Development of value and attitude                 DEVELOPMENT OF VALUE AND ATTITUDEName              : Rahmawati Theofani ...
Development of value and attitude                                            ABSTRACTLately, teens become phenomenal to be...
Development of value and attitude                                       INTRODUCTIONAdolescence is a period which is impor...
Development of value and attitude                                       THEORY REVIEWIn the Indonesian dictionary, the val...
Development of value and attitudetechniques and instruments for measuring human behavior. Some types of attitude scaleshav...
Development of value and attitude                                          DISCUSSIONDevelopment of Moral Values and Attit...
Development of value and attitude     negative when the bond between them became so strong that their conduct be     "over...
Development of value and attitude    developmental level of thinking in making moral judgments, from a lower level to a   ...
Development of value and attitude     as religion, society, and so on. Therefore, for the adherents of this approach is th...
Development of value and attitude     responsibility. Children must not only listen but also be stimulated to be more acti...
Development of value and attitude4.   Environmental Society         Society itself also has a critical influence on moral ...
Development of value and attitudemanage the dynamics of personality between the id and superego, so that his actions in tu...
Development of value and attitude                                CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONSConclusion     Values, morals,...
Development of value and attitude                                       REFERENCESJ. P. Chaplin . Dictionary of psychology...
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Contextual Teaching and Learning

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Contextual Teaching and Learning

  1. 1. Development of value and attitude DEVELOPMENT OF VALUE AND ATTITUDEName : Rahmawati Theofani DiamantiSPN : 09 312 405Major : Physical EducationClass : PGSBITitle : Development of Value and AttitudeE-mail Address : fanydiamanti@yahoo.com 1 The Development of Learners Rahmawati Theofani Diamanti
  2. 2. Development of value and attitude ABSTRACTLately, teens become phenomenal to be studied and researched by many, especially inmatters of morals and behavior, there are differences in morals and attitudes held byadolescents in the present with the juvenile in the first, is what makes the reasons whyteenagers become the object of a phenomenal to research and assess. Teenagers in the firstperiod to put forward the moral and attitude compared to the ego (desire), so it appears in thepattern of its actions in a mix of modesty, respect for older people, has a soft speech andother. But instead, adolescents in the present to put forward his ego than the moral values andattitudes, so that appears is the bossy attitude, do not want to be blamed though in a state ofguilt and did not want to respect others.The occurrence of differences in patterns of adolescent attitudes and patterns follow thepresent with the past adolescence can not be separated from the influence of globalization.Ronald Robertson, said in Globalization, Social Theory and Global Culture, that globalizationis a characteristic relationship between the inhabitants of this earth is beyond theconventional boundaries, such as state and nation. With this there is no barrier that can beused as a boundary by a country with so it will happen acculturation (cultural mixing)between the Western culture with the culture of Indonesia which has a difference infundamental. West is more to understand liberalism (freedom), they uphold freedom,including freedom of expressing life, while Indonesia is more hold firmly to the values orreligious norms, which is believed to be hold on life. Fatal were teenagers at the present timewe are not able to filter (filter) Western cultures that can ruin their lives, all of our adoptionof Western culture as a value or norm in the conduct of life. 2 The Development of Learners Rahmawati Theofani Diamanti
  3. 3. Development of value and attitude INTRODUCTIONAdolescence is a period which is important because normally at this time someone is alwaystrying to find identity, time to break away from the parent environment. Obviously the valuesin life is indispensable as a guide, grip or direction in finding ways to cultivate her identity.Certainly the attitude of adolescents should be in conformity with the values and morals sothat certain behavior will manifest in a moral and everything he does in tune with the realitiesthat exist in the world around him. But its not necessarily well established. Sometimes anindividual who at the time doing a disgraceful deed because he did not know that it was adisgraceful act, or not in accordance with the norms that exist in society.Our duty to improve the attitudes and patterns follow the pattern of our teens, the study of"the development of moral values and attitudes in adolescence" becomes very important, as afirst step to creating a change in adolescents, by giving insight into the development of valuemorals and attitudes in adolescence. That way we will examine is, How does the developmentof moral values and attitudes in adolescence? And how youth can implement developmentalstages of moral values and attitude?To that end, this paper will discuss about the development of values, morals and attitudes ofadolescents. Because of the moral value of actions is not always the case with a positiverelationship, given the level of emotion in the teenage years are still very unstable. Therefore,the role of parents, teachers, friends and environment greatly affect. 3 The Development of Learners Rahmawati Theofani Diamanti
