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  • Learning & Behaviour Charitable Trust NZ – Hope Train presentation for Judges, Police Youth Aid, Social Workers and Probation
  • Southern Region Police

    1. 1. Learning & Behaviour Charitable Trust NZ Southern Police District Youth Services Seminar Ma Tini Ma Mano Ra Rapa Te Whai Presented by Founder Moira Buchanan May 2008 Hope Train International
    2. 2. " Government must recognise that it depends on the community to deliver the best accountability, the best restoration and the best rehabilitation; and that the community depends on government to do all that it can to make these outcomes happen. If we are talking about delivery services to young offenders, victims and their families, then it is the community that is on the front line. It is the community that has the most to lose. We must not let it ( actually ourselves ) down. " unquote Finishing statement “Working Together” Nov 2007 Principal Youth Court Judge Andrew Becroft
    3. 3. <ul><li>Causes of disruptive behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioural spirals. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to help. </li></ul><ul><li>The stress implications for adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful solutions ?? </li></ul>Outline of this Session
    4. 4. Why are there so many young offenders ? There are many reasons, but the most significant are those who do not fit within the Education system (those with neurological challenges) and are very unsure of what is expected from them in our society.
    5. 5. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Social integration (non verbal cues’) </li></ul><ul><li>Shame, no-confidence, self-esteem (very low) </li></ul><ul><li>No parent boundaries – feeling alone </li></ul><ul><li>Social environment (both home & school) a breeding ground subject to negatives, verbal, drugs, alcohol, society response ??? </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Poor performance at school, </li></ul><ul><li>Peer pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher/parent not able to create a non </li></ul><ul><li>threatening communication setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Mind forever in a whirl (hearing all) </li></ul><ul><li>Can't find their voice (not understood) </li></ul><ul><li>either a bully or bullied (consistently) </li></ul>Young person issues
    7. 7.   Frequent Mood Swings Feel emotions intensely, higher highs and lower lows, low tolerance of frustration, puberty also has a place within the way that our young behave, within all sectors, lest we forget that we have been there too !! Or, have we not been teenagers ? Or do we chose to forget.
    8. 8. Youth are very bossy, more so in recent years, they will continue to take their lead from the many adults that influence them. M any exsisting co-morbidities are often Mis-judged for bad behaviours. These signs are characteristics of many that show signs of both Attention Deficit & Learning Difficulties , and are present at a very young age. ____  Anger, Frustration, High Anxiety, Depression, mis-placed energy, neurological differences and more    
    9. 9. <ul><li>Neurological factors (neurotransmitters) </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive aspects (Co-ordination) </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom dimensions (Overload) </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives – Medical, Social and Educational (Not Enough Specialists) </li></ul><ul><li>Misperception and Issues </li></ul><ul><li>These manifest in many different ways, as many find strategies early and others just don’t know how ! </li></ul>Associated differences.
    10. 10. <ul><li>Tom West “ In the Mind’s Eye” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We” ought to begin to pay less attention to getting everyone over the same hill using the same path. We may wish to encourage some to take different routes to the same end. Then we might see good reasons for the paying careful attention to their descriptions of what they have found. </li></ul><ul><li>“ We may wish to follow them some day” </li></ul><ul><li>Pulzter Prize recipricant (1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Director of the Dyslexic & Talented </li></ul><ul><li>George Mason University, Washington </li></ul>
    11. 12. Learning difficulties in the context of Behaviour Difficulties
    12. 13. Spectrum of difficulties Dyscalculia Hyperlexia Autism Panic attack Anxiety Dyspraxia Dysgraphia Dyslexia Confused Depression, Mood swings Frustration And more Cheeky
    13. 14. <ul><li>has extremely slow pace </li></ul><ul><li>of reading. </li></ul><ul><li>is unable to skim and scan reading </li></ul><ul><li>material. </li></ul><ul><li>has high degree of distractibility </li></ul><ul><li>when reading. </li></ul><ul><li>has an intractable spelling problem. </li></ul><ul><li>has an unexpected difference between </li></ul><ul><li>oral and written expression. </li></ul>Imagine a young person who !
