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Thinking Highways


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Describes new threats to security

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Thinking Highways

  1. 1. NORTH AMERICAN EDITION Vol ™Corridors of powerTexas joins Canada in the smart highway revolution POLICY BEYOND POLITICS Š‹Ž ƒ”‘ ‘ ƒ‹–ƒ‹‹‰ –Š‡
  2. 2. Ž‡‰ƒ…›18T18TH ITS WORLD WO CONGRESS NSHOW PREVIEW H E MOTIVATION AND INCENTIVE Randy Salzman meets the ultimate transport planner MOBILITY FIRST The multimodal goals behind the formation of ITMA
  3. 3. SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITYThreatassessmentLee J Nelson discusses the latest developments helping the US toI  n today’s asymmetrical world, one United States Customs and Border United States Visitor and Immigrant Status ought to understand how threats Protection (CBP) is the unified agency Indication Technology. In addition, data can and do come from any angle within the Department of Homeland furnished by the Automated Targeting at any time. The transportation Security (DHS; Washington, DC) which System, the Automated Export System and infrastructure, areas where people embraces the workforces and safeguarding the Trade Act of 2002 Advance Electronicassemble to take advantage of various authorities of Citizenship and Immigration Information Regulations (originallyconveyance modalities, poses an obvious Services, Immigration and Customs entered into The Federal Register in“soft” target. We can be certain that Enforcement, the Animal and Plant Health December 2003), help spot perilous cargo.terrorists view airports, train and bus Inspection Service and the Border Patrol. The Office of Intelligence and Operationsterminals, highway interchanges and CBP employs multiple strategies and draws Coordination, restructured this past Julymaritime ports as high-value assets; on leading-edge technologies to into the Office of Intelligence andwaiting for the opportunity to convert one accomplish its two-part goal: preventing Investigative Liaison, furthers the aboveinto an astonishing news event. terrorists and terrorist weapons from initiatives: planning, collection, processing, Ensuring contemporaneous security for entering the country while fostering analyzing, producing and disseminatingall such touchpoints would be challenging legitimate trade, travel and tourism. all-source intelligence. Functioning asin a peaceful environment. CBP’s situational awareness hub, the newly Consider the pressure on Federal, State A COORDINATED EFFORT streamlined Office provides timely, relevantand local governments to protect citizenry To assess every US-bound passenger, CBP and actionable information to operatorsand property when, with scarcely a relies on the Advance Passenger and decision-makers..moment’s notice, the daily order around Information System, the Student and Using risk management techniques,any of those sites might give way to chaos. Exchange Visitor System and US VISIT, suspicious individuals can be designated Photo © US Customs and Border ProtectionA commercial driver presenting credentials for accelerated border clearance at a dedicated FAST processing lane.48 Vol 6 No 3 North America
  4. 4. Border control technology “By creating ‘smarter boundaries’, the zone of security can be extended beyond physical borders”secure its bordersprior to reaching North Americanshores. Meanwhile, the ContainerSecurity Initiative targets and prescreensfreight at foreign departure ports. Byuncovering additional investigative leads,the Initiative aims to mitigate the threat Photo © US Customs and Border Protectionof transporting a weapon, concealedin cargo and destined for the US.SECURE BORDER INITIATIVEIn 2005, DHS established the SecureBorder Initiative (SBI), a comprehensive,multi-year plan to implement tighterrestraints. The Initiative’s mission todevelop, deploy and integrate technologyinto tactical infrastructures, bolsters Aerial view of an extensive crossing complex along the US-Mexican bordercontrol efforts at terrestrial borders. Effective border management is achieved systems, positioned at ports-of-entry, Computer Assisted Detection (ICAD)not only through situational awareness contain x-ray and γ-ray (gamma ray) database. RVS combines multiple color andbut by rapid and appropriate responses. imaging modalities. infrared cameras, mounted atop variousTo realize operational success, CBP CBP does not rely on any single structures, into a single remote-controlleddepends on personnel and equipment. approach: officers and agents utilize diverse subsystem. The sensor network consists ofA major enterprise, known as SBInet, technologies, in differing combinations, to magnetic, seismic and thermal devices,began combining existing and novel heighten the likelihood that terrorist acting as electronic tripwires, to expose andtechnologies to enable front-line agents weapons – including nuclear or radiological track intrusions. And, ICAD softwareand officers to detect, identify, classify devices – are spotted and interdicted. coordinates data collection and helpsand react to incursions. Earlier this year, Personal detectors, isotope identifiers, manage personnel deployment whenhowever, following a lengthy period radiation monitors and trained dogs all aid responding to alarm notifications.of reassessment, DHS Secretary Janet in locating explosives and hazardous In 2003, CBP began developingNapolitano cancelled the program. chemicals. In short, Border Patrol agents America’s Shield Initiative (ASI) to Funding, previously requested for SBInet are augmenting security through a integrate surveillance, communicationsand provided