  4. 4. Development of value and attitude THEORY REVIEWIn the Indonesian dictionary, the value is the price, the rate intelligence. According toSpranger, value is defined as an order which is used as a guide by individuals to weigh andchoose alternative decisions in certain social situations. Value is something that enablesindividuals or social groups to make decisions about what is needed or as something to beachieved. In developmental psychology learners book by Prof Sinolungan said the value isbelieved to be a truth, trust and perceived usefulness, and is manifested in attitude orbehavior.Thus, the normative value, a necessity which demands manifested in behavior, such as thevalue of modesty and simplicity. For example, someone who is always being polite willalways try to keep the said words and attitudes so as to distinguish the actions of good andbad.In other words, the values need to be known in advance, then lived and driven by moral, thenit will form a specific attitude towards those values.Fishbein (1975) defines emotional attitude is a learned predisposition to respond consistentlyto an object. Attitude is the underlying latent variable, direct and influence behavior. Attitudeis not identical to the response in the form of behavior, can not be observed directly but canbe inferred from observable behavior consistency. Operationally, the attitude can beexpressed in words or actions that are a response reaction of his attitude toward the object,whether it be people, events, or situations.According to Chaplin (1981) in Dictionary of Psychology equate attitudes with theestablishment. Chaplin confirmed that the source of that attitude is cultural, familiar, andpersonal. That is, we tend to assume that the attitudes that would apply in a particular culture,as the individual was raised. So, there is a kind of collective (collective attitude) whichbecame stereotyped attitudes of certain cultural groups. Most of the attitude that lasted fromgeneration to generation within the family structure. However, some of the behavior ofindividuals is also growing as an adult based on the individuals own experience.Attitude is one aspect of individual psychology is very important because the attitude is atendency to behave so will a lot of coloring ones behavior. The attitude of every person isdifferent or varied, both the quality and type so that the behavior of individuals to be varied.Importance of attitudes in the lives of individuals, encourage psychologists to develop 4 The Development of Learners Rahmawati Theofani Diamanti
  5. 5. Development of value and attitudetechniques and instruments for measuring human behavior. Some types of attitude scaleshave been developed to measure attitudes of individuals, groups, and to measure the mass ofpublic opinion as the basis for the interpretation and assessment of attitudes.Stephen R. Covey presents three theories of determinism is widely accepted, eitherindividually or in combination, to explain human behavior, namely:a. Genetic determinism (genetic determinism): the view that individual attitudes revealed by the attitude of his grandparents. That is why, one has the attitude and nature of such attitudes and the nature of his ancestors.b. Psychic determinism (psychic determinism): the view that the attitude of individuals is the result of fate, parenting, or parental education provided to children.c. Environmental determinism (environmental determinism): the view that the development of a persons attitude is strongly influenced by the individuals living environment and how to treat the individuals environment. How does your boss / leader treated us, how we treat our couple, economic situation, or the policies of government, all shaped the development of individual attitudes. 5 The Development of Learners Rahmawati Theofani Diamanti
  6. 6. Development of value and attitude DISCUSSIONDevelopment of Moral Values and Attitudes According Danel Susanto, growth or development in adolescence is usuallycharacterized by several changes, as below:1. Physical changes Occur during adolescence that rapid physical growth and sexual maturation process. Some of the glands that regulate the function of sexuality in this period has started to mature and function. Besides, secondary sexual signs also began to appear on adolescent self.2. Changes in intellect According to cognitive development made by Jean Piaget, a teenager has shifted from the concrete-operational to formal-operational period. During the concrete-operational, one is able to think systematically to things or objects that are concrete, while at the formal operational thought he was capable of a systematic way to things that are abstract and hypothetical. In adolescence, one also has to think critically.3. Emotional changes In general, teenagers are emotional. His emotions became unstable. According to the traditional flow of which was pioneered by G. Stanley Hall, the change is mainly caused by