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Students’ Attitude towards Civil Service of Pakistan

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Khan, F. J. and Musleh-ud D. (2009). Students’ Attitude towards Civil Service of Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review. Volume 48-4.

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Students’ Attitude towards Civil Service of Pakistan

  1. 1. l Students’ Attitude towards Civil Service of Pakistan: A Perception Survey Faheem Jehangir Khan Research Economist, PIDE faheem ide. or . k Musleh-ud Din Chief of Research, PIDE musIehuddin@gide. org. gk
  2. 2. I Introduction {IR 2009
  3. 3. i Introduction - Civil Service of Pakistan (CSP) a prestigious occupation offering numerous perks and benefits administrative power and high social status every year, thousands of applicants compete .1 only a fraction eventually makes it (around 6% during 2000-06) s Growing perception about CSP .1 might be losing its attraction: a salary structure a growing competition from the private sector a mounting criticism for its inefficiency, and failure to modernize _: FPSC also highlighted the waning interest of highly qualified students (FPSC Annual Report 2005, Summary to the President, Page vii) L| .L~ Ffk 2on9
  4. 4. Introduction (Contd) Survey conducted to explore the students’ attitudes towards the CSP Study reports some key findings of the survey stylized facts about participants in the CSS examination (FPSC) survey methodology and key characteristics of the respondents examines students’ occupation choice (Public or Private Sector) student’s level of awareness about CSS students’ attitudes towards the civil service key findings (Concluding Section) LLLLLL
  5. 5. i CSS Participants: Some Stylized Facts UK 1009
  6. 6. CSS Participants: Some Stylized Facts Participation Trend of the CSS Candidates Table 1: Partici ation of candidates in CSS exams numbers ercentage Years Total Male Female A eared Selected A eared (%) Selected (%) A eared (%) Selected (%) 2000 4669 206 41 19 (88) I77 (86) 550 (12) 29 (14) 2001 2675 159 2271 (85) 131 (82) 404 (15) 28 (18) 2002 2893 159 2405 (83) 129 (81) 488 (17) 30 (19) 2003 3079 208 2433 (79) 181 (87) 646 (21) 27 (13) 2004 3455 167 2675 (77) 126 (75) 780 (23) 41 (25) 2005 3678 160 2860 (78) 130 (81) 818 (22) 30 (19) 2006 4125 180 3181 (77 147 82 944 23) 33 18 Source: FPSC Annual Reports (2001-2007) ' K . .'l‘l‘= —.'
  7. 7. CSS Participants: Some Stylized Facts (Contd. ) Region-wise participation of CSS candidates 2500 - is 400 2250 — - __ 350 2000 — 300 1750 U , I 1500 2 , - I I . , i " 25° 1250 - ' = -4 200 1000 A _ 3150 750 I ~ 100 500+ , ‘ _3 3, - _ 4 “ I In 3° 0 ‘ ‘i -211-: ‘ '7: 111 ZZZT jj : : _ 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 til Punjab ii NWFP ii Sindh —Balochistan —9—FATA& AJK Not mentioned
  8. 8. CSS Participants: Some Stylized Facts (Contd. ) n Participation of candidates in relation to their family income Table 2: Family income of the CSS candidates Percentage 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Below Rs. 100,000 42 27 25 13 27 7 8 Rs. 1 00,000 — 400,000 24 42 41 31 49 56 43 Rs.400,000 and above 4 11 13 34 20 32 27 Income not reported 30 20 21 22 4 8 22 Source: FPSC Annual Reports (2001-2007) UK 2009
  9. 9. CSS Participants: Some Stylized Facts (Contd. ) Participation of candidates‘ in relation to their fathers‘ education 45% - 40% - 35%- 30% - 25% - 20%- 15%- 10% - 5% - 0%« 1 1 I Undergraduate lvatric and Below Matric Iliterate Religious Not Mentioned and above htemiediate I 2001 2002 II 2003 2004 E 2005 E 2006 Ffk 2009
