets cells,
inhibits the secretion of insulin and
glucagon
in addition to inhibiting the secretion of GH
from anterior pituitary.
DIABETES MELLITUS
The most common endocrine
disorder.
 Primary DM (TYPE 1 and TYPE 2)
 Secondary DM
 Gestational DM
(Polyphagia)
(Polyuria)
(Polydipsia)
DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2
ADRENAL GLAND
Adrenal Gland
 Adrenal glands are called the
‘life-saving glands’ or
‘essential endocrine glands’.
 It is because the absence of
adrenocortical hormones
causes death within 3 to 15
days and absence of
adrenomedullary hormones,
drastically decreases the
resistance to mental and
physical stress.
PARTS OF ADRENAL GLAND
Adrenal gland is made of two distinct
parts:
1. Adrenal cortex: Outer portion,
constituting 80% of the gland
2. Adrenal medulla: Central portion,
constituting 20% of the gland.
ADRENAL CORTEX
Adrenal cortex produces three groups of
steroids hormones from cholesterol.
They are collectively called
adrenocorticoids.
 Mineralocorticoids
 Glucocorticoids
 Androgens/ Sex hormones
MINERALOCORTICOID
Mineralocorticoids are the corticosteroids
that act on the minerals (electrolytes),
particularly sodium and potassium.
Mineralocorticoids are:
1. Aldosterone
2. 11-deoxycorticosterone
Aldosterone is very essential for life and it
maintains the osmolarity and volume of ECF. It is
usually called life-saving hormone because, its
absence causes death within 3 days to 2 weeks.
Aldosterone has three important functions.
It increases:
1.Reabsorption of sodium from renal
tubules
2.Excretion of potassium through renal
tubules
3.Secretion of hydrogen into renal tubules
Aldosterone secretion is regulated by four
important factors, which are given below in the
order of their potency:
1.Increase in potassium ion (K+) concentration
in ECF
2.Decrease in sodium ion (Na+) concentration
in ECF
3.Decrease in ECF volume
4.Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
 Increase in the concentration of potassium
ions is the most effective stimulant for
aldosterone secretion.
 Decrease in sodium ion concentration and ECF
volume stimulates aldosterone secretion
through renin-angiotensin mechanism. This
leads to increase in the sodium ion
concentration and ECF volume.
 Now, the increased sodium ion concentration
and the ECF volume inhibit the juxtaglomerular
apparatus and stop the release of renin. So,
angiotensin II is not formed and release of
aldosterone from adrenal cortex is stopped.
GLUCOCORTICOIDS
Glucocorticoids act mainly on glucose
metabolism.
Glucocorticoids are:
1. Cortisol
2. Corticosterone
3. Cortisone
Cortisol or (Hydrocortisone) is the main
glucocorticoid but small amount of
corticosterone and cortisone are also
produced.
 Like aldosterone, cortisol is also essential for
life but in a different way. Aldosterone is a
life-saving hormone, whereas cortisol is a life-
protecting hormone because, it helps to
withstand the stress and trauma in life.
 Removal of adrenal glands in human beings
and animals causes disturbances of
metabolism. Exposure to even mild harmful
stress after adrenalectomy, leads to collapse
and death.
Effects of Glucocorticoids
 Hyperglycemia (Gluconeogenesis, Decreased
glucose uptake by peripheral cells)
 Lipolysis (mobilize fats and make the fatty
acids available for utilization, by which energy
is liberated. Hypersecretion of glucocorticoids
causes an abnormal type of obesity by
increasing the deposition of fat in certain
areas such as abdomen and face)
 Stimulate protein breakdown (Increase
plasma amimo acid level, decrease cellular
protein, increase liver protein content)
 Promote sodium and water retention
 Osteoporosis (Glucocorticoids stimulate the
bone resorption (osteoclastic activity) and
inhibit bone formation and mineralization
(osteoblastic activity).
