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QUINCE CULTURE A RESEAfiCH THESIS FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF POMOLOGY AT CORNELL UNIVERSITY. BY B.G. Pratt, Jr., 15,Ithaoa, N. Y. 1915, 11-
QUINCE CULTURE. The quinoe is a small irregular growing tree, about ten or twelve feet high; bears one of the best fruits for preserves and jellies, and for giving additional flavor to apples oooked in any manner. Its soiintifio name is CYDONIA OBLONGA,or WLGAHIS, as it was formerly calledj genus name Hosaoeae; order Pomeaoeae, olosely related to Pyrus. Although it is highly prized in the eastern hemisphere for its rioh flavor and aroma, in the United States It is probably themost neglected of all our oultivated^ fruits.HISTORT The rabbinical tradition of the Jewsmake the quinoe the most ancient of all fruits,dating back to the Garden of Eden, and theretempted Eve to commit her first disobedience.In harmony with this tradition is the fact thatthe quinoe grows in high perfection throughoutPalestine and the surrounding countries. Itgrows wild in the woods in the north of Persia,near the Caspian Sea and in the region south ofthe Caucasus. It seems probable that it wasnaturalized in the east of Europe before the
epooh of the Trojan War. At Hebron it is so mildthat it is eaten out of the hand as we do applesor pears. Both Jews and Mohaiamedans preserve itin crooks. i The quinee was early cultivated by theGreeks and called by them "Kudonian Malon"or"Cydonian Apple". Various accounts of the excellentqualities of the quince are found in Greek liter-ature. It was taken to Italy with the Romanconquests of eastern Europe, and is now foundgrowing extensively throughout southern Europeas well as western Asia. We find accounts ofits culture in the early histories of England.From England it was brought over to America bythe Pilgrims. And now it is grown here commer-cially. It is probably grown more extensivelyin western New York than anywhere else in theStates. The fact that it las been little mod-ified by cultivation and is now as harsh ana acidwhen fresh as it was in the time of the ancientGreeks, shows that much can be done along theline of improving its varieties. Some very valuable work along this line has been done during the latter part of the ninteenth centuryby Mr. W.W. Meeoh of New Jersey.
PROPAGATION The quince oan be easily propagated bymeans of seedp, layers or outtings. From the seedsit is liable to vary in the seedlings, sometimesproving the apple-and sometimes the pear-shapedvariety. For this reason when propagating forthe fruit it is generally done by means of layersor outtings.Seeds.... All the recent varieties of meritseem to be chance seedlings, which suggests thatseed should be selected from the best specimensof the choicest varieties that tMere may be stillfarther improvement. Anyone desiring to improvethe quince by seedlings would do well to studythe theories of Van Mens of Belgium and Knight ofEngland as described by Dovaiing.Layers . . . . By layering is meant the bending downof a young shoot in the spring and burying it withonly a few buds exposed, with the intention thatit shall Bend out roots of its own, after whichit may be severed from the mother plant. This ismore commonly know as tip layering. The rootsshould be formed by autumn and may then be removedand set in rows. Those not rooting the first yearmay be left until the second year.