changes that occur in the glands hormonal. However, further scientific studies refute this. For example, Elizabeth B. Hurlock stated that the influence of social environment on emotional changes during adolescence greater meaning when compared to hormonal influences.4. Social change In adolescence, a person enters a new social status. He is considered no longer a child. Because of the physical changes of adolescence occur very rapidly so as to resemble an adult, then a teenager too often expected to act and behave like adults. In adolescence, a person tends to merge themselves in the peer group. Social group which recently is a safe place for teens. The influence of this group for their lives are also very strong, and often exceeds the influence of the family. According to Y Singgih and D Gunarsah, a group of teenagers are positive in terms of providing ample opportunity for teens to train the way they behave, behave and conduct of social relations. But this group also can be 6 The Development of Learners Rahmawati Theofani Diamanti
  7. 7. Development of value and attitude negative when the bond between them became so strong that their conduct be "overreacting" and channeled their energy into destructive purposes.5. Changes in moral In adolescence there is a change of control of moral behavior: from the outside to the inside. At this time there are also changes of particular moral concepts into a general moral principle in adolescents. Therefore, in this period can be expected of a teenager has to have moral values that can underlie moral behavior. However, in adolescence, a person is also experiencing shakiness of moral behavior. It can be said to be fair, so far this shakiness morality not deviate from the prevailing, not so harmful to society, and not sustained after adolescence ends.Approaches In The Value Of EducationThere are five approaches in the cultivation of values which are:1. Planting approaches the value (inculcation approach),2. Cognitive moral development approach (cognitive moral development approach),3. Value analysis approach (values analysis approach),4. Values clarification approach (values clarification approach), and5. Learning approach to doing (action learning approach) (Superka, et al.. 1976).1) Value Investment Approach Planting approaches the value (inculcation approach) is an approach that gives emphasis on the cultivation of social values in students. This approach is actually a traditional approach. A lot of criticism in Western literature devoted to this approach. This approach is seen not in accordance with the development of democratic life (Banks, 1985; Windmiller, 1976). This approach ignores the rights of children assessed to freely choose their own value. According to Raths et al. (1978) human life is different because of differences in time and place. We can not predict the appropriate value for generations to come. According to him, every generation has the right to determine their own value. Therefore, the need to be taught to young people rather than value, but a process, so that they can find their own values, according to the place and his time.2) Cognitive Development Approach This approach encourages students to think actively about moral issues and in making moral decisions. Moral development according to this approach is viewed as a 7 The Development of Learners Rahmawati Theofani Diamanti
  8. 8. Development of value and attitude developmental level of thinking in making moral judgments, from a lower level to a higher level (Elias, 1989). Objectives to be achieved by this approach there are two main things. First, it helps students in making a more complex moral reasoning based on higher values. Secondly, encouraging students to discuss the reasons when choosing the value and its position within a moral issue (Superka, et al.., 1976; Banks, 1985). Cognitive developmental approach was first suggested by Dewey (Kohlberg 1971, 1977). Then further developed by Peaget and Kohlberg (Freankel, 1977; Hersh, et al.. 1980). Deweys moral development of children divided into three stages (levels) as follows: i. Phase "pre moral" or "pre conventional". In this stage a persons behavior is driven by the insistence that physical or social nature; ii. Phase "conventional". In this stage one begins to accept the value with little critical, according to the criteria of the group. iii. Phase "autonomous". In this stage the person acts or behaves in accordance with reason and consideration of his own mind, do not fully accept the groups criteria. Piaget tried to define the level of moral development in children through observation and interviews (Windmiller, 1976). From the observation of children when playing, and their answer to the question why they were obedient to the rules, Piaget came to the conclusion that the development of cognitive abilities in children affect their moral judgments3) Value Analysis Approach Value analysis approach (values analysis approach) gives emphasis to the development of students ability to think logically, by analyzing the problems associated with social values. When compared with the cognitive developmental approach, one important difference between the two that the value analysis approach is more emphasis on discussion of issues that include social values. The cognitive development approach emphasizes the individual nature of moral dilemmas.4) Values Clarification Approach Values clarification approach (values clarification approach) put an emphasis on efforts to assist students in assessing their own feelings and actions, to increase their awareness about their own values. This approach emphasizes the value actually owned by someone. For adherents of this approach, values are subjective, determined by the individual based on his own experience a variety of backgrounds, not determined by external factors, such 8 The Development of Learners Rahmawati Theofani Diamanti
