European Football As Cultural Hegemony

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The Westerners had one way or the other positioned themselves (values, culture, beliefs, development) as the best and the most sort after, in which other Third World countries (developing nations) should depend on their product to survive. This study thus tried to ascertain the tool of hegemony used by the westerners in European football as a form of cultural control.

The study adopted the Theory of Hegemony, and Conversational theory for its theoretical framework. It also adopted the survey research method, and a questionnaire was the data collection instrument. The population of the study is football viewers in Surulere area of Lagos State with a sample size of 150 respondents. The sampling technique adopted was convenient sampling.

Major findings of the study shows that a high percentage of the respondents are youths who fall between the ages of 18-25 years in which they are familiar with watching European football in the viewing Centre. The study also revealed majority of the respondents (viewing Centre users) are not aware that European football has an element of control (hegemony) hence; they saw it as legitimate and mere pursuit of happiness.

This thus, confirms that hegemony is a special form of ideological power in which the ruled perceives the control as a way of life not minding the sublime effect and its consequences. Hegemony is achieved, won, and sustained through won consent.

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European Football As Cultural Hegemony

  1. 1. 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.0 Background to the Study Sport is well placed for the development of both national identity and national pride. It has the ability to develop pro-social behaviour and social capital within a community – both of which promote the maintenance of mental well-being. Social interaction, social cohesion, a sense of place and community, trust, norms and networks that facilitate cooperation and mutual benefit are all possible, but not necessarily guaranteed outcomes of sport. Sport can also provide these outcomes at the local, community level, not just at the national level. (Abell, Condor, Lowe, Gibson, & Stevenson, 2007) However football as a kind of sport, is a game played by two teams of eleven (11) players each on a rectangular, 100-yard-long field with goal lines and goal posts at either end, the object being to gain possession of the ball and advance it in running or passing plays across the opponent's goal line or kick it through the air between the opponent's goal posts.(Merriam Webster Dictionary 2003), According to McCray (2001) the first official football game was played on November 6th 1869 and was played between Rutgers and Princeton. However, unofficial games were played before that, as far back as the 1840s in England. Arguably the most popular sport in the world, football called soccer in North America dates to antiquity with games that were similar in nature. According to The Federation Internationale de
  2. 2. 2 Football Association, the governing body of international football association otherwise known as FIFA, the contemporary history of the world's favourite game spans more than 100 years. It all began in 1863 in England, when rugby football and association football branched off on their different courses and the Football Association in England was formed - becoming the sport's first governing body. The evolution of football as we know it today took place in Britain. The game that flourished in the British Isles from the eighth to the 19th centuries featured a considerable variety of local and regional versions - which were subsequently smoothed down and smartened up to create the modern-day sports of association football, rugby football and, in Ireland, Gaelic football. Curiously, it was not until nine years after the rules of football had been first established in 1863 that the size and weight of the ball were finally standardized. Agreement on this point was usually reached by the parties concerned when they were arranging the match, as was the case for a game between London and Sheffield in 1866. This encounter was also the first where the duration was pre-arranged for 90 minutes. Football is one of the most popular sports of the world, and is often regarded as most globalized profession. We can say that history of football is quite long and glorious. Today, the best players and their services can be offered to clubs in different countries and whatever the price they want and the top players can make salaries of millions a year plus whatever additional endorsements they receive. The globalization in football has benefited many European countries, and teams enabling them to find a wider support base outside their traditional local areas. Today, majority of the clubs have multiple foreign players, simply implying Football as global sport. To be very precise, the game of football has now become a global sport where spectators from all over the world can enjoy
  3. 3. 3 variety of different leagues. The globalization of football has created international rivalries yet it has also the power to bring communities together. Simply referring to FIFA World Cup competitions, we can say the tournament brings the world of Football together for an entire month. According to Franklin Foer (2006), he argued that the national teams usually create a tribal sense of nationalisms amongst the football supporters and fans. He further explains that the nationalism is shown in wearing football shirts, craves as well as flying flags for expressing pride. According to him, the tournaments including FIFA World Cup competitions, as well as the UEFA European Championships, EUROPA league, and different European Nations League like Premiership of England, La, Liga of Spain, Bundesliga of Germany, Ligue 1 of France and Scudetto of Italy, bring Football supporters (fans) from different nations of the world and this naturally lead to the globalization of football game. We can simply say that different tournaments play major role in making Football as a global sport. However, the game of football brings players together form every part of the world. Besides the game of football, also brings together football fans, coaches and clubs from every part of the world. For instance that game of football helps to unite the nation of Ghana and it gained independence from British imperial rule in 1957 (J. Lord 2008). Ghana has now become one of the most passionate football nations in both Africa and the world. Having enumerated few instances and glamour of football, the game is however used by its originator as a tool of structural control to influence its supporters for economic and socio- political gain for the latter.
