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Modular Ecological Design: A Fruit and Vegetable Polyculture System

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Modular Ecological Design: A Fruit and Vegetable Polyculture System

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2/19/2009




             Modular Ecological                                    Ohio State University
             Design: A Fruit and                                Ohio Agricultural Research
         Vegetable Polyculture System                            and Development Center
                                                                      Wooster, OH




           Joe Kovach IPM Program
          OSU/OARDC Wooster, OH
               http://ipm.osu.edu




           Using Ecological Design
             and Biodiversity to                                            Goals
             Make $90,000/Acre
                                                      • Modular Ecological Design
                                                      • Economics
                                                      • Ecological Pest Mang. Principles
                                                      • Polyculture Experiment
           Joe Kovach IPM Program
          OSU/OARDC Wooster, OH
               http://ipm.osu.edu




Given that we will eventually run out of                 Modular Ecological Design
oil, can we design a food production              Goal - to determine optimal layout of an intensive fruit &
system that is:                                   vegetable polyculture system that mimics natural systems & can
                                                  be used by the small periurban or urban farmer.
  •   Close to consumers
                                                 Modular
  •   Simulates natural systems
                          y                  E
  •   Uses Ecologically Based Pest Management    Economics

  •   Economically viable ≈ $90,000/A            Pest density
       = $ 10 per ft of row                      Efficiency


                                                                                                               August 2005




                                                                                                                             1
2/19/2009




           Some Principles of Good
                                                     Economic IPM and Marketing
             Farming/Gardening
• Plan your farm/garden and set goals                Product = Bundle of Benefits
• Look at the whole picture (water, soil, crops,
  g
  goals)
       )

• Fertility and slope of land
• Learn and grow through reading and
  meetings
• A farm must be profitable ($, joy)




           Marketing Strategies                    Lifestyle and Economic Potential
                                                   • Cities are where the money is
 How to differentiate your product?                • City dwellers are clamoring for good local food
                                                   • To get top dollar target LOHAS
      1) Price - more efficient, less cost
                                                   LOHAS- Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability
                                                                y                               y
                                                      – 1/3 US pop. - 63 million adults
      2) Quality - characteristic that                – Goods & Services
                   customers want                        • Health and Fitness
                                                         • Environment
                                                         • Social Justice
 Use different strokes for different folks
                                                         • Personal development
                                                         • Sustainable living




  Ecologically Based Agriculture                     Ecological Based Pest Management
 • General Principles of Ecomimicry                       Builds on strengths of natural systems

    – Select and grow a diversity of crops          • Three concepts
      that have natural defenses against
                                                       – Ecosystem Stability
                                                             y             y
      pests
                                                       – Biodiversity
    – Choose varieties with resistance or
      tolerance                                        – Biological Control
    – Build the soil with organic matter




                                                                                                              2
2/19/2009




                                                                   Ecological Pest Management
   Ecological Pest Management
                                                                       Ecosystem Stability
       Ecosystem Stability
                                                               • Reduce tillage/cultivation - fewer weeds
• Ecosystems with more diversity                               • Reduce mowing - less disruption, increase
   – Are more stable                                             beneficials
   – Greater resistance                                        • Maintain “permanent” ground covers
      • Ability to avoid or withstand                          • Add organic matter - substrate for good MO’s
        disturbances                                           • Use cover crops - inc. moisture retention
   – Greater resilience                                        • Use crop rotation - breaks pest cycle
      • Ability to recover from stress
                                                               • Increase crop diversity - more difficult to find
                                                               • Create corridors - highways of habitat




                                                                   Ecological Pest Management
   Ecological Pest Management
                                                            • Is a preventative approach
• Tries to apply stress to the pests                          – Uses little “hammers”
   – Interrupt their life cycle                               – Instead of one big “hammer”
   – Remove alternative food sources                        • Relies on Biological Control (as much as possible)
• Enhance beneficial population                               – Beneficial predators and parasites
   – Avoid agrochemicals where possible                       – Disease-causing organisms
                                                              – Beneficial fungi and bacteria that inhabit roots
   – At least better timing




  Ecological Pest Management
Enhancing Beneficials/Biocontrol                                   Ecological Pest Management
                                                                           Biodiversity
• Characteristics typical of fields with plenty of
  beneficials                                                   • Spatial diversity - across a landscape, within
                                                                     fields
  – Fields are small - a lot of edges, natural vegetation
  –CCropping systems are diverse
          i      t          di
     • Include perennials and flowering plants                  • Genetic diversity - different varieties,
  – Crops are managed with minimal agrichemical
                                                                  different crops
    inputs
  – Soils high in organic matter, biological activity           • Temporal diversity - different crops at
    during off season                                             different stages of growth
     • Covered with mulch or vegetation