in the fiscal 2011 continuing wide-ranging enforcement strategy; and visualization tools while maintainingresolution, prompted a new plan. The intensifying, integrating and coordinating a and modernizing ISIS - that formally wasAlternative Border Technology employs rich repertoire of technologies and subsumed by ASI in 2005.towers, truck-mounted surveillance communications protocols. The rejuvenation of ISIS under ASIsystems, ground sensors and hand-held addresses upgraded and expandedunits as well as fixed- and rotary-wing AMERICA’S SHIELD INITIATIVE equipment as well as enhanced detectionaircraft and unmanned drones. By creating Command, control and intelligence and monitoring. Those measures also“smarter boundaries”, the zone of security applications also assist CBP operators, involve superior links for CBP agents tocan be extended beyond physical borders. through a common operating picture, guide the collection of visual and related Given the magnitude of CBP’s to facilitate tactical decision-making data. Similarly, new air, ground and marineresponsibility, development and and coordinate law enforcement resources underscore improvements fordeployment of sophisticated tools is a responses. To that end, the Integrated all-weather, around-the-clock capabilities.foregone conclusion. Non-intrusive Surveillance Intelligence System According to CBP, more robustinspection is on the increase and viewed as (ISIS) was established in 1998. surveillance technologies could be ana “force multiplier”, permitting CBP to Three basic components comprised ISIS: effective adjuvant, reducing staticscreen or examine a larger portion of the remote day/night video surveillance (RVS), observation requirements whilecommercial traffic stream. Some of those in ground sensor arrays and the Integrated engendering intelligence-based North America Vol 6 No 3 49
  5. 5. SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY “We must also marry our various programs together and ensure that all participants are vetted to the same high standards” Nelson © Lee J. responses. ASI would incorporate a means undesirables. CBP currently operates six concentrate our resources on suspect to evaluate enforcement actions, collect Predator Bs (the MQ-9 Reaper from people and goods. Our Trusted Traveler performance metrics and provide managers General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Program, Global Entry, which is growing with analyses and efficiency reports. San Diego, California): three from the at a rapid rate, is helping improve our The US Congress approved additional National Air Security Operations Center ability to identify low-risk travelers. We resources in the Emergency Supplemental (NASOC) in Sierra Vista, Arizona, two must continue to expand participation for Border Security (passed and signed into located at Grand Forks, North Dakota and in similar efforts, such as SENTRI, law in August of 2010) that included 1,000 a maritime variant, the Guardian, from NEXUS, and FAST,” remarked CBP extra Border Patrol agents, 250 CBP Cocoa Beach, Florida. Most recently, a Commissioner Alan Bersin. “We must officers, two more Unmanned Aircraft second Guardian was delivered to NASOC, also marry our various programs together Vehicles (UAVs) and two new Forward Corpus Christi, Texas in further support of and ensure that all participants are Operating Bases. interagency missions. vetted to the same high standards.” All program applicants voluntarily UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES TRUSTED TRAVELER PROGRAMS undergo a background investigation against Equipped with sophisticated on-board The Global Entry pilot program criminal, law enforcement, customs, sensors, UAVs, also called Unmanned streamlines the international arrival immigration and terrorist indices, a ten- Autonomous Vehicles or Unmanned process for pre-approved travelers. Once fingerprint law enforcement check and an Aircraft Systems, confer unparalleled, long- inducted, Global Entry members may interview with a CBP officer. Each approved range reconnaissance. They are able to avoid lengthy waits by proceeding directly Trusted Traveler receives a WHTI- remain “on-station” longer than other to special kiosks. There, the system compliant (Western Hemisphere Travel airborne assets and, therefore, are confirms one’s identity by scanning a Initiative) card. The card fulfills WHTI’s particularly useful in isolated areas. passport (or lawful permanent resident requirement for “a passport or other secure UAVs gather intelligence on border card) and compares fingerprints against travel document that denotes identity activities and survey open waters. The high those already on-file. and citizenship” by all North American endurance of larger-class drones permits Enrollment in the quartet of CBP’s citizens, entering the US by air, land or sea. overnight or 24-hour vigils while their size Trusted Traveler Programs – Global Entry, Conscription to all programs is managed and operating altitude make them NEXUS, SENTRI (Secure Electronic via GOES, the Federal Government’s Global practically imperceptible by ears or unaided Network for Travelers Rapid Inspection) Online Enrollment System. eyes. UAVs contribute to enforcement and FAST (Free and Secure Trade) – has SENTRI provides expedited processing efficacy as well as officer safety, complement exceeded one million members. for motor vehicle drivers and passengers incursion detection and help to quell entry “If we are able to identify low-risk who are inbound from Mexico. First of terrorists, smugglers and other travelers and cargo, we will be able to implemented at Otay Mesa, California in 1995, SENTRI has grown to include sixteen lanes at the nine busiest crossing points along the US-Mexico border. When an accepted international visitor approaches in a distinctly marked SENTRI lane, a video-based license plate readerPhoto © US Customs and Border Protection automatically recognizes the automobile. Each occupant is verified through records maintained in an on-line database (containing digitized facial photographs), together with a radio-frequency identification (RFID) card and an officer’s visual authentication. NEXUS is a joint CBP-Canada Border Services Agency (Ottawa, Ontario) An unmanned aircraft vehicle poised for take-off on a border surveillance mission. endeavor for enhancing security while 50 Vol 6 No 3 North America