  4. 4. 4 “Football is often used by the colonizers to foster a sense of discipline and hard work, but mostly it was meant to help control. However, this control was often flipped on its head and used against the colonizer. Sport in the British Empire served as a unifying force, often Imbibing nationalist rhetoric, with matches serving as focused representations of the climate of social and political struggle. Football was the most popular sport in the empire and it often unified the colonized across economic and social classes. Once adopted, football matches would be opportunities for indigenous people to resist.” (Hutchinson 2009) However J. Lord (2008) also corroborated Hutchison‟s claims, “Like many other colonial imports, football was a European invention, but one popularized through the grassroots enthusiasm and organization of Africans. Some missionaries promoted the game because they believed it would instil the values of sobriety, obedience, selflessness and co-operation. Other teams were founded to satisfy the demand from Africans who had seen, and imitated Europeans playing the game. In any case, Africans soon gained effective control of these teams or, after chafing against European interference, set up independent alternatives.” Football was the perfect method by which the colonizers could impose their value systems onto the Africans; it was inherently fun, a game, but as an organized sport, carried with it many values that Europeans believed one needed to adopted for a person to become successful; it was a “means of inculcating respect for the values of time, discipline and authority within the minds and spirits of the colonized.” Ironically, the Africans beat the colonizing Europeans at their own game, and appropriated football as a tool for their own resistance to colonization. Thus, European football had the opposite effect than what the Europeans had intended regarding the power struggle between themselves and the African population. In addition, since no Man can escape ideology, European football as grew to become a belief, and values of the supporters, they cannot do without watching European football leagues to
  5. 5. 5 satisfy their wants which was exported by the power elite (Britain) to control their minds and to see European Football as the best they could have, at the detriment of our Local Football leagues. Symbolic power of the media has been used by the exporters of European football, to shape and cultivate our attitude towards watching foreign football matches. Thompson citied in Watson (2003) expressed that “Symbolic power works through images (linguistics, pictorial, aural) to create and mobilize support for a cause and it‟s integral to the operation of the other power forms”. European football has become a special form of control, one based not upon coercion or force, but resulting from successive persuasion or enculturalization. The teeming population of football lovers had accepted the controlling influence and the decision-making of foreign football. European football had won the general consensus of people; especially Lagos fans (supporters) Antonio Gramsci citied in Watson (2003) argued that “a state of Hegemony is achieved when a Provisional alliance of certain groups exerts a consensus which makes the power of the dominant group appear natural and legitimate.” Therefore the success of international football as a cultural hegemony achieved through general agreement. “in the twentieth century, the dominant ideology has shifted towards sanctifying consumer satisfaction as the premium definition of the „pursuit of happiness‟ in this way justifying corporate domination of the economy. What is hegemonic in consumer capitalist ideology is precisely the notion that happiness, or liberty, or equality or fraternity can be affirmed through the existing private commodity forms under the benign, protective eye of the national security state.”(Gitlin 2002) European Football has been capitalist oriented. Nowadays people now live on Football as a means of business, by establishing viewing centre‟s where football lovers can watch different European football leagues matches for example, England Premiership, UEFA Champions League, Europa League and so on.
