Roles of Women in Western Asia

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Women in Early Islam, Late Islamic Empires, Islamic Society, Women in Workforce, Women in Qur'an, Women in Divorce, Patriarchy, Polygamy, Inheritance, Male Authority, Hijab

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Roles of Women in Western Asia

  1. 1. Role of Women in Western Asia By: April Van Estandarte Diwata
  2. 2. Creation of Humankind Process of Human Creation 1.Khalaqa or initiation of creation 2.Sawwara or formation 3.Bringing to life
  3. 3. Early Islam  Khadija - Muhammad’s first wife, was the world’s first Muslim  ’A’isha and Umm Salama - became important transmitters of hadith, or traditions of the Prophet  Fatima - daughter of Muhammad
  4. 4. Muhammad’s wives became particularly important figures in hadith transmission, solidifying their historic contribution to Islamic law patriarchal social structures and attitudes continued to regard women as subordinate to men in many realms of public life
  5. 5. Late Islamic Empires (13th Century)  women continued to play vital roles in political life in various Islamic empires  wife of the Ayyubid sultan Salah al-Din, Shajarat al- Durr, became the cofounder of the Mamluk dynasty  Women also became important figures in the mystical movements of Islam, known collectively as Sufism
  6. 6. Islamic Society • the majority of women in the era of the great Islamic empires lived their lives predominantly in the private sphere • conquering societies with strong patriarchal restrictions on women’s movement in public • women’s positions appear quite subordinate to men’s
  7. 7. • Concubinage and expansive harems became the rule for political leaders • Patriarchal values became increasingly codified in the haria, or Islamic law, as well as in the daily life of Muslim women •  women in Islamic history gained strength from a legacy of strong and influential women in the founding years of their faith as well as tradition
  8. 8. Workforce The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has made significant progress in reducing gender gaps in human development (Yamouri, 2010)
  9. 9. Workforce (Yamouri, 2010)
  10. 10. Workforce Young women are especially vulnerable and unemployment rates in Egypt and Jordan are already worryingly high, above 10 percent, those among young women are even higher (Yamouri, 2010)
  11. 11. Women in Qur’an • Women is not just Biology • Darajah • Nushuz So good women are qanitat, guarding in secret that which Allah has guarded. As for those from whom you fear, admonish them, banish to beds apart, and scourge them. Then they will obey you, seek not a way against them.
  12. 12. Divorce • It is a lawful option for irreconcilable differences between married couples • Which allows the male a darajah • Men have the power of repudiation
  13. 13. Patriarchy • “All men are created equal” • Females are looked upon in terms of their utility to men •  Women gained new inheritance rights that gave them access to property, but not equally with men
  14. 14. Polygamy • The need for females to be materially provided for by some male • The economic responsibility of maintaining the wife would counterbalance the access to the wealth • Justice is the focus of most modern commentaries concerned with polygamy
  15. 15. • All women are financial burdens • If the wife is unable to have children • If a man’s sexual needs cannot be satisfied by one
  16. 16. Inheritance • Two-to one formula • One female child - half of the inheritance • 2 points: 1.In no way are females to be disinherited 2.All distribution must be equitable
  17. 17. Male Authority • General principle of leadership that is should be filled by one “best suited” • Men would always have the advantages that would make them most suitable for leadership • The Qur’an does not restrict the female from being in authority
  18. 18. Veiling
  19. 19. Types of Hijab
  20. 20. Why Muslim Women wear HIJAB? 1. they believe God has made it an obligation for believing women 2. Head-covers convey a message of purity and godliness to many observers 3. Many people believe that a headscarf engenders respect and honor for women, thus preventing men from flirting, etc. 4. Hijab can be a symbol of piety and it can be a sign of great inner strength and fortitude
  21. 21. References Hotaling, Edward. (2003). Islam without illuisons: its past, present, and its challenge for the future. United States of America: Syracuse University Press. Religion Dispatches. 2013. 17 Reasons why Women wear Headscarves. Retrieved September 28, 2013, from http://www.religiondispatches.org/archive/sexandgender/152/17_reasons_why_wom . Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media. 1996-2013. Women in World History. Retrieved September 21, 2013, from George Mason University. http://chnm.gmu.edu/wwh/modules/lesson3/lesson3.php?s=0. Slideshare. 2008. Women In the Middle East. Retrieved Sept 28, 2013, from http://www.slideshare.net/brighteyes/women-in-the-middle-east-nov2005? from_search=4 Vbulletin Solutions. 2013. Muslims Happy to be Festive. Retrieved September 28, 2013, from http://www.aussiemuslims.com/forums/showthread.php?45445- Muslims-Happy-To-Be-Festive-(-). Wadud, Amina. (1999). Quran and Woman. New York: Oxford University Press. Yamouri, Najat. 2010. Middle East and North Africa: Women in the Workforce. Retrieved October 1, 2013, from Washington http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/MENAEXT/EXTMNARE GTOPPOVRED/0,,contentMDK:22497617~pagePK:34004173~piPK:34003707~th eSitePK:497110,00.html.

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