  9. 9. Development of value and attitude as religion, society, and so on. Therefore, for the adherents of this approach is the content value does not really matter. It is highly overlooked in the education program is to develop students skills in assessing process.5) Doing Learning Approach Learning approach to doing (action learning approach) gives emphasis on giving students the chance to perform moral deeds, both individually and together in a group. According to Elias (1989), although this approach also sought to improve the skills of "moral reasoning" and affective dimensions, but the most important goal is to provide instruction to students, so they are capable to influence public policy as citizens in a democratic society.Individual Differences In The Development Of Moral Values And AttitudesEvery individual has a difference in addressing the values, morals and attitudes, depending onwhere the individual is located. In children there is a presumption that the rules are definiteand absolute therefore given by an adult or a God that can not be changed anymore(Kohlberg, 1963). While the kids are older, they can negotiate the rules if everyone agrees.In some teenagers and adults who obstructed his reasoning, they are simply guidelines toavoid punishment. As for the second level of understanding that already exists to meet theneeds of a persons own interests must also think about other people. Individual differencescan also be seen on the background of his culture. So, there may exist individually orteenagers who do not achieve the development of values, morals and attitudes and behaviorthat is expected to him.Development Effort Values, Morals And Attitudes TeensEmbodiment of values, morals, and attitudes do not happen by itself. Not all individualsachieve the development of life values, development moral and behavior as expected. As forthe efforts that can be done in developing the values, morals and attitudes of adolescents arethe following:a. Creating communication. In a communication preceded by the provision of information about values and morals. Not only provide an evaluation, but also stimulates the child to be more active in several conversations and decision making. In the family, friendship, as well as organizations or groups. While schools such children are given the opportunity to work or discussion groups. So that children actively participate in decision-making and 9 The Development of Learners Rahmawati Theofani Diamanti
  10. 10. Development of value and attitude responsibility. Children must not only listen but also be stimulated to be more active. For example to include it in decision-making in families and assigning responsibility in a group of peers. Because the values of life are learned then really grow when they have been associated in the context of life together.b. Create a climate of harmonious environments. Someone who learned the value of certain life, and morals and then managed to have the attitude and behavior as a reflection of the value of life is generally the person who lived in the neighborhood in a positive, honest and consistent in behavior that is a reflection of the value of life. For teens, the moral is a separate requirement because theyre in need of some guidance or direction in order to find its own way. These guidelines to foster self-identity, a mature personality and avoid conflicts that always happened in this era. Religious values need attention, because religion is also good to set bad behavior. So it can be said that an environment that is more invites, invite, or a member an opportunity to be more effective than an environment characterized by the presence of the prohibitions that are completely restrictive.Factors Affecting The Values, Morals And Attitudes1. Family environment Family as the first environment that influence the development of values, morals and attitudes of a person. Usually a persons behavior comes from the teachings of his parents built. People who do not have a harmonious relationship with their parents in childhood, most likely they are not able to develop so that they are biased their super ego be people who are often in violation of norms.2. School Environment At school, children learn the values prevailing norms in society so that they can also determine where the action is good and donts. Of course, with the guidance of teachers. Children tend to make the teacher as a model of deportment, therefore a teacher must have good moral.3. Environmental Relationships In personality development, social environment factors also affect the values, morals and attitudes of a person. In adolescence, usually someone always wanted to try something new. And there is always a bad taste when friends reject the invitation. In fact, sometimes a friend can also be used as a role model for him. 10 The Development of Learners Rahmawati Theofani Diamanti