    14. 15. <ul><li>is disorganised, </li></ul><ul><li>finds instructions hard to remember, </li></ul><ul><li>unknowingly knocks into other </li></ul><ul><li>people or things, </li></ul><ul><li>is unable to produce legible </li></ul><ul><li>handwriting, </li></ul><ul><li>has poor self-help, listening skills </li></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>is focussed narrowly on one subject </li></ul><ul><li>is obsessed by a particular subject </li></ul><ul><li>is a very high achiever (in some subjects) </li></ul><ul><li>is awkward socially </li></ul><ul><li>prefers to be alone </li></ul><ul><li>has repetitive behaviours </li></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li>is inattentive </li></ul><ul><li>is impulsive </li></ul><ul><li>cannot anticipate what is going to </li></ul><ul><li>happen next </li></ul><ul><li>cannot evaluate progress </li></ul><ul><li>is badly organised </li></ul><ul><li>finds planning difficult </li></ul><ul><li>These are just a few obstacles that plague many of our young offenders – their strategies are well honed by early teens. </li></ul>
    17. 18. Distinctive pattern of difficulties recognised by <ul><li>Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Discrepancies </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties </li></ul>
    18. 19. <ul><li>methods of processing </li></ul><ul><li>information </li></ul><ul><li>slow rate of processing </li></ul><ul><li>learning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>learning styles </li></ul>Differences !!!
    19. 20. <ul><li>ability and performance </li></ul><ul><li>oral and written work </li></ul><ul><li>reading accuracy and listening </li></ul><ul><li>comprehension </li></ul>Discrepancies
    20. 21. <ul><li>self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>auditory aspects </li></ul><ul><li>memory </li></ul><ul><li>automaticity </li></ul><ul><li>organisation </li></ul><ul><li>visual aspects </li></ul>Difficulties
    21. 22. <ul><li>need to be aware of other </li></ul><ul><li>compounding factors. </li></ul><ul><li>need to be aware that some offenders </li></ul><ul><li>will have compensated extremely well. </li></ul><ul><li>need to consider historic background. </li></ul><ul><li>need to provide jargon-free feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>English as a second language. </li></ul>Issues that may compound
    22. 23. <ul><ul><li>Oppositional defiant disorder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Conduct disorder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Depression. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Anxiety and obsessions. </li></ul></ul>Co-existing complications
    23. 24. Poor Self Esteem lack of understanding environmental & peer Influences frustration loner withdrawn a “little odd” in behaviour patterns pedantic absorbed in a particular topic literal Behaviour Spiral difficulty with communication To name but a few_________
    24. 25. <ul><ul><li>The rumbling stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The eruption stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The recovery stage </li></ul></ul>Rage Cycle
    25. 26. rumbling stage ! Symptoms taps feet or is restless threatens bites nails tenses muscles voice changes lashes out withdraws threatens other students or adults
    26. 27. Strategies for the rumbling stage <ul><li>antiseptic bouncing </li></ul><ul><li>proximity control </li></ul><ul><li>signal interference </li></ul><ul><li>touch control </li></ul><ul><li>defusing tension </li></ul><ul><li>through humour </li></ul><ul><li>support from routine </li></ul>
    27. 28. <ul><li>home base </li></ul><ul><li>interest boosting </li></ul><ul><li>Redirecting </li></ul><ul><li>just walk – don’t talk </li></ul><ul><li>acknowledging the students difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>whole class ‘ red herring </li></ul>
    28. 29. The Rage Cycle - eruption stage Symptoms rage, meltdown, storm impulsivity emotional destructive aggressive abusive unable to verbalise or act rationally attacks internal rage, withdraws self-harms
    29. 30. Strategies for the eruption stage <ul><li>S afety first </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>peers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>student </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>teachers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Property </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A safe room to regain self control and preserve dignity </li></ul><ul><li>Assistance from other staff </li></ul>Remove students from the area Provide therapeutic restraint Staff alert Medication Parental Awareness