  6. 6. 6 Different age group of people visit viewing centres to watch their darling football clubs either weekends or during the week leaving their grudges aside or becoming brothers as they watch different matches even after the football match they still continue to discuss different issues that come out during and after the duration of matches. But back home our own football leagues continues to lack proper broadcast to the fans why most of the fans prefer to watch European football to our own league even many of the fans cannot identify players from our local leagues and they can identify unknown players in lower division in foreign clubs in Europe. 1.2 Statement of Problem European football is one of the most popular sports on planet earth, is one the most entertaining sport that emanated from Britain. European Football is however stated to be used by its originator as a tool of structural control to influence its supporters for economic and socio- political gain. The influence of European cultural hegemony on viewing centre‟s users has contributed in no small measure to the dilapidated state of the local football league. The loyalty of fans around the world to European football matches is indirectly promoting the culture, social life, and the economy of the European countries at the detriment of our indigenous local football league. European football had positioned itself to be the leading football leagues in the world because of its cultural and fiscal capital it possess. It had invested in huge advertising to capture audiences and to stay put to the game every time, everywhere, which had added to the ceaseless arguments viewing centre‟s users engaged in, during the cause and after the match played.
  7. 7. 7 Lagos youth, had adopted foreign Football, which was used as a tool to influence their psyche. Now they have preference for western cultures, like speaking, eating and behaving like them. However, purchasing different European football kits like jerseys boots, and so on is albeit satisfying, but it is helping to promote the economy of the western countries in which poses danger to our indigenous local football league. However, it was recorded that football was already been played in Lagos State in Nigeria in the 70‟s, in which it was prosperous with a high number of fans and followers who paid obeisance to their respected local clubs, but a time came when unresolved challenges greeted the Lagos clubs which signposted an advantage for the European football to crept into our local football league to influence our insatiable supporters. Therefore the study seeks to ascertain how European football is used as a tool for cultural control. 1.4 Research Questions The objectives of this study will be achieved through the answers the research questions will generate. 1. What is the Perception of the viewing centre‟s user to European Football matches? 2. What is the nature of patronage of viewing centre‟s user on European and Local Football matches? 3. What is the pattern of social discourse among viewing Centre‟s users?
  8. 8. 8 1.3 Purpose of the Study Therefore, the objective of this study is highlighted as follows: To understand the perception of the viewing centres user to European football matches. To find out the nature of patronage of viewing centre users on European football and local football matches. To also determine the pattern of Social discourse among viewing centres users. 1.5 Significance of Study This study could be significant as it will make meaningful contributions to the body of knowledge, by creating room for understanding the relevance and the constituents of hegemony in European football. The work will help Nigerian football federation, and Nigerian premier league stakeholders to fund, participate, re-orientate, and control the high dose of European football hegemony we had absorbed and adopted affecting our local football league acceptance by indigenous (fans) supporters over the years. The work will help journalist and media organizations in understanding that they are one of the hegemonic agencies in which they need to exercise their power to help promote the local football league in which profits would be yielded on a long term basis.
  9. 9. 9 The work will help mass communication students in tertiary institutions to understand how hegemony as an ideological power could be used to control, and influence a larger number of people (society) through general consensus. 1.6 Scope of Study The scope of this study will be based mainly on two viewing centres, Sports Bet Viewing Centre, and Sports 360 Viewing Centre is going to be delimitation of this study. This two viewing Centre was choose, because they are one of the most popular viewing centres in Lagos Nigeria, they show Live, all Europeans clubs matches, and teeming youth patronize them to watch and support their darling European teams. However they are located in Surulere Lagos Nigeria.