 Muscle weakness (protein catabolism)
 Glucocorticoids decrease the number of
circulating eosinophils by increasing the
destruction of eosinophils in
reticuloendothelial cells. These hormones also
decrease the number of basophils and
lymphocytes.
 Resistance to stress
 Anti-inflammatory, Antiallergic and
immunosupressive effects
Androgens
Adrenal cortex secretes mainly the androgens,
But small quantity of estrogen and
progesterone are also secreted by adrenal
cortex.
Androgens secreted by adrenal cortex:
1. Dehydroepiandrosterone
2. Androstenedione
3. Testosterone
1. Cortisone and hydrocortisone, which are used
for replacement therapy have both
glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid effects
2. Prednisolone has more glucocorticoid
activity than mineralocorticoid activity
3. Fludrocortisone (9-fluorocortisol) has more
mineralocorticoid activity than glucocorticoid
activity. It has most potent mineralocorticoid
effect.
4. Dexamethasone has only glucocorticoid
effect.
SYNTHETIC STEROIDS
CUSHING SYNDROME
 It is also a rare disease characterized by
obesity.
 Cushing disease develops by adenoma of
Adrenal gland. It increases the secretion of
adrenocorticotropic hormone, which in turn
stimulates the adrenal cortex to release
cortisol.
 Cushing disease also develops by hyperplasia
or tumor of adrenal cortex.
Addison Disease
Addison disease is the failure of adrenal cortex
to secrete corticosteroids.
Adrenal crisis is a common symptom of Addison
disease, characterized by sudden collapse
associated with an increase in need for large
quantities of glucocorticoids. The condition
becomes fatal if not treated in time.
ADRENAL MEDULLA
The medulla is completely surrounded by the
adrenal cortex.
Adrenal medullary hormones are the amines
derived from catechol and so these hormones
are called catecholamines.
When stimulated by extensive sympathetic
nerve supply, the gland releases:
 Adrenaline/ Epinephrine
 Nor-adrenaline/ Nor-epinephrine
SYNTHESIS OF CATECHOLAMINES
1. Formation of tyrosine from phenylalanine in
the presence of enzyme phenylalanine
hydroxylase
2. Uptake of tyrosine from blood into the
chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla by
active transport
3. Conversion of tyrosine into
dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) by
hydroxylation in the presence of tyrosine
hydroxylase
4. Decarboxylation of DOPA into dopamine by
DOPA decarboxylase
5. Entry of dopamine into granules of chromaffin
cells
6. Hydroxylation of dopamine into noradrenaline
by the enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase
7. Release of noradrenaline from granules into
the cytoplasm
8. Methylation of noradrenaline into adrenaline
by the most important enzyme called
phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
(PNMT). PNMT is present in chromaffin cells.
Fight or Flight Response
 Increase heart rate
 Increase blood pressure
 Vasoconstriction in Blood vessels
 Increase metabolism
 Dilate pupil/ Mydriasis
 Bronchodilation
 Vasodilation in skeletal muscles
 Increase brain activity
Other Hormones of Ant. Pituitary
1. Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)
In males, FSH acts along with testosterone and
accelerates the process of spermiogenesis. In
females, FSH promotes the aromatase activity in
granulosa cells, resulting in conversion of
androgens into estrogen.
2. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
In males, This hormone is essential for the
secretion of testosterone. In females, Induces
synthesis of androgens from the cells of growing
follicle and is responsible for ovulation
3. Prolactin
Prolactin is necessary for the preparation of
mammary glands for the production and secretion
of milk.
Endocrine Functions of Other Organs
LOCAL HORMONES
Classification of Local Hormones
Local hormones are classified into two types:
I. Hormones synthesized in tissues
II. Hormones synthesized in blood.
LOCAL HORMONES SYNTHESIZED IN TISSUES
Local hormones synthesized in the tissues are:
1. Prostaglandins and related substances
2. Other local hormones synthesized in tissues.
(Acetylcholine, Serotonin, Histamine, Substance P,
Heparin, Leptin, Gastrointestinal hormones).