  10. 10. CSS Participants: Some Stylized Facts (Contd. ) Figure 1: Outcome of competitive examination 2000-2006 9000 I ~ 1000 A 900 800 A 700 600 500 ‘ 400 300 A 200 1 100 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 I: /ipplied l: lAppeared I': 'lPass Exam —A—Pass vivavoce —a—Trainingl yrfllrlx . .'l‘1“—. ‘
  11. 11. i Survey Methodology and Data Ffk 20 09
  12. 12. i Survey Methodology and Data a Survey Methodology .1 Questionnaire design .1 Pre-Testing u Questionnaire sent to 18 universities .1 Convenient Sampling Approach 0 A total of 260 students were interviewed from nine universities UK 2009
  13. 13. i Survey Methodology and Data (Contd. ) Figure 2: Students interviewed by level of education 30% - 76% 70% _ 66% 60% - 50°/ o - 40°/0 < 30% - 20%- 9°/ o 8% 9% ’°°’°‘ AE 5 0°/ o 1 71% I 18"/ °-14% 16% I 7% 2% 4% IMa| e I I I Female Under-grad Graduate Post-grad Doctorate D Total UK 2009
  14. 14. 4 Survey Methodology and Data (Contd. ) Figure 3: Roots in Civil Service Other Family Relative/ Friend, 31% ‘Z Other, 20% Cousin, 13% - Father’ 5% 3 4% Mother, 1% Uncle/ Aunt, " he ~Brother/ Sister, 5% 22% Grand Father/ Mother, 2% ; rl-: .'m= —.-
  15. 15. i Students’ Preference for Public or Private Sector Employment UK 2009
  16. 16. i Students’ Preference for Public or Private Sector Employment Fiure 4: Preference towards public or private sector 5 % 60% ~ 1 . A % 49% 51% 0 50% - A . 4 % . /o 40% - A . . 30% - A ' . . 20% - A . : 1°'’/ ° ‘ 5 5 u Public I Private Percentage o% Male Female Total Ffk Z009
  17. 17. I Students’ Preference for Public or Private Sector Employment (Contd. ) - Factors determining Students’ Preference handsome/ competitive salary package exposure and better learning opportunities performance—based promotion opportunities job security promise for a better living standard social status/ prestige UDUDCJD UK 2009
  18. 18. l Students’ Preference for Public or Private Sector Employment (Contd) n Preference for “PRIVATE SECTOR” CI ‘handsome/ competitive salary package’ as a prime factor a Followed by, ‘exposure and learning opportunities’, ‘performance-based promotion opportunities’, and ‘promise for a better living standard’ a least interested to mark job security’ UK 1009
  19. 19. Students’ Preference for Public or Private Sector Employment (Contd. ) Private Sector Offers Handsomelcompetitive Salary Package 80% — 70% 60% ~ 50%— 40% - 30% a 20% ~ 10% — 0% 1 65°/ o El Prime D Second Prime Male Female Total V '3 E"°°“'a9’"9
  20. 20. | Students’ Preference for Public or Private Sector Employment (Contd. ) Private Sector offers Job Security 50% g % % . . 45% — ‘ ' 4 40% ~ ' ' 35% _ i 3 % % 3 % . 30% ~ ‘ ' ‘ 25% * ' ' ' 20°/ o — ' ' 15% « - - 10°/ o ~ - ' 5% < ‘ ' r u Male % 2 % 0% 1 Female Total I Prime I Second Prime El Encouraging Ffk 2009
  21. 21. Students’ Preference for Public or Private Sector Employment (Contd. ) H Preference for “ a A majority of these students ranked job security’ as a prime factor influencing their preference for the public sector. a This was followed by factors emphasising ‘social status’, ‘exposure and learning opportunities’, ‘better living standard’, and ‘performance-based promotion opportunities’. at Least interested to mark ‘handsome/ competitive salary package’
  22. 22. I Students’ Preference for Public or Private Sector Employment (Contd. ) Figure 11: Public Sector offers Job Security 8% . % . 6% . . . . . % . . , . . . % . . 1% % 2°/ = ' 0% _ _ _ Qty Under-grad Graduate Post-grad Doctorate 80% I Prime I Second Prime El Encouraging UK 2009