  10. 10. 10 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction This chapter deals with the conceptual and empirical review of relevant study related to the European Football as cultural Hegemony a study of selected viewing centres, it also provides the theoretical 2.1 Conceptual Review Many work of literature have presented different views concerning television as medium of exporting cultural hegemony to diverse consumers. Each author is either in support or against research findings on the presence or otherwise of media effects, (Sparks, 2006; Traudt, 2005). However, there is somewhat agreement that television exercise considerable attention among public (McQuail, 2005, Ogan 2007). In this chapter the study take a cursory look at various work of literature that cognizance of European Football as Cultural Hegemony, a Study of Selected viewing centres in Lagos State. 2.1.2 Concept of Culture Culture in its wide ethnographic sense is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired my man as a member of society. (Tylor 2007), However, Linton (1994:32), he noted that it is “The total sum of knowledge, attitudes and habitual behaviour patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a particular society” The pattern of life within a community, the regularly recurring activities and material and social arrangements characteristic of a particular group'. Goodenough (1995:7).
  11. 11. 11 Geertz (1997) noted that “Culture is the framework of beliefs, expressive symbols, and values in terms of which individuals define their feelings and make their judgements” (Geertz 1997American Anthropologist 59:32-54). So we can deduce that culture is a historically transmitted pattern of meaning embodied in symbols, a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic form by means which men communicate. Culture can however be learned, shared, integrated, Symbolic and Dynamic. According to Kohl‟s and Knight (2001), expressed that “our culture influences the way we see and perceive the world. In other words, we see the world and react to it in ways that our culture has taught us to see and react. However, the way you perceive the world (we call that your worldview) is not necessarily the way other groups perceive the world.” We each see the world through different filtering lenses, so to speak. Culture is commandeered by structure. 2.1.3 Concept of Cultural Hegemony Jacksons Lears (2000) said, Gramsci‟s translated writings contain no precise definition of cultural hegemony. What comes closest is his often quoted characterization of hegemony as “the spontaneous” consent given by the great masses of the population to the general direction imposed on social life by the dominant fundamental group; this consent is historically caused by the prestige (and consequent confidence) which the dominant group enjoys because of its position and function in the world of production. To have Gramsci “define” the concept in this way is merely to begin unravelling its significance. The process sounds mechanical: ruling groups impose a direction on social life; subordinates are manipulatively persuaded to board the “dominant fundamental” express.
  12. 12. 12 It would be a mistake, though, to rest with conclusion. The concept of cultural hegemony can only be understood within a variety of historical and intellectual contexts. To rely on a single “definition is misleading” giving Athonio Gramsci his due, we need first to recognize the concept of hegemony has little meaning unless paired with the notion of “domination”. For Gramcsi, consent and force nearly always coexist, though one or the other predominates. The tsarist regime for example, ruled primarily through domination- that is by monopolizing the instruments of coercion. Among parliamentary regimes only the weakest are forced to rely on domination: normally they rule through hegemony. Here, culture had been observed to be a tool used by the superiors to dominate and control people. The concept of hegemony is to win a cause through consensus or agreement i.e. a won consent. Stoddart (2000), identified cultural hegemony as an ideology used by the upper class to derive economic and political gain or proceeds, and they achieve this through their wealth of cultural capital. In other words people at the upper class manipulate culture to get as more people fighting their cause for personal interest. However, Watson (2003:12) highlighted “language as the primary means by which the values, norms, and acceptable/ not acceptable patterns of society are formed, expressed and reinforced. Also it is the primary means of defining our realities.” Watson (2003), tried to explain the importance of language in the concept of cultural hegemony, as a tool of manipulation in which norms and values are expressed in clear terms. Gitlin (2002), he noted that in the modern world hegemony‟s greatest institutional exponents and its staunchest defenders are the national and transnational corporations. At the same time, Language and culture are the most powerful modifiers of hegemony, shaping it to their own needs, - their