LOCAL HORMONES SYNTHESIZED IN BLOOD
1. Kinins
ACETYL CHOLINE
Acetylcholine is the cholinergic
neurotransmitter. It is the transmitter
substance at neuromuscular junction. It is also
secreted by other nerve endings and other
cells and control parasympathetic system
(Rest and Digest).
Acetylcholine:
i. Produces excitatory function of synapse by
opening the sodium channels
ii. Activates smooth muscles in GI tract,
urinary tract and skeletal muscles
iii. Inhibits cardiac function
iv. Causes vasodilatation.
SEROTONIN
Serotonin is otherwise known as 5-
hydroxytryptamine (5-HT).
HAPPY HORMONE
Serotonin:
i. Inhibits impulses of pain sensation in
posterior gray horn of spinal cord
ii. Causes mood elevation and induces
sleep
iii. Causes vasoconstriction.
Histamine
i. It is an excitatory neurotransmitter
substance
ii. Histamine released from tissues causes
vasodilatation and enhances the capillary
permeability for fluid and plasma proteins from
blood into the affected tissues. So, the
accumulation of fluid with proteins develops
local edema
iii. In GI tract, histamine increases the motility.
KININS
Kinins are biologically active protein hormones
which are circulating in blood.
Kinins:
 Dilates the blood vessels and decreases the
blood pressure. It is considered as a potent
vasodilator
 Increases the blood flow throughout the body
by its vasodilator action
 Increases permeability of capillaries during
inflammatory conditions, resulting in edema
in the affected area
 Stimulates pain receptors
Thank You

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Endocrine Physiology.pptx

  • 2. PANCREATIC ISLETS The endocrine pancreas consists of cluster of cells, known as islets (islets of Langerhans), scattered throughout the gland. Pancreatic hormones are secreted directly into the blood stream and circulate throughout the body.
  • 3. CELLS TYPES There are 3 main types of cells in islets: Alpha cells – secrete Glucagon Beta cells – secrete insulin Delta cells – secrete somatostatin (IH)
  • 4. INSULIN Insulin main function is to lower raised blood nutrients levels, not only glucose but also amino acids and fatty acids. Major actions are:  Acting on cell membrane and stimulating uptake of glucose by muscle and connective tissues  Increase conversion of glucose to glycogen  Synthesize protein  Promote fatty acid synthesis and fat storage in adipose tissue  Decrease glycogen breakdown into glucose
  • 5. GLUCAGON Glucagon increases blood glucose levels by stimulating: Conversion of glycogen to glucose
  • 6. SOMATOSTATIN This hormone is produced by hypothalamus and islets cells, inhibits the secretion of insulin and glucagon in addition to inhibiting the secretion of GH from anterior pituitary.
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  • 8. DIABETES MELLITUS The most common endocrine disorder.  Primary DM (TYPE 1 and TYPE 2)  Secondary DM  Gestational DM
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  • 16. Adrenal Gland  Adrenal glands are called the ‘life-saving glands’ or ‘essential endocrine glands’.  It is because the absence of adrenocortical hormones causes death within 3 to 15 days and absence of adrenomedullary hormones, drastically decreases the resistance to mental and physical stress.
  • 17. PARTS OF ADRENAL GLAND Adrenal gland is made of two distinct parts: 1. Adrenal cortex: Outer portion, constituting 80% of the gland 2. Adrenal medulla: Central portion, constituting 20% of the gland.
  • 18. ADRENAL CORTEX Adrenal cortex produces three groups of steroids hormones from cholesterol. They are collectively called adrenocorticoids.  Mineralocorticoids  Glucocorticoids  Androgens/ Sex hormones
  • 19. MINERALOCORTICOID Mineralocorticoids are the corticosteroids that act on the minerals (electrolytes), particularly sodium and potassium. Mineralocorticoids are: 1. Aldosterone 2. 11-deoxycorticosterone Aldosterone is very essential for life and it maintains the osmolarity and volume of ECF. It is usually called life-saving hormone because, its absence causes death within 3 days to 2 weeks.