4 If the bent branch is partly out offor slit up under a bud, or twisted like a witheat the lowest point it will help both the bendingand the twisting. The bark is sometimes outnearly around just below the bottom bud to inddoea oallus from which the roots can form. Youngshoots from thrifty trees make the best layers.This mode of tip layering is more commonly usedin raising the orange quinoe as a fruit. Thekinds of layering used in the propagation ofquinces are shown in the following diagram,Tip Layering Mouna Layering In the propagation of quince stocksfor pears, layering by stools, or mound layering,ia adopted. This is a method by which thequince plant is out back is the spring near the
ground surface and when numerous new shoots aredevelpped the following spring, the earth ismounded up so that they will take root, afterwhich they may be severed from the mother plant.They are out off from the parent plant the follow-ing autumn and transplanted in rows. The oldshoots will keep on bearing shoots on alternateyears if mounded and manured and properly oaredfor. After planting out in rows the shoots fromboth the tip and mound layered plants will pro-duce trees fit for removal as standards in twoer three years.Cuttings . . . . A cutting is a portion of a plant(quinoe in this oase) which is severed from theparent plant and placed into the soil with theintention that it shall grow. Cuttings may befrom either the stem of the root. Probably thevery best method of propagating the quinoe li bymeans of cuttings, and it is^most extensivelyused method, both in raising stocks and treesfor fruiting. In propagating, the quince cuttingsmay be taken from the one, two, three, four, ormore year olJ. ^jrovrtii. But cuttings of largebranches are better tlan small shoots in the oaseof the quince. The amount of wood seems tomeasure the vital force to form both the roots
and tops. The following diagrams show thedifferent kinds of cuttings used in propagatingthe quince,- fioot cutting Root graftlategitjcutting (large) Stem cuttings ,- The wood may be takenfrom old wood as old ae four years but bestresults will be obtained with one year old wood.The cuttings are out about twelve to fifteen inchesin length and set in the auttimn. The autumn ispfeferable as it gives the wooded section timeto cicatrize and thus allovi; for the early emissionof the roots in the spring. Small cuttings maybe cut shorter than twelve inches and have a piece
of apple or quince root grafted on to push them.The chief thing to guard against is the Iobb ofsap by evaporation before the roots have formed.When the air is warmer than the earth the budsare excited more than the roots, and when thegroind is warmest the roots are more excited.Prom this comes the custom of inverting thecuttings daring the winter to keep the budsdormant while the oallus is forming. Root cuttings ,- These are portionsof the root a foot or so long placed in thegromd with the intention that they shall grow.They are best prepared before the buds swell inthe spring. These must be plantea as near aspossible in their natural position which theywere in before they were cut. This is generallyat about ait angle of fourty-five degrees as isshown in the diagram. Quinces are set whentwo or theee years old from the cutting, but thelatter age seems to be generally preferred. ^AHISTIKS The varieties of the quince are comp-aratively few. The following varieties describedare the most common ones. This will give ageneral idea as to the variety. The names ofsome of the less common varieties are also mentioned.
8Apple or Oranges,- Large, some sub-varietiea quitelarge, roundish somewhat irregular, small and veryshort neok at base, surfaoe of fine golden oolor,flash firm, stewing rather tender, of excellentflavor. Ripens soon after mid-autamn . Leavesoval, tree produotive if well cultivated. Thelargest fruit sometimes weighs a poxind but gen-erally one-half pound, but has reached 22ounoesin size. In many parfis of United States ithas long been the most popular variety, althosome seedlings bearing this name are inferior.Johnson ,- Largo, roundish-oblate, compressedat stem, greenish-yellow in color, downy indepression, dots small green, cavity broad, nearlylevel; basin large^ angular, deep, flesh yellowish,juicy, mild, very good. A Pennsylvania varietynow widely grown, with tender qooking qualities.Champi on,- Large, obovate pyriform, bright yellow,flesh tender, delicate flavor and unusually goodin quality, very prolific, bears young, keepswell. Though relatively a new American varietyit is grovsn commercially across the continent.Has been grown to weigh 24 ounces. Usuallysubject to blight in some parts of the country.In some sections it grows vigorously and bearsyoung and abundantly, while in other sections itis a very moderate grower and bears accordin^jly
Meeo h or Meeoh Prolific,- Large to very large,obsoure-pyriforra, surface somewhat ridged, colorbright golden yellow, quality and flavor very goodand exceedingly flagrant. Bears early and veryproductive^ A leading variety in the eastern andsouthern states. Originated in Connatiout.Ordinarily 12 to lb ounces but has reacned 18 ounces.The superiority of the fruit in crates and cansnas been well proven by the highest prices in thehome markets of New Jersey and New York as wellas the large cities.fie a or fiea^ Mamtngth, - Large to very large, round-ish, color clear yellow, flavor excellent, resem-bles the Oraiigga quince but ripens later than theOrange. Keeps very well after ripening. Origin-ated in New York out a leading commercial varietyin eastern and south-eastern California. One ofthe best in flavor and much likea vrhere it hasbeen tested. Needs high culture and good thinning.Has.. attained a veight of SSounces in New Jersey.Ordinarily a strong grov/er but in some localitiesquite tender. Some other varieties probably not asimportant commercially but still grown some in thet,elocalities are as follows,- Alaska grown in NewYork, Angers throughout the country, Bentley iiiMaryland and South Carolina, Bourgeat or De Bour^i^at
10in Ohio and southeast, Childs in California,Chinese in south, Fount en ay or Paris guinoe inJapan and China and throughout United States,Fuller in New Jersey mostly but is becoming morewidely known in the last few years, MissouriMammoth in Utah and Colorado, Pear in New Yorkand such climates, Pinaftple in California,Portugal in New York and suoh oliraates. Sweet inPennsylvania, YanPeman in Missouri, West orWest s Mammoth in California, As to the comparative yields of themost important varieties Prof. L.H. Bailey madesome experiments along this line. Taking theOrange qudnee per tree as 10 bushels for a basisof comparison, the yields are as follows,Oragge 10 bu.Champion 13 buRea 3 3/» bu.Meech 5 3/3 bu. It is desirable in planting a quinceorchard as with other fruits for which there isnot a constant and steady demand, to plant suff-icient variety of both early and late kinds toproperly cover the season. xhis equalizes themarket and maintains a steady price and income.It also distributes the labor of picking, packingand delivering.
