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Thna Nelson Article


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Thna Nelson Article

  1. 1. NORTH AMERICAN EDITION Vol 6 • Issue 1 Mar/Apr 2011BEST FOOT FORWARD thinkinghighways.comPhil Tarno on why tra cengineers shouldn’t disregardthe needs of pedestriansTHE WIRELESS WORLDThe ITS JPO’s Walt Fehr onV2V and V2I test bedsSUPPLY AND DEMANDBern Grush on paying for roaduse by measuring road use The INTELLIGENT choice Advanced transportation management • policy • strategy • technology • finance innovation • implementation • integration • interoperability
  2. 2. REAL-TIME MONITORINGAn overwhelmingsense of securityCan impediments to the territorial security problem be resolvedthrough sensor networking and data fusion? Lee J Nelson focuses onleading-edge efforts to surmount real-time challengesW hen persons or goods Tactical Information Control & Their modular architecture sustains a transit a border or Surveillance System, TACTICS, was to rich repertoire of data sources, tailored to perimeter, “territorial combine multi-modality event-monitoring assess a given environment. security” deals with with rapid threat evaluation for triggering To provide desired transportability, their detection, mass notification alerts; applicable from through their collaboration with GEan apposite response and potential small, streamlined schemes to large, Intelligent Platforms (Charlottesville,interdiction in the event of unauthorized ultra-secure facilities. Apparently, the Virginia, US), Larus Technologies isactivity. Protecting strategically important concept was before its time as Telephonics able to equip stationary and relocatableareas, such as international crossings, Corporation was unable to obtain funding platforms with payloads that collect audio,transportation and critical resources, to further TACTICS. visual, radar and GPS (Global Positioningpresents significant, substantial hurdles. Today’s perimeter-security systems System) coordinates. Bandwidth- Preventing, detecting and responding demonstrate the effectiveness of fixed, intensive acoustic and video data mustto illicit cargo and/or people, crossing a wired sensors. A network of nodes, be compressed prior to transmission.boundary, is a concern of domestic as well positioned along a boundary, captures GE Intelligent Platforms’ video CODECas global proportion. The state-of-the-art disparate and diverse types of data. (compressor/decompressor) enablesin perimeter-security relies on physical Take, for example, color and infrared wireless transmission even as Larusbarriers, sensors (audio, infrared, motion, video cameras that detect and recognize Technologies’ feature extraction works onvibration, video) and personnel (cameraoperators, entry guards, random patrols).Those can be effective in a limited scenariowhere few entrance points are constrained “The combination of data mining andby well-delineated physical margins. fusion forms a decision-support system and helps delimit inflow to a manageable Territorial security, however, deals withlarger tactical threats to border crossings,public services (energy, water and sewer,emergency response), road networks and level while alleviating strain”transportation systems (airports, bridges,rail yards, tunnels, public transit). Due to intruders; acoustic sensors react to digging real-time visual data.the scale and scope, safeguarding those activities while sonar and radar locate Larus Technologies’ Nexus forlinked resources proves difficult and marine- or air-based targets. Territorial Security performs motion,expensive. Operators frequently suffer Due to dimensional concerns, territorial intrusion and fire/smoke detection plusfrom fatigue, stress, inattention and security must be more adaptable from a localization, tracking, recognition andoverload, due to the influx of data. And, deployment standpoint than traditional classification. The system not only tracesknowledge-sharing among authorized perimeter systems. Sensors, themselves, movement, Nexus notes stopped as wellusers requires an unprecedented degree of have to be transportable and, in fact, as abandoned objects. Moreover, thecooperation. may reside on mobile platforms like capability is unimpeded by compression autonomous ground or aerial vehicles. artifacts, suboptimal focus or certainTRADING TACTICS Sensor-node mobility affords the requisite environmental variables (ambient light,Design engineers at Telephonics flexibility for wide-area coverage. moderate wind, rain).Corporation (Farmingdale, New York, Larus Technologies Corporation To recognize incursions along a lengthyUS) began to investigate a real-time (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) proposes a perimeter, the tide of incoming data mustintegrated approach for outdoor areas, novel, real-time decision-support system be interpreted rapidly and continuously.public buildings and transit hubs in 2004. intended to extend overall territorial That information is not restricted to sensorThe company’s Advanced Communication security to areas of strategic importance. readings and may include databases,56 Vol 6 No 1 North America