  • 20. Aldosterone has three important functions. It increases: 1.Reabsorption of sodium from renal tubules 2.Excretion of potassium through renal tubules 3.Secretion of hydrogen into renal tubules
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  • 24. Aldosterone secretion is regulated by four important factors, which are given below in the order of their potency: 1.Increase in potassium ion (K+) concentration in ECF 2.Decrease in sodium ion (Na+) concentration in ECF 3.Decrease in ECF volume 4.Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  • 25.  Increase in the concentration of potassium ions is the most effective stimulant for aldosterone secretion.  Decrease in sodium ion concentration and ECF volume stimulates aldosterone secretion through renin-angiotensin mechanism. This leads to increase in the sodium ion concentration and ECF volume.  Now, the increased sodium ion concentration and the ECF volume inhibit the juxtaglomerular apparatus and stop the release of renin. So, angiotensin II is not formed and release of aldosterone from adrenal cortex is stopped.
  • 26. GLUCOCORTICOIDS Glucocorticoids act mainly on glucose metabolism. Glucocorticoids are: 1. Cortisol 2. Corticosterone 3. Cortisone Cortisol or (Hydrocortisone) is the main glucocorticoid but small amount of corticosterone and cortisone are also produced.
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  • 28.  Like aldosterone, cortisol is also essential for life but in a different way. Aldosterone is a life-saving hormone, whereas cortisol is a life- protecting hormone because, it helps to withstand the stress and trauma in life.  Removal of adrenal glands in human beings and animals causes disturbances of metabolism. Exposure to even mild harmful stress after adrenalectomy, leads to collapse and death.
  • 29. Effects of Glucocorticoids  Hyperglycemia (Gluconeogenesis, Decreased glucose uptake by peripheral cells)  Lipolysis (mobilize fats and make the fatty acids available for utilization, by which energy is liberated. Hypersecretion of glucocorticoids causes an abnormal type of obesity by increasing the deposition of fat in certain areas such as abdomen and face)  Stimulate protein breakdown (Increase plasma amimo acid level, decrease cellular protein, increase liver protein content)  Promote sodium and water retention
  • 30.  Osteoporosis (Glucocorticoids stimulate the bone resorption (osteoclastic activity) and inhibit bone formation and mineralization (osteoblastic activity).  Muscle weakness (protein catabolism)  Glucocorticoids decrease the number of circulating eosinophils by increasing the destruction of eosinophils in reticuloendothelial cells. These hormones also decrease the number of basophils and lymphocytes.  Resistance to stress  Anti-inflammatory, Antiallergic and immunosupressive effects
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  • 32. Androgens Adrenal cortex secretes mainly the androgens, But small quantity of estrogen and progesterone are also secreted by adrenal cortex. Androgens secreted by adrenal cortex: 1. Dehydroepiandrosterone 2. Androstenedione 3. Testosterone
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  • 34. 1. Cortisone and hydrocortisone, which are used for replacement therapy have both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid effects 2. Prednisolone has more glucocorticoid activity than mineralocorticoid activity 3. Fludrocortisone (9-fluorocortisol) has more mineralocorticoid activity than glucocorticoid activity. It has most potent mineralocorticoid effect. 4. Dexamethasone has only glucocorticoid effect. SYNTHETIC STEROIDS
  • 35. CUSHING SYNDROME  It is also a rare disease characterized by obesity.  Cushing disease develops by adenoma of Adrenal gland. It increases the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone, which in turn stimulates the adrenal cortex to release cortisol.  Cushing disease also develops by hyperplasia or tumor of adrenal cortex.
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  • 37. Addison Disease Addison disease is the failure of adrenal cortex to secrete corticosteroids. Adrenal crisis is a common symptom of Addison disease, characterized by sudden collapse associated with an increase in need for large quantities of glucocorticoids. The condition becomes fatal if not treated in time.
