Storing electrical energy Pros and cons of techniques What is hydrolysis Why hydrolysis method Cobalt phosphate catalysis Hydrogen storage Hydrogen as a fuel Safety and limitations Practical Scenario
Two billion people on earth do not have electricity. Global energy need driven by 3 billion low energy users in the non legacy world will roughly double by midcentury. New R&D needed to provide the world with the “fast food” equivalent of energy systems. Grid parity, fly-wheel, pumped water, compressed air,Li-ion batteries, ultracapacitors
BATTERIES COMPRESSED AIR FLYWHEEL Ultracapacitors Pumped water High Largest Compact efficiency capacity of Light Weight Easy electricity Fast start-up High energy availability capacity Less energy High Geological structure Centrifugal density reliance force Fluctuations Not economical Soil erosion in supply
When the input devices produce more energy than is required by the load, the excess energy is converted by an electrolyzer to electrolytic hydrogen. H2O → ½ O2 + H2 Conversely, during a time of input energy deficit, this process is reversed and the hydrogen produced earlier is reconverted to electrical energy through a fuel cell. ◦ Anode Reaction: 2H2 + 2O–2 → 2H2O + 4e– ◦ Cathode Reaction: O2 + 4e– → 2O–2
Energy density of H2 is ≥1k times larger than the upper limit of battery storage capacity. Hydrogen can be used as a fuel for portable (vehicles) or stationary energy generation. Totally void of Carbon emissions . Scientist James Barber of Imperial College London hailed this as “enormous implications for the future prosperity of humankind.”
Inspired by photosynthesis to develop photoelectrolysis. Sunlight to split water. Catalyst consisting of cobalt metal, phosphate and an electrode, placed in water. Works at room temperature, in neutral pH water, and easy to set up. The cobalt oxygen-evolving catalyst (Co- OEC) can use an energy input from a photoanode or photovoltaic.
Solar Energy splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen for fuel_ Daniel Nocera, MIT [MIRROR].flv
• The hydrogen will be stored in two 0.47 cubic meter(125 gallon) propane tanks, and the oxygen will be stored in one propane tank.• The produced hydrogen gas is pressurized by the electrolyzer to its maximum rated pressure.• Hydro-electrical power from dams, wind- energy and solar energy sources can all be fitted with hydrogen electrolysis units in order to produce enough hydrogen.
No greenhouse gases emitted. Zero emission in vehicles. Calorific value is
Tanks are repeatedly fast-filled using real gas and emptied slowly for testing.(cycle test) The tank is monitored for permeation rates at 700 bar pressure.(permeability test) Hydrogen sensors for testing leaks.
Hydrogen storage testing at European Commission JointResearch Centre-Institute of energy.
Matthew W. Kanan, Yogesh Surendranath and Daniel G. Nocera Chem. Soc. Rev., 2009, 38, 109- 1 14 How to Store Excess Electricity by Jon r. Luoma Yale Env. 360,2010 Report of basic energy sciences published by office of science ,US department of energy. Summary of electrolytic hydrogen production, NREL, September 2004 Hydrogen Safety in Storage and Transport, Pietro Moretto ,European Commission Joint Research Centre