  3. 3. Market Analysis A then novel concept (from 2004) for the Advanced Communication Tactical Information Control & Surveillance System. Funding limitations prevented it from becoming a reality and data synthesis are fundamental to Department of Homeland Security (Washington, DC, US) and MAJIIC (Multi-sensor Aerospace-ground Joint Intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance Interoperability Coalition) initiatives. MAJIIC-participating nations include Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. All authorized users and collaborative systems have secure access to each sensor’s data stream, current and historical information and fusion capabilities. NC3A (the NATO Consultation, Command and Control Agency, Brussels, Belgium) provides technical oversight of MAJIIC. MARKING TERRITORY Applied to territorial security, the Larus Intelligent Sensor and Actuator (LISA) and the LISA Network (LISANet) enhance collection with in-situ sensors, enabling communication among peripherals, controllers, motors, relays and custom devices. Through the company’s proprietary Nexus fusion engine, LISANet upholds actionable intelligence for client decision-support and C4I (command, control, communications, computers andImage © Telephonics Corporation intelligence) systems. Still image- and motion video-based visual analytics, pooled with user-generated inputs, also serve to inform course-of-action decisions and allow first-responders to communicate among themselves as incidents progress in real-time. Larus Technologies hopes to direct individual reports and complementary display local and global views, aggregating the nascent technology to solve related source materials. Nexus marries all in real- relevant events and warnings and problems: preventing unauthorized time, issuing alerts whenever anomalous bestowing great flexibility for planning persons from entering secure, well- behavior is suspected. Furthermore, appropriate countermeasures. contained buildings or structures. The raw data can be screened with an Nexus employs well-developed likes of a virtual fence can be required autologous set of knowledge patterns. The approaches, like XML (Extensible Markup in a variety of military and civilian combination of data mining and fusion Language) and OWL2 (Web Ontology settings, now handled by “tripwire-based” forms a decision-support system and Language), to encourage cross-pollination techniques. The replacement technology helps delimit inflow to a manageable level with existing technologies and to facilitate would employ passive infrared. while alleviating strain. Users’ consoles future extensions. Information sharing Such electronic tripwires could >>> North America Vol 6 No 1 57
  4. 4. Image © IAVO Research & Scientific REAL-TIME MONITORING Visual Integrated Knowledge Interface, combining multi-modality, real-time data streams with geospatially-referenced landscape features be interconnected to form a Sensor and tertiary trends, resulting from an initial and its presentation should be intuitive. Actuator Network (SANet); once again, event. The ability to collect, integrate and Records will be indexed according fusing data streams in real-time and, disseminate all that knowledge would to ontological tags and formatted, as as with Nexus, issuing alerts whenever permit a more thorough understanding needed, for the applicable interface(s). intrusions occur. Each with a horizontal of each situation. It is fundamental to The interface(s) through which each user detection angle of 110 degrees and a achieving a complete picture of any interacts will depend on his/her role and 10m (32.8ft) range, five passive infrared Homeland Security incident and can serve functional platform. sensors, for example, would grant as a “precision environment” for engaging The VIKI pre-processor will access 360-degree coverage with 38 degrees a multi-disciplinary reaction. dynamic sources and also retrieve static of overlap between adjacent detection IAVO Research & Scientific (Durham, audio, imagery and textual data, a great zones. (Localization resolution equals 38 North Carolina, US) is honing innovative deal of which are resident in state and degrees.) Acoustic, imaging and magnetic methodologies to update and visualize federal archives. And, to profit from de sensors could assist; helping to recognize and/or classify objects of interest and reducing false positive errors. “What’s needed is a system that can SEEK AND DEPLOY understand and respond to simple Methods to search, navigate, extract and questions, make predictions, find visualize information, relevant to problems of Homeland Security, continue to evolve interrelationships among disparate data on the research front. Currently, however, there are few options that adequately sets and formulate answers” address real-time requirements and none that offer broad resources. What’s data for first-responders. To that end, facto industry-standards, VIKI will ingest needed is a system that can understand VIKI, the Visual Integrated Knowledge map, road and traffic data (Google Inc., and respond to simple questions, make Interface combines real-time data streams, Mountain View, California, US) as well predictions, find interrelationships among detailing events as they unfold, with as orthogonal imagery and perpendicular disparate data sets and formulate answers. geospatially referenced landscape features; three-dimensional scenes, where available. Such a solution, packaged as portable, creating the capacity to share information A touch translator will permit operators intuitive software allowing users to invoke across local, regional and national scales, to