  13. 13. 13 own interest- to the point of having state governments as it were in their pockets. Perry Anderson (2001:43) explained that Consent involves a complex mental state, a contradictory consciousness mixing approbation and apathy, resistance and resignation. The mix varies from individual to individual: some are more socialized than the others. In any case, ruling groups never engineer consent with complete success; the outlook of subordinate groups is always divided and ambiguous. Gramsci‟s preoccupation with consent led him to recast the “base-superstructure” model of classical Marxism. He narrowed the economic base to include only the material and technical instruments of production; he broadened the superstructure to include political society-i.e. a dictatorship or some other coercive apparatus used to control the masses in conformity with a given type of production and economy-[is] a balance between political society and civil society by which the hegemony of one social group over the entire nation, is exercises through so called private organizations like the church trade unions, or schools. The state in other words is hegemony protected by the armour of coercion while his language suggests that the masses are still the grip of a monolithic ruling class, Gramsci departed ways from classical Marxism. He not only allowed for a more complex superstructure but also reconsidered its relations to the base. Watson (2003:16) Hegemony as an ideology is not merely a system of beliefs that reflects specific class interests; its development is more complex. 21.4 Hegemony Watson (2003), Hegemony is working when there is general consensus, that is when the mass of the population (or most of it) accepts the controlling influence and decision making of that part
  14. 14. 14 of society termed, by the American writer C. Wright Mills, the power Elite – those members of a community who hold or influence the holding of the gearshifts of power. Furthermore, hegemony is rule by won consent. Of all the agencies of hegemonic control the media are generally provided to be the most powerful, hence the requirement for the power elite to exert pressure if not control over the media: better still own it. Hegemony works through ideological state apparatuses (education, religion, the arts, and media) and operates best when those apparatuses are speaking in harmony with one another. In other words various mass mediums/channel should complement each other to have a quantum effect on the masses. Hegemony as a theory was propounded by the Italian Philosopher Anthonio Gramsci (1899- 1937) argued that a state of hegemony is achieved when a provisional alliance of certain groups exerts a consensus which makes the power of the dominant group appear natural and legitimate. It can only be sustained by the won consent of the dominated. Hegemony works most smoothly when there is a substantial degree of social and economic, political and cultural security in a society. When security‟s is undermined, social division rampant, hegemony is at risk and Althuser‟s repressive state Apparatus are brought into action. Hegemony serves to provide power elite with the consent of the ruled. “in the twentieth century, the dominant ideology has shifted towards sanctifying consumer satisfaction as the premium definition of the „pursuit of happiness‟ in this way justifying corporate domination of the economy. What is hegemonic in consumer capitalist ideology is precisely the notion that happiness, or liberty, or equality or fraternity can be affirmed through the existing private commodity forms under the benign, protective eye of the national security state.”(Gitlin 2002)
  15. 15. 15 In conclusion the hegemonic ideology had been used by the power elite to exert psychological control on the teeming masses through using powerful mass media channels like TV radio internet, and huge investment in advertisement to appeal to wider audience. 2.1.5 Football in Africa Alegi (2002) asserted that, African football is affected by the structural inequalities of colonial society, and African football associations encountered the same constraints as non-sporting organizations. Europeans were suspicious of activities and organizations they did not control, and often sought to restrict their activities or co-opt their leadership. Missionaries were hostile to the perceived immorality of players and boisterous fans in independent teams. And efforts by Africans to retain and extend their footballing autonomy were ultimately limited by their political and economic weakness. Teams often relied on grants for equipment and uniforms. Stadia and playing fields were normally owned by the municipal authorities – and these were under European control. Lord (2008), noted that, African footballers and organizers thus had limited leeway to promote their own interests. One Ghanaian team from a mining town complained that it was impossible to fulfil their fixtures on days when the mines team played, and poached their players. And in Congo-Brazzaville, Catholic missionaries took so much of the gate receipts that the players lamented that they “did not even have lemonade money”. The lack of political power also precluded wider pan-African organization. The first international club championship in 1950,