                                                                                                                           3
2/19/2009




   Ecological Pest Management                                         Commodities and Treatments
             Fertility                                                  Solid
                                                                        Row
                                                                                     Mixed
                                                                                     Row
                                                                                                     Checker
                                                                                                      board    4 trees/shrubs
                                                                                                                   I. Apples(SwC)
• Slow release of nutrients the best,                                                                              II. Peaches
   – any compost is good compost (yard waste,                                                                      III. Blueberries
     dairy barn, vermicompost)                                                                                     IV. Raspberries



• Pests seem to follow the Nitrogen (plant suckers                                                             4 herbaceous
  i.e. mites & aphids)                                                                                             Strawberries
                                                                                                                   Edamame soybeans
                                                                                                                   Tomatoes
                                                                                                                   Green beans
• Too much synthetic fertilizer cause nutritional
  imbalances                                                                                                    The fourth treatment (not shown) is a
                                                                                                               mixed row configuration on raised
                                                                      Early, Mid, Late cultivars               beds.




                                                                                                   2006
                 Layout of plots
 RB     SR     MR          CB
                                  RB = Raised Bed
                                  SR = Solid Row
 MR     RB     CB          SR
                                  MR = Mixed Row
                                  CB = Checker Board
 SR     CB     RB         MR

                                 Each plot - 44’ x 60’
 CB     MR     SR          RB
                                 Total Acres - 1.4 A




               April 2005                                               Raised Beds
                                                                        April 2005
             Land Preparation                                           ($1.20/ft)




                                                                                              April 2005
                    April 2005
                                                         April 2005

                                                                                                                                         April 2005




                                                                                                                                                         4
2/19/2009




        Yard Waste Compost                       Tree and Bush Planting
             May 2005




                                May 2005
                     May 2005


                                                                                 May 2005




Groundhog, Rabbit, Deer Fence
                                             Raised Bed Mixed Row 2005




         June 2005



                                                                                        August 2005
                                 June 2005




                     2006                        June 2006 - Weeding Cost




                                                              2005 Weeding Costs - $1.35/ft
                                                              Labor hrs (760 hr) = $6,080
                                                              2006 Cost - $0.37/ft
                                                              Landscape Cloth = $1,250
                                                              Labor (214 hr) = $1,612
                                                              Total         =    $2,862




                                                                                                         5
2/19/2009




                         2007                                                    2007




                                                                                                         HT= $9.50/ft




         High Tunnel Growth Differences (cm)                     High Tunnel Yield Differences (g/m)

 Trt   All   Ap    Blue Rasp Peach Soy Stra Apples      Trt    Straw     S Rasp F Rasp Tom       Soy      Blue SnP
                                               Aph/M
 No    172 a 232 a 118 a 142 a 271 a 74 a 41 a 19% a    No     4673a     2276a 2086a 6806a 1147 a 706a 269a
                                                        HT
 HT    196 b 243 a 123 a 185 b 333 b 86 b 44 b 38% b
                                                        HT     3779b     1162b 3736b 8764b 1348 b 951a 387a
 Inc. 14%               30% 23%     16% 7%
                                                        %      -19%      96%     79%      23%    16%      -     -

                                                            Tunnels have a shading impact and reduce wind
                                                            Strawberries are primarily wind and gravity pollinated




                  Japanese Beetle                                         Japanese Beetle
                      (July-Aug)                                           (July-Aug) 2006, 2007

Year          No. JB                                              2006                 2007
                                                       Crop No. JB        %        JB     %
2005           15,000
                                                       Rasp 30,146        52     109,292 39
2006           60,000                                  Peach 22,789       38     11,047 4
2007          283,000                                  Soy    1,851        3     108,239 38
2008          441,000                                  Straw 1,652         3      20,232 7
                                                       Blue   1,486        3      32,115 11
Trt
                                                       Apple     488       1        2,801 1
High Tunnel 11,300 (4%)                                Tomato      0       0         110 0
No HT      271,700 (96%)




                                                                                                                            6

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Modular Ecological Design: A Fruit and Vegetable Polyculture System

