Energy crises is the result of increasing populations, lake of resources,
high demand of power and no planning in past. The major cause of
short fall of energy is theft of energy in Pakistan. On the other hand
raising the fuel prices is the big cause of generating electricity.
Load shedding lasting for hours are the sign of the energy crisis in
Pakistan. The reason is simple: the demand for electricity in Pakistan
exceeds supply by 5,000 MW.
First is the affordability challenge. Pakistan generates very expensive
electricity. The cost per unit kilowatt-hour (kWh) of generated
electricity in Pakistan is around 14 Rupees. Consumers, on average,
pay 11.50 Rupees per kWh. The systematic subsidy, which is almost
15 per cent of the cost, adds up to billions in losses.
Collection is another challenge, where the distribution companies fail
to collect outstanding dues from consumers. The recovery rate ranges
between 80 % to 90 %. We assume that Pakistan generates 100 units of
electricity. The system loses 22 units to theft. Thus, only 78 units reach
consumers. The distribution companies collect approximately 85 % of
the amounts billed to consumers. The system, therefore, recovers
revenue for only 66 units of the 100 generated.
Pakistan’s Energy Sector:
Pakistan’s energy infrastructure is not well developed, rather it is
considered to be underdeveloped and poorly managed. Currently the
country is facing several energy crises. The demand exceeds supply
and hence load-shedding is a common phenomenon through power
Pakistan needs around 15,000 to 20,000 MW
electricity per day, however, currently it is able
to produce about 11,500 MW per day hence
there is a shortfall of about 4,000 to 9,000 MW
per day. This shortage is badly affecting the
economic growth of the country.
Pakistan’s energy consumption is met by mix
of gas, oil, electricity, and coal and LPG sources
with different level of shares. Gas consumption
stood at 43.7 %, oil 29.0 %, electricity 15.3 %,
coal 10.4 % and LPG 1.5 %.
In 2009-10, consumption of petroleum products
was 29 % of total share of energy. Petroleum is
also used in generation of electricity, which
counts 64 % of total electricity generation
(34 % coming from hydro generation).
Importance of natural gas is increasing rapidly.
Average production of natural gas is aprox 4
million cubic feet per day as against 3 million
during last year, showing an increase of 1.56%.
Hydro power is generated by using electricity
generators to extract energy from moving
water. Pakistan is having rich resources of
energy in hydro power; however, only 34 %
of total electricity generation is coming from
hydro power. Currently we are having 6,555 MW.
Wind power uses the power of the wind
to rotate the blades of wind turbines. These
turbines cause the rotation of magnets, which
creates electricity. Though Pakistan has
potentials of wind energy ranging from 10,000
MW to 50,000 MW.
Solar power involves using solar cells to
convert sunlight into electricity. Pakistan
has potential of more than 100,000 MW
from solar energy.
Nuclear power stations use nuclear Reaction to
generate energy by the reaction of Uranium
with a nuclear reactor. Pakistan has a small
nuclear power program, with 425 MW only,
but there are plans to increase this capacity.
Growing Energy Demand:
Growing energy demand is the big cause of energy shortfall, over the
years, there is greater need of energy because of;
Increase in population.
Industrial and agricultural growth.
Lack of planning for production of energy:
In Pakistan, due to lack of planning, very less number of power
producing plant were installed to meet the demands. Over the years,
the gap between energy demand and supply increases.
Possible solution for all these problems that causes of energy crises in
Pakistan. Pakistan’s government takes quick serious action and builds
dams for future. They have been used renewable recourses of energy
like hydro, nuclear, solar energy, geothermal, biogases and wind
energy. The people of Pakistan should play their role in saving the
energy and reducing the consumption of energy. Government of
Pakistan should adopted modern technology and increase the level of
production related to energy.