  16. 16. 16 between teams from Belgian Congo and South Africa, was organized by European officials to generate favourable propaganda for colonialism. Football was also used to achieve and display social status in competitive colonial society. This could be the prestige of personal skill, as for the Ghanaian Ekow Glenland, who told the FA he was “commonly known as Kimpo the Devil Boy”. Zulu players were given praise-names previously reserved for warriors and chiefs. Other nicknames were drawn from the movies (Fu Manchu) or consumer culture (Buick), and demonstrate the extent to which colonial social status had become inseparable from symbols of western affluence. Football also bestowed prestige by association. The patron of Asante Kotoko was none other than Agyeman Prempeh II – Prempeh was the Asantehene (the Asante king), an office abolished then later reinstated by the British. A financial patron of a football team could also transfer his loyalties into local political support, and often interfered in tactical matters. The early history of African football is complex and fascinating, and much of the story has yet to be uncovered. But the more historians discover, the more certain it becomes that in colonial Africa, football was never just a game. Martin (2004:119) explained that the early history of football in Africa is perhaps too positive. The game had a darker side: football reflected both the injustices of colonialism, and the internal divisions of African societies. Football in Africa first reflected the fundamental racial divide of colonialism. In settler societies like South Africa teams and associations were strictly segregated on colour lines. And because football was a popular childhood game, it exposed Africans to inequality from an early age. It was a revelation for Ahmed Ben Bella, the first president of
  17. 17. 17 independent Algeria, that his new school had two football teams: one French, one Arab. But it is also true that football transcended some racial barriers, if only temporarily and for small numbers of people. In Northern Rhodesia, for example, white spectators were a common presence at African matches. 2.1.6 Football in Lagos Murphy (2003), accounted that football was already been played in Lagos State in Nigeria in the 70‟s, in which it was prosperous with a high number of fans and followers who paid obeisance to their respected local clubs. These clubs includes Stationery Stores FC, Nepa FC, Leventis, Nigerian Police FC, Union Bank FC, Julius Berger FC, First Bank FC and Flourmills FC. These clubs flourished only for a limited period, it produced footballers which later represented Nigeria in International competition. But a time came when unsolved challenges greeted the Lagos clubs which signposted an advantage for the European football to crept into our local football league to influence our insatiable supporters. However, secondary schools was not excluded in participating in football, Lagos Schools boys is a competition organised for Lagos based secondary schools, which is now known as “Principal Cup competitions” . Secondary schools that participated then were, Igbobi, C.M.S (Christian Mission Society) Grammar school, Apollo Grammar school, Ansa-ru-deen Grammar School, St Finbars, St Gregory, and Kings College respectively.
  18. 18. 18 2.1.7 European Football Cultures and their Integration Football has come to be regarded as an industry, clubs as firms, and players as ordinary, if extraordinarily well paid, salary-earning workers. Hence, it cannot be exempted from rules that apply to all other economic sectors, much as both supply and demand are influenced by powerful non-economic factors. The major tool used by the western world to intergrate and disseminate International Football as a culture is radio and television in 1950 respectively. Football had already followed - and at times anticipated - the main evolutionary lines of development of international relations and, in particular, of European history and politics. Alan Milward (2002 :23) reminded us a few years ago that it is precisely with football and in football that the first bilateral exchanges were re-established and the first pluri-national networks initiated in a continent that had just come out of the Second World War. UEFA was founded in 1954, on FIFA's 50th anniversary, in the wake of a joint Franco-Belgian-Italian initiative. The first European Champions' Cup came about after the European Coal and Steel Community but before the treaty of Rome - even though it was initially dominated by clubs (Real Madrid and Benfica) that did not belong at all to the EEC 'core' - as did the Inter-Cities' Fair Cup. The European Nations' Cup - later called European Championship, and now Euro - came with détente, in the late 1950s, and the Soviet Union even managed to win its first edition in 1960. Football, therefore, was an exported Product - one could provocatively say the most successful and durable one - of the British Empire. An evolution of the running ball game played in the public schools around the middle of the 19th century, and later in "Oxbridge", modern football was officially born in a London tavern, in 1863, with the institution of the Football Association (FA) and the establishment of the 13 basic laws of the game - the so-called "Cambridge rules" -
