Active - For he is everlasting and the artificer of each several thing throughout the whole extent of matterPassive – matter (eg.)
The Stoics wrote numerous works on logic, but, unfortunately, none of these has survived. Thus one must rely on summaries of their works and the occasional quotation from them. For this reason, it is impossible to formulate a complete "Stoic logic" even for individual Stoics.
The individual soul was actually a part of the world-soul.The soul is that which comes into contact with objects outside the perceiver by means of the five senses, which are called parts [or, better, "functions"] of the soul. The soul is like a wax tablet and the object perceived is like a seal that impresses a copy of itself into the wax.
According to the Stoics, since the active principle is Reason, then all things unfold according to Reason, which is called providence (pronoia) or fate (heimarmenê). The fact that all things take place according to providence or fate means that there is no real evil in the world; if there were, then, of course, God would be the author of evil, which the Stoics are not willing to admit. This is the premise on which Stoic ethics is based.
All knowledge derives from sense-
Theory of Knowledge – 14th year of
Physics (God and the Cosmos)
Poioun ( active )
- is the reason inherent in the substance,
that is God.
Paschon ( passive )
- is a substance without quality,
- “invention of arguments, their
expression into words, their arrangement,
and delivery," among other things.
- epistemology and theory of language
- the Stoics believed that a human being
had a soul.
- Diogenes explains: "A presentation
(phantasia) is an imprint on the soul; the
name having been appropriately borrowed
from the imprint made by the seal.”
Theory of Language
- the basic unit of language is the
proposition (axiôma), which consists of a
subject and a predicate.
- is an outflow of Stoic cosmology: the
ethical goal is to live in a way that is
consistent with the way that the cosmos is.
- providence (pronoia) or fate
Hallowell, J. H. & Porter, J. M. (1997). Political
philosophy the search for humanity
and order. Scarborough, Ontario:
Prentice-Hall Canada Inc.
Stoicism. (2011). Retrieved 15 Jan 2013 from