  23. 23. l Awareness of CSS Examination Ffk zone
  24. 24. l Awareness of Competitive Examination n Awareness of procedures and requirements for CSS Examination .1 Syllabus 3 Minimum qualification for CSS : _: Occupational Group .1 Application procedure, and .1 Age limit UK 1009
  25. 25. l Career as Civil Servant {IR 2009
  26. 26. Career as Civil Servant Career as Civil Servant 60% 5 / . 50% 40% % 37% 30% 2 % 27% 20% _ T 1 0 A A 10% _ V r _ ‘ INo Male Female Total D Not Sure Percentage I Yes Ffk Z009
  27. 27. l Career as Civil Servant (Contd. ) 80% - 70% * 60% 4 50% ‘ 40% ‘ 30% J 20% 4 10°/ o " 0°/ o 3% 3% % Under-grad Figure 5: Career as Civil Servant Graduate Post-grad .5 0/, . . % 4 % % . . . % 2 / o . 2 °/0 . . . 1 . . . % . 5% Doctorate Ffk 2009
  28. 28. l Career as Civil Servant (Contd. ) Figure 6: Factors Influencing Students‘ Decision to join CSP 80"/ or 7 . . 70%1 6 % 1 60% 5 % 50%1 . 1 39% 42* 38% 40%‘ 1 34% 3 27% 2 % 30%’ 18% % 20%’ 9% 9% % I Very Important 10%’ I important 00/04 '| ' r 1- . r Job Security Social Statusl Good Salary Authority to Guaranteed Perks 0 Less Important Prestige Package Make Decisions Pension Ffk 2009
  29. 29. | Career as Civil Servant (C0ntd. ) u Preference for CSP Groups 1. Foreign Service of Pakistan Commerce and Trade Group Police Service of Pakistan (PSP) Office Management Group (OMG)/ Secretariat Group (SG) District Management Group (DMG) Postal Group Pakistan Railways Accounts Group . °°. ‘.07.0‘ . -‘>. WN Ffk 2on9
  30. 30. | Career as Civil Servant (Contd. ) Preference of CSP Groups Secretariat Police DMG Commerce & Trade Income Tax Information Custom and Excise F0739" 5e"V5C9$ Cantonment OMG | Postal Railways Fjk 2009
  31. 31. | Career as Civil Servant (Contd. ) Table 4: Students’ attitude towards Civil Service Percentage Approving Disapproving Indifferent Not sure 31.09 38.66 17.65 12.61 43.97 17.02 21.99 17.02 41.15 27.27 16.75 14.83 24.39 24.39 36.59 14.63 40.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 Under-grad 13.04 60.87 13.04 13.04 Graduate 43.01 22.04 17.74 17.20 Post-grad 30.00 32.50 27.50 10.00 Doctorate 36.36 18.18 45.45 0.00 Total 38.08 26.92 20.00 15.00 {IX 2009
  32. 32. I Career as Civil Servant (C0ntd. ) u Factors contributing to disapproving attitude recruitment system is not fair political influence limited freedom of action and initiation less competitive salary package limited vision and creativity, and less attraction in CSP after the devolution of power CIDUCIUEJ UK 2on9
  33. 33. l Key Findings a Civil Service as ‘preferred occupation’ Cl Students who considered public sector as their preferred choice appeared to be more interested in social status and future job security rather than the salary structure. a ‘Foreign Service of Pakistan’ emerged as the most preferred choice of the students and the ‘Accounts Group’ the least preferred. a ‘District Management Group’ no longer enjoyed the popular position UK 1009
  34. 34. l Key Findings (Contd. ) - A majority of students considered ‘lack of fairness in recruitment’ followed by ‘political influence’ and ‘limited freedom of action and initiation’ as most important factors underlying their disapproving view towards the civil service. in Though a majority of students were veg well aware of the ‘minimum qualifications’ and ‘age-limit’, however they were poorly informed about the ‘syllabus’, ‘occupational groups’ and ‘application procedures’ UK 1009
  35. 35. | Thank You mt 2009

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