Location it is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, theIndian Ocean to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on the continent, and its terrain consists mainly of plateaus , plains and highlands.Hot conditions prevail year- round, along with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall.
History• British, Italian and French imperialism all played an active role in the region in the 19th century. In 1884 the European powers conference in Berlin, they decided to divide Somalia in to five parts. The reason is that because the Somalis are one of the most homogeneous nations in the world with one language, religion and race.• The colonial powers divided Somalia in to British Somaliland in the north, Italian Somalia in south, French Somali coast in Djibouti, Ogaden in west and NFD. In early 19th century a Somali resistance against these colonial powers started, one of the strongest resistance was led by Sayed Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, which British empire gave the name of Mad Mullah. He began his opposition after his returning from Mecca and established his own army, which he called them The Dervishes recruiting from the local people and built his own headquarter in Taleex. In 1901 the fighting started between British and local Somali forces and it was a beginning in a long fighting that resulted the Somali independence.
Information Capital city: Mogadishu Currency: somali chillings Area :637,657 km2 President : Hassan Sheikh Mohamud Prime minister: Abdi Farah Shirdon
Food Somali meals are meat driven, and sometimes chicken is fried in ghee, or grilled or broiled. It is spiced with turmeric, coriander, cumin and curry and eaten with basmati rice for lunch, dinner and sometimes breakfast vegetarianism is relatively rare). Goat, beef, lamb
Dress Men wear western pants or a flowing plaid maawis (kilt} western shirts, and shawls. On their heads they may wrap a colorful turban or wear a koofiyad (embroidered cap). Women Women usually wear one of the following dress: Direh, a long, billowing dress worn over petticoats. Coantino, a four-yard cloth tied over shoulder and draped around the waist. Toob, commonly worn throughout Africa Hijab, and head scarfs are very common
Trade• Somalias major exports consisted of agricultural raw materials and food products. Livestock was the principal export, with sheep and goats representing the leading categories, followed by cattle and camels. Banana exports rose sharply in the 1980s and by 1986 occupied second place, followed in descending order by hides and skins, fish and fish products, and myrrh
Land marks Jubba river and valley Laas Gaal Cave Paintings Naaso-Hablood Shebelle River The Shanghai Old City The Sinbusi Beach