11PLANTING PLANS There are five methods of setting outfruit trees in an orchard., and this applies -coa quinoe orchard, (l) The Square method is one inwhioh the tree are planted in rows forming asquare (the most common method). (2) The Quincunxmethod is one in whioh the arrangement is in fives,a rectangle with one tree in the center. (3) TheHexagonal or Triangular; method is one in whichthe distance between trees in the adjoining rowsis the same as those of the same row, and wherethe trees of one row are opposite the middle ofthe space in the adjoining row. (4) The Alternatemethod is one in which the distance between therows is more 02 less than the distance in the rowsand the trees in one row are opposite the middleof the space in the adjoining row. (5) TheContour method is one which has its rows followingthe contour of the country instead of straight rows. Evidence is most convincing that theideal distance apart for planting quinces isfifteen feet, apart each way. Although we findthat most orohardists plant closer than this andsome event plant as close as ten feet apart eachway. Too close planting requires light soil andheavier fertilizing and better care than mostgrowers are willing to give to their quinces.
12Too close planting requires severe heading in andseriously interferes with spraying. SOIL The quinoe adapts itself to differentsoils and oiroumstanoes with remarkable ease andsuooess. And for this reason we have suoh apreponderance of different opinions as to the bestsoil suited for its growth. One class of obser-vers who have seen it growing in high perfeottionon wet alluvial washed hillsides insist on a moistalluvial soil. Others with successful experienceon light sandy loams favor that; others still,observing that quinces thrive on all kinds ofsoil would place it anywhere from the low sea-coast to the table lands. In selecting soils, probably the firstwould be a strong loam which will retain moisturesomewhat, yet with enough sand in its composition tomake it work easy. In a deep strong soil the treesmust not be expected to come into bearing as earlyas 4n a lighter soil but they will make up for losttime by an abundance of high quality fruit later.The second cihoioe would be a gravelly loam if itis not too gravelly, as this cnames nearest to thefirst choice in requirements. The diiaf objectionto the heaviest clay loam is on account of its beingtoo wet and heavy- In fact, if only the proper
13oultivation be given, any soil that will be goodfor <^imlag a; prop of com or potatoes may be usoafor quinces. The quality of the fruit on a wet soilis much more woody aad astringent than on rich andwell-drained soil. An excessive amount of wateris as bad as want of water. A soil that is toodry may be made to retain the proper amount ofmoisture by good deep oultivation. But if thesubsoil is clay we must be careful not to deepenit so thai it will retain water in a basin.TILLAGE The importance of thorough oultivationfor this fruit cannot be too well understood.The quince orchard should te kept in clean tillage.Orchards in sod generally give only indifferentresults over a series of years, ana they areespecially liaole to ravages by borera and fungi.It is inaisputaDle that the most economicalmeans of securing and. maintaining fertility ofT;he soil and moisture in the soil is oy veryfrequent stirring of the soil surface. The first object or tillage is tofurnish plants with food, A fine mechanicalcondition of the soil allows the roots to reachevery portion of it and aids greetly in raaicinf:.