  • 1. 2/19/2009 Modular Ecological Ohio State University Design: A Fruit and Ohio Agricultural Research Vegetable Polyculture System and Development Center Wooster, OH Joe Kovach IPM Program OSU/OARDC Wooster, OH http://ipm.osu.edu Using Ecological Design and Biodiversity to Goals Make $90,000/Acre • Modular Ecological Design • Economics • Ecological Pest Mang. Principles • Polyculture Experiment Joe Kovach IPM Program OSU/OARDC Wooster, OH http://ipm.osu.edu Given that we will eventually run out of Modular Ecological Design oil, can we design a food production Goal - to determine optimal layout of an intensive fruit & system that is: vegetable polyculture system that mimics natural systems & can be used by the small periurban or urban farmer. • Close to consumers Modular • Simulates natural systems y E • Uses Ecologically Based Pest Management Economics • Economically viable ≈ $90,000/A Pest density = $ 10 per ft of row Efficiency August 2005 1
  • 2. 2/19/2009 Some Principles of Good Economic IPM and Marketing Farming/Gardening • Plan your farm/garden and set goals Product = Bundle of Benefits • Look at the whole picture (water, soil, crops, g goals) ) • Fertility and slope of land • Learn and grow through reading and meetings • A farm must be profitable ($, joy) Marketing Strategies Lifestyle and Economic Potential • Cities are where the money is How to differentiate your product? • City dwellers are clamoring for good local food • To get top dollar target LOHAS 1) Price - more efficient, less cost LOHAS- Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability y y – 1/3 US pop. - 63 million adults 2) Quality - characteristic that – Goods & Services customers want • Health and Fitness • Environment • Social Justice Use different strokes for different folks • Personal development • Sustainable living Ecologically Based Agriculture Ecological Based Pest Management • General Principles of Ecomimicry Builds on strengths of natural systems – Select and grow a diversity of crops • Three concepts that have natural defenses against – Ecosystem Stability y y pests – Biodiversity – Choose varieties with resistance or tolerance – Biological Control – Build the soil with organic matter 2
  • 3. 2/19/2009 Ecological Pest Management Ecological Pest Management Ecosystem Stability Ecosystem Stability • Reduce tillage/cultivation - fewer weeds • Ecosystems with more diversity • Reduce mowing - less disruption, increase – Are more stable beneficials – Greater resistance • Maintain “permanent” ground covers • Ability to avoid or withstand • Add organic matter - substrate for good MO’s disturbances • Use cover crops - inc. moisture retention – Greater resilience • Use crop rotation - breaks pest cycle • Ability to recover from stress • Increase crop diversity - more difficult to find • Create corridors - highways of habitat Ecological Pest Management Ecological Pest Management • Is a preventative approach • Tries to apply stress to the pests – Uses little “hammers” – Interrupt their life cycle – Instead of one big “hammer” – Remove alternative food sources • Relies on Biological Control (as much as possible) • Enhance beneficial population – Beneficial predators and parasites – Avoid agrochemicals where possible – Disease-causing organisms – Beneficial fungi and bacteria that inhabit roots – At least better timing Ecological Pest Management Enhancing Beneficials/Biocontrol Ecological Pest Management Biodiversity • Characteristics typical of fields with plenty of beneficials • Spatial diversity - across a landscape, within fields – Fields are small - a lot of edges, natural vegetation –CCropping systems are diverse i t di • Include perennials and flowering plants • Genetic diversity - different varieties, – Crops are managed with minimal agrichemical different crops inputs – Soils high in organic matter, biological activity • Temporal diversity - different crops at during off season different stages of growth • Covered with mulch or vegetation 3
  • 4. 2/19/2009 Ecological Pest Management Commodities and Treatments Fertility Solid Row Mixed Row Checker board 4 trees/shrubs I. Apples(SwC) • Slow release of nutrients the best, II. Peaches – any compost is good compost (yard waste, III. Blueberries dairy barn, vermicompost) IV. Raspberries • Pests seem to follow the Nitrogen (plant suckers 4 herbaceous i.e. mites & aphids) Strawberries Edamame soybeans Tomatoes Green beans • Too much synthetic fertilizer cause nutritional imbalances The fourth treatment (not shown) is a mixed row configuration on raised Early, Mid, Late cultivars beds. 2006 Layout of plots RB SR MR CB RB = Raised Bed SR = Solid Row MR RB CB SR MR = Mixed Row CB = Checker Board SR CB RB MR Each plot - 44’ x 60’ CB MR SR RB Total Acres - 1.4 A April 2005 Raised Beds April 2005 Land Preparation ($1.20/ft) April 2005 April 2005 April 2005 April 2005 4
