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Word-formation (English Morphology)

This slides explain the kinds of word-formation processes in English Morphology. This also a PPT version of a pdf-slideshare "A Concise Companion of Word-formation". Check its pdf for detail discussions.

Word-formation (English Morphology)

  1. 1. Word-formation Morphology
  2. 2. Word-formation  A creation of a new word  Through Derivation or Compounding
  3. 3. Derivation vs. Compounding Derivation Compounding Affixations play a vital role It is joining two separate words It derives new words from prefixes and affixes No affixes is needed in this process English affixations consist of only Prefixes & Suffixes
  4. 4. Affixation vs. Non-affixation Affixation Non-affixation It involves affixes No affixes is needed Affixation process consists of prefixes & suffixes It consists of coinage, eponyms, borrowing, blending, clipping, backformation, conversion, acronyms & initialisms
  5. 5. Prefix vs. Suffix Prefix Suffix It is added to the beginning of a word to change its meaning and make a new word It is added to the end of a word to change its function, making it into a different part of speech Click here to view the examples
  6. 6. Coinage  It is totally the invention of new words  Most typical sources are invented trade names for commercial products  Examples:
  7. 7. Eponyms  It is generating new words based on the name of a person or a place  Examples: 1)The word “sandwich” is from the 18th century Earl of Sandwich who first insisted on having his bread and meat together while gambling 2)The word “jeans” which is derived from the Italian city of Genoa where the type of cloth was first made
  8. 8. Borrowing  English takes a word from another language.  Examples: croissant (French) piano (Italian) sofa (Arabic) tattoo (Tahitian) yogurt (Turkish)
  9. 9. Blending  A combination of two separate forms to produce a single new term  Examples: breakfast + lunch → brunch smoke + fog → smog information + entertainment → infotainment
  10. 10. Clipping  Creating new words by shortening already existing words  Examples: information → info advertisement → ad facsimile → fax refrigerator → fridge
  11. 11. Backformation  A very specialized type of reduction process  It is due to misconceptions of morphological analysis  Examples: editor → to edit sculptor → to sculpt donation → to donate
  12. 12. Conversion  A change in the function of a word, as for example when a noun comes to be used as a verb (without any reduction)  Examples: Someone has to chair the meeting. Goggles are a must for skiing while it’s snowing. My wife wants to buy a see-through blouse.
  13. 13. Acronyms & Initialisms  It is when the first letters of words that make up a name or a phrase are used to create a new word  In acronyms, the new word is pronounced as a word, rather than as a series of letters  In initialisms, the new word is pronounced as a series of letters  Examples: NATO, CIA, HIV, ATM, PIN, ID, radar, laser, Interpol, etc.
  14. 14. Compounding  It is a joining of two separate words to produce a single form  Examples: wallpaper textbook fingerprint Facebook YouTube
  15. 15. Further reading Bauer, L. 2001. Vocabulary. New York, NY: Routledge Fromkin, V, Rodman, R, and Hyams, N. 2011. An Introduction to Language (9th Edition). Boston, MA: Wadsworth Lieber, R. 2009. Introducing Morphology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Plag, I. 2002. Word-Formation in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Yule, G. 2010. The Study of Language (4th Edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

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