uavailable Materials whioh are more or lessunavailable. ttux zhe main aavantage ortillage is xhe oonserva"cion ot moisture,xhe Dest tillage is that which io oegun early inthe eprimg season ana oontinuea until earlysummer,, giving a chance to plant a cover cropsom»time in july. As the quince is naturallj^a shallow rootea crop ii, is generally aavisanietor the rirst rew years or the young oroharato plow rather deeply at the rirst springcultivation so as to tena to give the treeas aeep a root system as possiolo. ihesuDsequent cultivations shoulJ. oe shallow anavery rrequent in oraer to make a mulch oi thesurrace soil. ihe oest conservator or moistureis a rrequently stirre.L sort ana rine surracesoil. When tne lana is once in gooa conaitiOiilittle time will be requirea to run through theorohara. A oruso snouiu never oe allovfea toform on the surface, ana weeas should De killeabefore they become firmly establisnea. iheentire surface shouia be stirrea once in twoweek 4, at least On account of the shallow root sy extern,care must be taken not to plow oroharas whiohhave been kept in sod too deeply. In manyoases it is better to break up such orchards
lbby thorough harroviing and cultivating early inthe spring when the sod is soft, rather thuJiby attempting to plovv. Mulching quince treesis often reoommended, but it is evident thutthis practice cannot be applied to very largeorchards. It is at best only a poor substitutefor tillage, unless possibly, in the case ofold trees which have been in sod and where rootsare very close to the surface or where thetopography of the fiand prevents tillage.Borers and other ingects niay be expected to bemore serious in mulched than in tilled orchards. If the topography of the land aadconditions are such that neither clean culturenor mulching can be practiced then sod may beallowed. But ±n this case do not take any orthe hay off of the land as it is needed tokeep up the organic proportion of the soil.If it is cut allow it to lie as a mulch.Sod lands are not only drier but as has just beensaid insects and diseases are much moreprevalert. Many quince orchards in the stateare in sod and the growers are asking if theyshould be plowed up. If the grov/ers aresatisfied with the crops they are getting, letthe orchards alone. But if it is thought thatbetter crops are desirable do not hesitate toobtain them, or at least make an effort.
16COVER CROPS A oover crop is a crop wnioh isused for the purpose of seouring its muloh-ing and other beneficial results on the landafter the normal season of tillage. A sowedcrop in an orchard may be beneficial inseveral ways. It hastens the maturity ofthe wood and fruit by checking the plantfood at the proper time. It adds plantfood and humus to the soil which can beappropriated by the plant the followingspring when the plant most needs it. Itconserves moisture for the trees by meansof the fibre and humus it imparts to the soil. The best cover crop should be onewhich will make a vigorous growth and coverthe grotmd in the shortest space of time.It Bhpuld make a quick and easy catch whenfirst planted and, if possible, winter overand grow in the spring. Among the best cover crops for anorchard in a climate similar to Ithaca are,-KOXilegaiainpvts,- amount to plant per Aore,-Rye li to 2^ buBuckwheat 1 buMillet 1 to li" bu
17OatB S^ to 3bu.fiape 9 to 10 lbsTurnips 1 to 8 lbs.Sarloy 1^ to 2i buCom 3 to 3 bu.LuguminouB," Mount per Aore,-Mammoth Clover lb to 20 lbs.Winter Vetch 1 bu.Crimson clover 15 lbsCowpeas 1-| to 2 buSoybeans l| uo 2 bu.Canada field peas 20 lbs.Probably the best way, however, to planta cover crop is to plant a combinationof several. For instance, one very goodcombination is,- Barley or Oats, Vetch,Mammoth clover, and turnips. Another verygood one is,- Buckwheat, Oats and fiye.Rye and Vetch togetner make a splendidcover crop. in planting the combinationsdo not use as much seed as you would ifplanted alone. Your guide would be theamount of vegetation that you need and thecharacter of the soil. This also willdecide whether you need a leguminous ornonleguminous oovercrop.
18FERTILIZERS In considering fertilizers for aquince orchard, or any fruit oroHard in fact,W0 must realize that soils and needs oforchards differ widely. We must thereforelook into the needs of our oim particularorchard by observing the oondititoi andcharacter of the trees, rather than byadhering to the results of some one else.No genersLl rule can be strictly adhered to.But if the fruit grower knows the effect ofthe various plant food constituents on thequince trees he can wisely apply theelements lacking, if needed% Of the three elements generallyneeded by plants; nitrogen, phosphorous andpotash; probably nitrogen is the one mostimportant. Nitrogen is particularly effica-cious in promoting growth. TPhen the leavesare undersizedji. yellow, and present a stuntedappearance, the tree probably needs nitrogen.Phosphorous is probably the least importantelement in orchards, that is, the least ofthe three elements. It is impprtant in thedevelopment of seeds and also the generalgrowth somewhat. Lach of phosphorous is
19 shomi by a slow growth of the plant andunderdevelopment of the fruit.Potaehie generally the element mostly appliedto quince orcJhardB. It is alivaye closelyassociated with phosphorous in, the develop-ment of sugar in the fruit from the starch.It one tiine it was thought that potash wasthe element which caused the high colorin fruits, but experiments have shov^n thatthis is not true. Lack of potash is shownby under-development ofthe leaves anda lack of healthy color to the leaves,the fruit is undersized and underdevelopedalso. In practice according to surveysmade among the fruit growers in New Yorkstate in 1909 and 1910 it is the exceptionrather than the rule to apply commercialfertilizers to quince orchards. Whenelements are lacking, they are made up bythe use of barnyard manure and covercrops.^Tien this can be done it is probably thecheapest and best means of applying fertil-ity to a quince orchard. We must bear inmind is this connection that the quinceis a Blow feeder and therfore necessarilynedds plenty of available food.i^hrough a"ioit^-poripd of time.