  6. 6. Border control technologyLeft: The author’s Global Entry WHTI-compliant ID card with embedded RF tag.A US-Canadian border-crossing lane,equipped with a NEXUS card reader as well asa video camera for license plate recognition. Photo © US Customs and Border Protectionsimplifying entry for low-risk visitors.NEXUS was established in 2002 andcurrently counts more than 500,000members. Applicants must agree tobackground checks in both Canada and theUS. FAST offers dedicated lanes and state-of-the-art security methods, the “The US border security system shouldaccelerated border clearance for importers, program will enable inspectors to be integrated into a larger network ofcarriers and commercial drivers who have concentrate on threat-sensing and screening points that includes ourpassed rigorous assessments. response activities. transportation system and access to vital Through International Trade Data facilities, such as nuclear reactors. TheAUTOMATED COMMERCIAL System initiatives, ACE will become the President should direct DHS to lead theENVIRONMENT “solitary window” for electronic collection effort to design a comprehensive screeningAdvances in non-invasive inspection of of all harmonized information required by system, addressing common problems andcontainerized freight are proving effective Federal agencies for clearance of cargo setting common standards withat stemming the flow of contraband, versus reams of paper which was the norm. systemwide goals in mind. Extending thoseprincipally illicit drugs, smuggled into the There are more than 19,000 ACE portal standards among other governments couldUS by sea and land. The armamentarium of account-holders who have filed about dramatically strengthen America and theimaging technologies generates an 475,000 entry summaries (since that world’s collective ability to interceptunfathomable data volume and does so on functionality was introduced in April 2009). individuals who pose catastrophic threats.”nearly a continuous basis. Highlighting, Published in the Summer of 2004, thatinterpreting and communicating the BETTER NOW THAN NEVER statement encapsulated oneessential elements is a Herculean task. Over the past two years, DHS has been recommendation of the National Originated in 2001, the Automated focusing humanpower, technology and Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon theCommercial Environment (ACE) offers a infrastructure on the US’s Southwest United States (also known as the 9/11single, consolidated venue for commercial border which experiences one-half of the Commission).transactions, trade enforcement and nation’s illegal traffic. The Border Patrol is As Thinking Highways went to press, wecompliance, while abiding multi-agency better staffed, presently, than at any time in observed the 10th anniversary of thepractices. Previously, CBP officers had to its 87-year history; doubling the agent pool terrorist attacks on the East Coast of thetoggle among seven different computer from 10,000 in fiscal year 2004 to US: New York City, Shanksville,screens, and review paper forms, when approximately 20,500 at the close of 2010. Pennsylvania and The Pentagon indeciding whether to allow cargo to pass into Beside the Border Patrol, CBP’s workforce Arlington, Virginia. Now, seven years afterthe country or detain it for further scrutiny. of roughly 58,000 employees consists of the Commission’s findings and despiteACE affords government users a unified more than 2,300 agriculture specialists and significant undertakings, the assurance ofand systematic approach to analytical 20,600 port-based officers. contemporaneous and complete securitytargeting of equipment and freight. In 2010, CBP deployed 17 new Mobile remains elusive. ACE’s evolving trade processing system Non-Intrusive Inspection Systems and 22is helping to facilitate cargo handling,modernize business processes, speed the additional large-scale Non-Intrusive Inspection imaging units. Mobile X-ray fyiflow of legitimate shipments and target technology permits officials to detect Lee Nelson is an Independent analyst and President of H3B Media North Americaellicit goods. ACE ultimately will extend stowaways and contraband such as(to CBP and other participating currency, drugs and explosives in lnelson@rcn.comgovernment entities) the ability to access passenger vehicles and in freight. Those throughout the international supply systems already have conducted more thanchain and to anticipate, identify, track and 7.3 million examinations and resulted in Read more in our ARCHIVES atintercept high-risk shipments and persons. over 1,300 seizures, including 288,000 incorporating electronic devices, such pounds (130.6 tonnes) of narcotics. Full The author acknowledges invaluableas transponders, RFID tags and smart cards and final deployment of ACE is scheduled assistance from James Falasco (Sachse, Texas)together with biometric applications and for the Winter of 2012.North America Vol 6 No 3 51