  • 38. ADRENAL MEDULLA The medulla is completely surrounded by the adrenal cortex. Adrenal medullary hormones are the amines derived from catechol and so these hormones are called catecholamines. When stimulated by extensive sympathetic nerve supply, the gland releases:  Adrenaline/ Epinephrine  Nor-adrenaline/ Nor-epinephrine
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  • 41. SYNTHESIS OF CATECHOLAMINES 1. Formation of tyrosine from phenylalanine in the presence of enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase 2. Uptake of tyrosine from blood into the chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla by active transport 3. Conversion of tyrosine into dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) by hydroxylation in the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase
  • 42. 4. Decarboxylation of DOPA into dopamine by DOPA decarboxylase 5. Entry of dopamine into granules of chromaffin cells 6. Hydroxylation of dopamine into noradrenaline by the enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase 7. Release of noradrenaline from granules into the cytoplasm 8. Methylation of noradrenaline into adrenaline by the most important enzyme called phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT). PNMT is present in chromaffin cells.
  • 43. Fight or Flight Response  Increase heart rate  Increase blood pressure  Vasoconstriction in Blood vessels  Increase metabolism  Dilate pupil/ Mydriasis  Bronchodilation  Vasodilation in skeletal muscles  Increase brain activity
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  • 45. Other Hormones of Ant. Pituitary 1. Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH) In males, FSH acts along with testosterone and accelerates the process of spermiogenesis. In females, FSH promotes the aromatase activity in granulosa cells, resulting in conversion of androgens into estrogen. 2. Luteinizing Hormone (LH) In males, This hormone is essential for the secretion of testosterone. In females, Induces synthesis of androgens from the cells of growing follicle and is responsible for ovulation 3. Prolactin Prolactin is necessary for the preparation of mammary glands for the production and secretion of milk.
  • 46. Endocrine Functions of Other Organs
  • 47. LOCAL HORMONES Classification of Local Hormones Local hormones are classified into two types: I. Hormones synthesized in tissues II. Hormones synthesized in blood. LOCAL HORMONES SYNTHESIZED IN TISSUES Local hormones synthesized in the tissues are: 1. Prostaglandins and related substances 2. Other local hormones synthesized in tissues. (Acetylcholine, Serotonin, Histamine, Substance P, Heparin, Leptin, Gastrointestinal hormones). LOCAL HORMONES SYNTHESIZED IN BLOOD 1. Kinins
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  • 49. ACETYL CHOLINE Acetylcholine is the cholinergic neurotransmitter. It is the transmitter substance at neuromuscular junction. It is also secreted by other nerve endings and other cells and control parasympathetic system (Rest and Digest). Acetylcholine: i. Produces excitatory function of synapse by opening the sodium channels ii. Activates smooth muscles in GI tract, urinary tract and skeletal muscles iii. Inhibits cardiac function iv. Causes vasodilatation.
  • 50. SEROTONIN Serotonin is otherwise known as 5- hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). HAPPY HORMONE Serotonin: i. Inhibits impulses of pain sensation in posterior gray horn of spinal cord ii. Causes mood elevation and induces sleep iii. Causes vasoconstriction.
  • 51. Histamine i. It is an excitatory neurotransmitter substance ii. Histamine released from tissues causes vasodilatation and enhances the capillary permeability for fluid and plasma proteins from blood into the affected tissues. So, the accumulation of fluid with proteins develops local edema iii. In GI tract, histamine increases the motility.
  • 52. KININS Kinins are biologically active protein hormones which are circulating in blood. Kinins:  Dilates the blood vessels and decreases the blood pressure. It is considered as a potent vasodilator  Increases the blood flow throughout the body by its vasodilator action  Increases permeability of capillaries during inflammatory conditions, resulting in edema in the affected area  Stimulates pain receptors