21Eaoti individual tree in eaoh individualoroliard is a separate problem for thegrower. The top should "be started low,never more than twelve to twenty inchesfrom the ground, and the branches shouldbe allowed to spread widely. If thebearing trees persist in making heav!growth, say eighteen to thirty inehes,they should be shortened each winter.But if the land and tajeatment are suchthat the tree makes rather slow hard growth,the pperation will not be necessary.So bearing our ideal in mind and v/orkingalong the Stinee of common practices wecan appraach our ideal oro|iard.SPRAYING Under the head of spraying we willtake up first some of the more importantinsects attacking the quince, then someof the more important diseases, and finallya spray calendar for the quince orchard.Insects -i,h e ^ inoe Ourcuiiq, - xhis isby all odds the most destructive insectwith which the quince grower has to contend.The ouroulio is a brownish-gray, broad-
^^shouldered, snout beetle about one-quarter ofan inoli in length. The beetles lay theireggs in ^uly in the fruit. These hatch inabout a week and burrow into the fruit. Inabout a month the grub burrows into the soilwhere it pupates over winter. The adultbeetles emerge in the spring.Control,- This is quite dirfioult. Jarringthe trees destroy great numbers but this doesnot pay in a large orchard. Plowing underthe cells in the fall also helps to some extent. Probably the best means of controlis to spray the trees when the beetles firstappear with a strong driving spray of Arsenateof Lead 5 or 6 pounds to 100 gallons ofwater. It is desirable that the lead bejust as adhesive as possible. Round-headed Apple-tree Borer ,This is another very destructive enemy of thequince, and only exceeded by the ouroulio.Tho. presence of the^it^Setected by the |)ittlepiles of sawdust thrown out by the larva inthe burrow near the base of the trunk.The eggs are laid just ubder the bark near theground and the larva burrow into the tree,not becoming full grown until they are Shreeyears old. They then pupate and hatch out
23a mature beetle.Control,- Because or the fact that theylive inside of the trunk of the tree, theyare most dirfioult to control. KeroseneEmulsion and alkaline soap washes paintedonto the trunks of the trees near the groundseveral times a year will keep the borersout as long as the material remains on thetrees. Sulfooide, a commercial solublesulfur oompoun(^ has proven quite effectiveagainst the borers when painted onto thetrunks booauae of its ability to remain onthe trees for a year or more. Tarred paper,old newspapers, and wire netting may be usedas mechanical protectors. Clean culture isone of the best preventative measures.The surest and only remedy for the pestafter it gets into a tree is to dig it outwith a jack-knife or a wire. While these two pests are by farthe most destructive of the quince insect,they are by no means the only ones the areimportant. The following insects will giveone ih idea as tb the great number he has tofight. These are already more or less knownto the growers and their control is taken upin the spray calendar later.
24Suinoe Pests .- Oyster shell soale. Scurfyscale, San Jose scale, Codlin moth. Fruit-tree leaf roller, Aphids, Buffalo tree hopper.Bud moth. Green fruit worm, Lear skeletonizer,Leaf orumpler, Resplendent shield bearer.Tussock moth. Yellow-necked oaterpili.ar.Twig pruner, as well as the Ouroulio andxiheRound-headed borer.Diseases Fire Blight y- xhis is one of themost serious diseases of the quince. It isevidenced daring the early part of the seasonby a twig blight. The flower tips becomediseased and die. The blight may continuedown the twig to the branch until it isentirely infected. It is a bacterial diseaseand the bacteria are disseminated by means ofthe bees and other insects visiting theflowers during blossoming time.Control,- The essential step is the pruningout of the blighted areas, being careful todisifeot the tools with each operation.Be sure to cut well below the blighted areaso as not to leave any of the disease forfurtner infection.