    30. 31. Rage Cycle - recovery stage contrite feelings sullen or withdrawn Denial: wont remember exhaustion desire for sleep blocking displacement despair Symptoms
    31. 32. <ul><li>Calming period </li></ul><ul><li>wait for self-understanding and acceptance. </li></ul><ul><li>feeling secure </li></ul><ul><li>Immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Back on task </li></ul><ul><li>Continue routine </li></ul>Strategies for the recovery stage Later Instruction Interpretation Modification Environment Acceptance - essential Belonging – a must ! Experience success (will do)
    32. 33. What is stress ? <ul><li>stress is an individual experience. Activities that are painfully stressful for some are enjoyable for others </li></ul><ul><li>stress is caused when the perceived demands placed on an individual exceed their assessment of their ability. </li></ul><ul><li>stress is an interaction between environmental factors and the individual’s perceived effectiveness </li></ul>
    33. 34. How does stress affect the young person? <ul><li>The physiological changes which affect learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increased fatigue rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discomfort, possible headaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>negative motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cycle of despair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>loss of control </li></ul></ul>
    34. 35. What can we do to reduce stress in our young people? <ul><li>develop trusting relationships where </li></ul><ul><li>the young person feels secure </li></ul><ul><li>create positive unconditional </li></ul><ul><li>relationships (mentor) </li></ul>
    35. 36. Be aware that ……. <ul><li>Young people who have behaviour difficulties may ! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have distorted concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suffer low self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have specific learning difficulties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>feel they are rejected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>feel adults are the enemy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>feel that their home life is alienated from other activities </li></ul></ul>
    36. 37. <ul><li>provide a supportive environment </li></ul><ul><li>create good communication </li></ul><ul><li>be responsive </li></ul><ul><li>start by setting small goals </li></ul><ul><li>focus on difficult tasks with specific </li></ul><ul><li>strategies for solutions </li></ul><ul><li>be aware of individual’s need </li></ul><ul><li>reward with praise ! </li></ul>What the adults can do to reduce stress
    37. 38. How the stress of the adult can escalate a crisis ! <ul><li>raising the voice –yelling </li></ul><ul><li>belittling a young person in front of others </li></ul><ul><li>pleading or bribing </li></ul><ul><li>playing the ‘big boss’ </li></ul><ul><li>Preaching </li></ul><ul><li>sarcasm </li></ul><ul><li>double standards </li></ul><ul><li>inconsistency </li></ul>
    38. 39. How can adults recognise & handle their own anger? <ul><li>Acknowledgement </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of your own triggers </li></ul><ul><li>React to the behaviour not the person </li></ul><ul><li>Leave the situation if possible </li></ul><ul><li>Share your anger and frustration with others </li></ul>
    39. 40. Create a Productive Environment <ul><li>be friendly </li></ul><ul><li>respect the young person’s opinions </li></ul><ul><li>give positive reinforcement for improvements </li></ul><ul><li>be enthusiastic with regard to tasks in hand </li></ul><ul><li>work with the young person’s strengths </li></ul><ul><li>modify activities to match the learning style and ability of the young person </li></ul><ul><li>set achievable targets </li></ul>
    40. 41. … . target success every time. Don’t under-estimate the fear of more failure…… 1
    41. 42. Top priority for everyone is to always remember that the focus is to remain on the wellness for the child/ren , encouraging the parents and grandparents to participate in all meetings, voice their concerns and also what they may see as part of a solution. We all need to acknowledge that the parents know their children better than anyone, encourage conversation, listen to understand. The cry for Help from parents is a sign not to ignore, but to help with a network of support.
    42. 43. Team-work, understanding, c ommunication and focus are essential ingredients f or a positive successful outcome. e very time….  
    43. 44. Thank you, for your time, attention and participation. We will succeed in making a positive difference in many lives, working together for the wellness of our nation’s next generation.