scroll and renew data while a multi- artificial intelligence products in a timely without and within the emergency- windowing system will support several manner has yet to be attained. Operators response community. users, simultaneously. are encumbered when attempting to Interaction with VIKI will run the An alert monitor will handle intra- and dispatch alerts, quickly, to the community gamut from hand-held portable electronic inter-level communications. The message of first-responders or to find the most devices, through standard mouse/ router will decide who needs to be notified pertinent information for a particular task keyboard inputs or touch-sensitive screens and will address alarms appropriately, or unfolding scenario. Additionally, the to high-definition wall-sized displays. based on the explicit destination (if any) accumulation of user-generated data must Catering to users, two design principals together with the issuer’s awareness be analyzed for consistent secondary and are key: the information must be germane domain, geographic position and all >>> 58 Vol 6 No 1 North America
  5. 5. REAL-TIME MONITORINGNexus for Territorial Security platformconsisting of an unmanned ground vehiclewith data fusion payload, an integrated anddeployable video CODEC and an acoustic datacapture system running intelligent analyticssoftware Image © Larus Technologies Corporationpotential recipients. Methods for updating unfolding real-time events. Arguably, the time visual analytics. Unsurprisingly,“community knowledge”, at this time, most apparent effect would be the ability the National Research and Developmentdo not sort and aggregate data with a to access and revise community-wide Agenda is tasked with innovatingsufficiently fine-grained filter. That leads knowledge, optimizing the way we collect information visualization for earlierto information overflow in time-critical and share information. warning of terrorist activities, vulnerabilitycircumstances. IAVO Research & assessments and for enhancingScientific intends for VIKI to logically MISSION CRITICAL emergency-response analytical tools.organize and present textual data, archival Understanding how security events Even with emergency plans andrecords, geospatial features and other impact surroundings can help generate a procedures in place, several areasmedia files at a multi-scale level; suited to “larger picture” of each incident, critical remain in which understanding andsingular responses or to situation rooms to the most advantageous deployment of sharing of information can augmentin which concurrent operations can be personnel and reserves. IAVO Research our ability to respond and reduce thereviewed and tracked. & Scientific also is developing a resource probable impact of an attack. Real-time VIKI will deliver up-to-date allocation tool to permit en route analytical monitoring can alert first-information, sorted as per each unique alteration of pre-filed courses-of-action; as responders to unusual situations. Readyresponder’s profile (emergency medical new conditions arise and exact redirection software supports varying types oftechnicians, fire, police, Special Weapons of assets. Overall, VIKI is expected to communication for different audiencesand Tactics teams, etc.) and content address the entire precision information as robust sensor networks and real-preference. Messages will be relevant to spectrum with a broad audience and time data fusion are poised to improveeach user and his/her physical location. numerous potential applications: The leading-edge territorial security systems.Operators will be able to add their own American Red Cross, the Federal Anticipated solutions proffer flexibility infunctionality, through programming Emergency Management Agency and the data acquisition and deployment whilepoints, to help drive VIKI’s logic engine. United States Agency for International promising to ease operator overload,The flexibility afforded by its open Development all must keep track of ensure interoperability and promotearchitecture will maximize return-on- on-going issues and changing conditions a unique data-sharing paradigm.investment. during natural disasters or security Given increasingly diverse marketsfor visualization and multi-scale user- episodes. The US Army, Navy, Air Force and Marines need for a solution to buttress fyigenerated software capabilities, IAVO multi-scale mission tracking and course- Lee J. Nelson is an independent analyst andResearch & Scientific perceives an of-action planning. President of H3B Media North Americaimmediate opening for VIKI in local, Since the 2004 establishment of the lnelson@rcn.comstate and federal law enforcement US Department of Energy’s National +1-703-893-0744plus international humanitarian Visualization and Analytics Center, onefforts. A mobile-device that facilitates the premises of the Pacific Northwest and updates among varied National Laboratory (Richland, Read Lee Nelson’s previous Market Analysesusers would have widespread application Washington, US), a member panel for Thinking Highways – enter “Nelson” intoand appeal. The VIKI solution could representing government, academia and the Search box on the thinkinghighways.comoffer a new methodology to join first- industry has been redefining directions home pageresponders in a digital conversation about and priorities for future efforts in real-60 Vol 6 No 1 North America