35 Leaf blig ht or Pruit spot^-rhis is quite important in New rork state,especially in the Hudson Valley. The diseaseappears as small discolored areas, having adull red center and black borders, on theupper surface of the leaves. On the fruitit causes much of a similar spot except thatit is much more liable to be darker in color.It looks very similar to the pear scab on thefruit. Control,- Spray with Lime-Sulfur,Bordeaux at standard strength, or any goodfungicide. The ordinary 8oab^spraylng withLime-Sulfur should control it. But many timessubsequent sprayings are necessary. Bitte r Hot,- This is very destruc-tive on the apple, and is also just asdestructive on the quince. On the trunks ofthe trees it produces rough and deadenedareas or cankers. These spread up and down•until the tree is killed oy a loss of itsoambixim. On the fruit it causes a rottedportion before the fruit ripend. It isdistinguished by the characteristic welldefined ring around the outer margin oi therotted spot. The fruit also has a char-acteristic bitter taste.
36Control,- Keep the orohard as clean as poesible.Prune out all oankered limbs. Spray withLime-Sulfur, 1 part to 40, for the rot onthe fruit, Soaleoide, a oonmeroial misoioleoil, will oheok and kill the canker on the^-imbs, sprayed during the dormant season. Black rot or New x ork Apple treeCanker ,- This disease also oausea a cankeron the limbs similar to the Bitter rot andcauses a rotting of the fruit. The fruitrot does not have the characteristic ringthat evidences the Bitter rot.Control,- Control is practically the sameas for the Bitter rot. Keep orchard clean.Prune out cankers, taking care to disinfeoitthe pruning knife. Spray with Lime- Sulfuror Bordeaux. Or with Scaleoide for thecanker.Spray Calendar for the Quince I. Spray during the dormant seasonbefore the buds swell. Use Lime Sulfur1 to 7 (or 32° Beaurae), or Soaleoide, acommercial miscible oil, 1 to 15. For theSan Jose scale, Oyster shell scale. Scurfyscale, Hruit tree leaf roller (if the oil isused), and Bud moth eggs.
27 II. Spray just before blossoming,that is, just as they begin to show oolor.Wat oh the weather and spatay before a rainnot after. Spray with Lime-Sulfur, 1 gal,to 40 gal. water, and add 1 pound of Arsenateof Lead (powder), if the paste is used thenadd 2^ pounds. For ouroulio, bud moth andleaf blight, also leaf eating caterpillars. III. Spray after the petals havefallen, beginning when they have alSout two-thirds fallen. Have the spray on beforethe rains oome. rhis is the most importantspray of all. Spray with Lime- Sulfur,1 gal. to 40 gal. water, and add 1 to 1^pounds of Arsenate of Lead (powder).For the oodlin moth, bud moth, and learblight. Sooalled scab spray for the apple. IV. Spray ten days or two weekslater. Before rains. Spray with Lime-Sulfur, 1 to 40, and Arsenate of Lead, 1 ID.For the second brood of oodlin mothc andleaf blight. TT. Spray eight or nine weeksafxer the blossoms fall. Spray with Lime-Sulfur, 1 to 40, and Arsenate of Lead, 1 lb.For the Bitter rotip black rot, and leaf eatingcaterpillars.