  • 5. 2/19/2009 Yard Waste Compost Tree and Bush Planting May 2005 May 2005 May 2005 May 2005 Groundhog, Rabbit, Deer Fence Raised Bed Mixed Row 2005 June 2005 August 2005 June 2005 2006 June 2006 - Weeding Cost 2005 Weeding Costs - $1.35/ft Labor hrs (760 hr) = $6,080 2006 Cost - $0.37/ft Landscape Cloth = $1,250 Labor (214 hr) = $1,612 Total = $2,862 5
  • 6. 2/19/2009 2007 2007 HT= $9.50/ft High Tunnel Growth Differences (cm) High Tunnel Yield Differences (g/m) Trt All Ap Blue Rasp Peach Soy Stra Apples Trt Straw S Rasp F Rasp Tom Soy Blue SnP Aph/M No 172 a 232 a 118 a 142 a 271 a 74 a 41 a 19% a No 4673a 2276a 2086a 6806a 1147 a 706a 269a HT HT 196 b 243 a 123 a 185 b 333 b 86 b 44 b 38% b HT 3779b 1162b 3736b 8764b 1348 b 951a 387a Inc. 14% 30% 23% 16% 7% % -19% 96% 79% 23% 16% - - Tunnels have a shading impact and reduce wind Strawberries are primarily wind and gravity pollinated Japanese Beetle Japanese Beetle (July-Aug) (July-Aug) 2006, 2007 Year No. JB 2006 2007 Crop No. JB % JB % 2005 15,000 Rasp 30,146 52 109,292 39 2006 60,000 Peach 22,789 38 11,047 4 2007 283,000 Soy 1,851 3 108,239 38 2008 441,000 Straw 1,652 3 20,232 7 Blue 1,486 3 32,115 11 Trt Apple 488 1 2,801 1 High Tunnel 11,300 (4%) Tomato 0 0 110 0 No HT 271,700 (96%) 6
  • 7. 2/19/2009 Japanese Beetle Arthropod Collections 2005-08 Raspberry (JB/5ft/date) Sweep net samples Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct Trt 2006 2007 Cultivar 2006 2007 Total Beneficial Pest Incidentals Royalty 3.1 a 15.5 a Families 139 53 37 51 MR 10.4 a 35.0 b Indiv ’05 25,258 16% 54% 30% CB 11.7 ab 29.8 c Carol 12.0 b 36.4 b ‘06 06 16,202 16 202 21% 50% 29% RB 13.3 bc 43.6 a Prelude 22.9 c 57.7 c ‘07 24,118 21% 51% 28% SR 15.3 c 37.8 b ’08 23,493 20% 45% 32% Prelude Royalty Insect Individuals (2006) Harvest 2008 Crop % Pest %Nat. E. Strawberry 50.3 15.6 Peach 35.7 24.7 Raspberry 51.2 12.5 Blueberry 44.6 23.2 Apple 61.4 17.4 Soybean 48.3 10.5 Potato 73.8 13.6 Tomato 49.5 11.1 Harvest Evaluations 2006 Harvest Evaluations 2007 Trt Straw S.Rasp F.Ras Tom SnP Soy Blue Trt Soy S.Rasp Straw Tom Pot SR 2984 903 1512 3685 170 1021 882 SR 32 a 381 a 1407 a 2338 a 486 b CB 2707 1034 1429 5429 250 694 551 CB 59 b 279 a 1310 a 2083 a 300 a MR 2542 797 1685 4193 260 880 661 MR 47 b 289 a 1314 a 2420 a 275 a RB 3287 1403 1424 6965 512 1064 662 RB 56 b 505 a 1619 a 3086 b 475 b % 20 54 - 57 125 - - % 67 81 24 48 73 inc inc 7
  • 8. 2/19/2009 Total Hours to Harvest all Crops 2005 Crop Dollars per Foot of Row (green beans, tomatoes, sweet corn & soybeans) 30 Treatment Hours/Meter/Person 25 CB 7.31a 20 MR 6.82a RB 6.44a 15 SR 5.78a 10 Means followed by the same letter are not significantly 5 different (LSD, P>0.05) Labor Cost = $1.00/ft for $8/hr for 6 months 0 GrBean SwCorn EdSoy Tom GrTom Apple Straw Rasp Peach Blue Establishment Costs Conclusions to Date 2005 2006 Establishment Seeds $ 484 • Jap. Beetles were a big problem in ‘07 ‘08 Soil prep Plants $ 176 5,015 Harvest material (qts, pts, container) 292 especially on rasp, soybeans or peaches Fencing/Irrigation 1,956 Weed Control Sub total 7,147 Landscape cloth 1,033 • High Tunnels Crops - had the fewest JBs, best Weed Control Labor - 760h (weed, mulch) 6,080 Staples Labor -182h 216 1,456 growth, nicest fruit ($ 9.50/ft) Mulch (17 truck loads) 4,250 Sub total 2,705 Sub total 10,330 Trellis • Strawberry & Peaches had the most Raised Beds Materials 2,280 T-post Lumber 290 310 biodiversity Total $19,757 Screws, wire 49 Sub total 649 • Peaches had the lowest % pests & highest % Misc. Total 590 $4,720 natural enemies Total investment $24,477 • Potatoes had the highest % pests per plot 1,530 (+ RB $1.20) $/ft $3.20 (+ HT= $9.50/ft) Conclusions to Date Questions? • Raised beds ($1.20/ft) - were easy to harvest and the best yield on some crops • Staff wanted solid rows on raised beds • Paid for capital improvements (plants, fence, irrigation, t ) ft i i ti etc.) after year 2 • $ 10/ft may be obtainable when under full production, with the correct market & certainly would be easier with a higher price than in grocery stores 8