  11. 11. Development of value and attitude4. Environmental Society Society itself also has a critical influence on moral formation. Controlled behavior is caused by the presence of control of the community itself which has its own sanctions for offenders-offenders.Relations Between Values, Morals, And Attitudes Value is a basic consideration for the individual to something, the moral is a behaviorthat should be done or avoided, while the attitude is position predict or the tendency ofindividuals to respond to an object or set of objects as embodiment of the system of valuesand morals in him. Value systems lead to the formation of certain moral values which in turnwill determine the attitudes of individuals in connection with the object of moral values andsuch. With value system of the individual will determine which behavior should be done andwho should be avoided, this will appear in the attitudes and actual behavior as a manifestationof the value system and its underlying moral. For Sigmund Freud (Gerald Corey, 1989), which has been explained through the theoryof psychoanalysis, between the values, morals, and attitudes are one and undifferentiated. Inthe concept of Sigmund Freud, the human personality structure that consists of three, namely:1. Id or Das Es2. Ego or Das Ich3. Super Ego or Da Uber Ich.Id contains the instinctive impulse, irrational, illogical, unconscious, amoral, and naturemeets the pleasure impulse that is directed to reduce tension or anxiety and avoid pain. Theego is an executive of the personality of the commanding, controlling and managing anindividuals personality. Ego is the main tugs escort instinctual impulses with the reality ofthe world around. Superego is the source of moral personality. Superego is the moral code ofan individual whose primary job is to consider whether an act is good or bad, right or wrong.Superego attain the ideal things is not the real things, and pushing them towards perfectionrather than the direction of pleasure.In its context the relationship between values, morals, and attitude is if all three are united inthe superego and someone who has been able to develop their super ego with good, hisattitude will likely be based on noble values and a certain moral rules that will manifest inmoral behavior. This can happen because the superego is already well developed to controlthe instinctive impulses of the id which aims to meet the pleasure and satisfaction.Development of the superego with the good, will also encourage developing ego strength to 11 The Development of Learners Rahmawati Theofani Diamanti
  12. 12. Development of value and attitudemanage the dynamics of personality between the id and superego, so that his actions in tunewith the reality of the world around him. 12 The Development of Learners Rahmawati Theofani Diamanti
  13. 13. Development of value and attitude CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONSConclusion Values, morals, and attitudes are a unity. Value is a basic consideration for the individual to do something, Moral is a behavior that should be done or avoided, and the attitude is the tendency of individuals to respond to an object as an embodiment of the system of values and morals. Development Effort Values, Morals, and Attitudes Starting from a family The school environment ex: moral discussions (to stimulate cognitive development) Peer Group In Kohlbergs research says that children who have the participation of a wider peer group moral development will be faster.SuggestionAs for suggestions that can we say, after we evaluated the development of moral values andattitudes in adolescence are:1. Parents in the home must be responsible for their children education moral2. Teachers in schools is also responsible for educating their students moral, not just smart in science but must smart act and behave in (a certain character).3. community must participate and prevent child amoral and immoral child support. Efforts development of values, morals and attitudes are expected to make a person being an individual is expected that through the creation of communication and the creation of a harmonious environment. 13 The Development of Learners Rahmawati Theofani Diamanti
  14. 14. Development of value and attitude REFERENCESJ. P. Chaplin . Dictionary of psychology. University Park Press, 1979.Prof. DR. A. E. Sinolungan, Drs., S. H. Psikologi Perkembangan Peserta Didik. GunungAgung. Manado 2000http://data.tp.ac.id/dokumen/makalah+tentang+perkembangan+nilai+moral+dan+sikaphttp://data.tp.ac.id/dokumen/perkembangan+nilai+moral+dan+sikaphttp://episentrum.com/artikel-psikologi/tugas-perkembangan-remaja/http://h4l1f.wordpress.com/2008/12/03/perkembangan-nilai-moral-dan-sikap-pada-masa-remaja/http://id.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090908202731AAYcUfQhttp://id.shvoong.com/social-sciences/education/2009921-strategi-pembelajaran-afektif-nilai-sikap/http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tahap_perkembangan_moral_Kohlberghttp://marabpisurya.blogspot.com/2010/05/perkembangan-nilai-moral-dan-sikap.htmlhttp://samancer.blogspot.com/2010/05/perkembangan-nilai-sikap-dan-moral.htmlhttp://sylvie.edublogs.org/2006/09/19/teori-perkembangan-moral/http://www.4shared.com/get/eqV1Gxg3/ppd.html 14 The Development of Learners Rahmawati Theofani Diamanti

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