28 Now all of these sprays are notneoessary on all oroharde. The first andthird sprayings are the moat important andoan scarcely be omitted in any orchard. Theother sprays will depend upon conditions.Then also there are sprayings which must bedone which could not be in any schedule, forinstance, in a case where the Aphids becomeabundant and must be sprayed for when theyappear. But the spray calendar shows thesprays which are practiced in the best quinceorchards.THINNING By far the most expeditious methodor thinning quince fruit is to prune judi-ciously. In some varieties, after hivingpruned quite severely, there is too muchfruit set to be carried to maturity, and alarge thinning out is necessary to preventthe trees from overbearing, ^e oan hardlyrealize that a tree is overbearing until thefruit has attained considerable size, and thenone hates to pull off enough to relieve thestrain. Mr. Meeoh says that he sometimestakes off one-half to «wo-thirds of the crop,and then there are plenty left to be of
29first quality. xhe number of totiahels ofthinned fruit will be about the same but thequalitjr will be geaitly improved, xhe tHinn-ing should not be done until one oan judgepretty well which would fall of themselves,this is generally shown quite well by thetime they are as large as a walnut. Youngtrees espeoially seem to respond to thinning.But old trees also seem to be rejuvenatedand show fruit beyond their possibilities.tHB-i GfiOP AND MAflKESINd As a crop the quinoe should bear afew fruit the second or third year, and fromthat time on the crop should increase untilthe full capacity ia reached (about theninth or tenth year from planting). If theorchard is well oared for it should continueto be profitable for 30 or 40 years and perhapseven longer. xhe average crop should beabout a bushel of "number onff" fruit per tree,and on ooaasional years this crop may bedoubled. Although the quince is not a dessertfruit, the prices are very largely determinedby the manner in which the crop is packedand handled, as well as picked. Prof. Waugh
50of the Maes. Exp. Station states that thequince orop is one of the moat profitaoleorops under the Hortioultural Department,and he further states that the good profitswere attributed largely to the method ofmarketing the fruix. In the first plaoe theywere well ripened, and in the second placethey were rigidly graded. jror marketing, as well as for homeuse, quinces aDove all fruits should not begathered xxntil fully ripe. They do not,like apples, pears, and peaches, ripen upin color and flavor after they are picked.If gatherea too early the quince is practi-cally worthless. Put only xhe primespecimens into the first grade and wrap eachquince in clean fruit paper and pack infresh, clean and attractive boxes. the use of the bushel box, or somesimilar small package, and the wrapping, arethought to be essential; points in marketingfancy quinces, except when the fruit isdelivered direct to the consximer. Quincesbruise very easily and even the slightestbruise on a ripe quince quickly becomes dis-colored, and the fruit presents a highlyunattractive appearance. Quinces packed in
SIbarrels and shipped some distanoe xo marketoome out with nearly every speoimen braised,t>ut the wrapping and the small packagesprevent suoh injury. xhe small packageis further desirable ueoauee very rew oustomerscare for more than a Bushel of quinoes at atime, even market men with a very fair tradeprefer to buy in bushel lots.SUmiARY Quinoe oulture ia both an art anda soienoe. One great reason why the cultiva-tion of the quinoe has been so much neglectedis that it was accepted as a foregone conclusionthat ni success was to be expected. Butnow, with the multiplication, improvement,and oulture more wid64y known, and reduced tosome degree of exaetoiess it ia reasonable toexpect success with this as with any otherfruit. In general the principles of quinoeoulture follow closely, with several modifi-cations, the principles of apple culture.Bearing in ffltod the underlying principles ofapple cultureand the modifications for thequinoe, and watching closely the individual trees,one may raise fine, handsome, and profitablequinoes, THE END.
32REFERENCESHeeoh, W.W., Quinoe Culture. (1888)Bailey, L.H., xhe Quinoe of Western New xork. Cornell BuJ.. 80.Thomas, J.j., Amerioan Fruit Culturist.Hailey, L.H., Care of Orohards. Cornell ml. 73.Slingerland, M.v. et al.. Control of Ineeot Pests and flant Diseases. Cornell Bui. 385.Waugh, P. A., Mass. Bxp. St a. Rept . 1904.Slingerland, M.V., and Crosby C.R., Manual of Fruit Insects. (1914).Duggar, b.M., jjtingous Diseases or Plants. (1909) aWetzel, H.H., and Stewaet, Y.K., JTire Blight. Cornell ml. 373. (1909;.Bailey, L.H., Principles of Fruit (Jrowing. (191b).McKay. A.W., and Salisbury, W.A., Rough Notes taken during an Orchard Survey of Ontario Co.tJurritt, M.C, and Anderson. E.H., Rough Notes (190§) of an Orchard Survey ox Monroe Co.Doivning, A.J . , Fruits and Fruit Trees 6f America.Keffer, C.A., Tenn. Sta. Bui, ^ol. XvII p.bl. (I90a)jkBailey, LH., Quinoe. Encyclopedia of Am. Hort.Bailey, L.H., Quinoe. Nursery Hook. (1913).Bailey, L.H., Pruning. Pruning Book.Maasey, W.F., Marketing. N.C. Sta. huI . 184. (1905).