  19. 19. 19 which ultimately distinguished it from the other ball game: rugby. The first tournament of the FA Cup took place in 1872. Ever since football has spread all over the world as "the English game", following the vectors of the industrial revolution (and the passion of its torch bearers, i.e. Her Majesty's technicians and businessmen) and becoming, albeit more indirectly, the allegory of another primary exported product of 19th century Britain, i.e. the political liberalism of the gentry. Yet there is something curious, even paradoxical in the socio-historical evolution and impact of football. In its country of origin, after a brief supremacy of the "Oxbridge" gentlemen, the FA Cup was dominated by clubs from the industrial and mining North (largely composed by artisans and blue collars) by their projecting on the game the athleticism, speed and vigour that would soon become the distinctive features of the English masters. The kick-and-run attitude of British football made the game less and less aristocratic and drew it closer to the taste and behaviour of the working class and the urban lower middle class. If combativeness and elegance, combined with fair play, characterized the first FA Cup winners, the University of Oxford and the Old Etonians, the advent of a style that was closer to the lower classes of English society brought about - along with a much wider audience and deeper passion - the advent of fans, insults against the referee, and regional, city and neighbourhood rivalries . The upper class, as a consequence, turned to other sports: athletics, rowing, rugby itself - soon dominating in colleges - as well as climbing, riding, tennis, and especially cricket, a classic manifestation of the Empire, its values and territorial order. The famous definition of rugby as a game for hooligans played by gentlemen, as opposed to football as a game for gentlemen played (and followed) by hooligans, dates back to that pivotal moment. However In those years, however, the game began to
  20. 20. 20 resemble what most of us have since known through radio and, especially, television. In 1950, on their first showing in the World Cup. In 1954 Eurovision broadcasting began too, thus opening a new era to the game. In the same year, on June 15, UEFA was founded as the first continental football confederation emanated from 50-years-old FIFA, with 25 member associations, and was based in Nyon, Switzerland. In 1955, when the European Cup started, the English Football Association refused Chelsea (that had just won the first division) permission to take part in the competition, claiming it would play havoc with the schedule of domestic games. In doing that, it curiously found itself in perfect tune with the decision of the Foreign Office, on the eve of the Messina Conference, not to join the EEC (although they would both change their mind in the following years). In a way, therefore, the world title of 1966 - England's only victory in any official international football competition thus far, at the climax of the 'swinging' 1960s - and the many European cups that English teams would subsequently win may be considered as the (belated) product of a tradition that was still little known on the continent, rather than the outcome of an original primacy bound to perpetuate itself over time. Kuper (1994) cited in Antonio Missiroli (2008) argued, that since 1990 the world of football in general, and of European football in specific, has undergone structural change. The main driving force has certainly been - once again - television, most notably satellite and cable TV. In 1992 the English Football Association and Rupert Murdoch's Sky Sports channel announced a ground- breaking deal that gave Murdoch exclusive rights to live coverage of the English Premier
  21. 21. 21 League. The contract became just another 'model' for the rest of Europe, thus generating huge extra profits for clubs, national football federations, UEFA and FIFA. As a consequence, the traditional rules of the game were slightly changed in order to enhance its pace and offensive character. In 1991 the European Cup was turned into the Champions' League, with a broader roster of participants and a different format. The choice of the World Cup host country has increasingly been dictated by commercial reasons, from the Unites States in 1994 to Japan and South Korea in 2002 (and perhaps South Africa in 2010). At the same time, European leagues have retained and even increased their world primacy by drawing the best talents of the entire world to their bigger teams, thus strengthening the foot drain. To sum up, there seems to have been frequent and recurrent relations between events in the organization of football and the overall process of European cooperation (or lack thereof) and then integration, and one is strongly tempted to drew comparisons between them. Indeed, European football can be seen as a microcosm of tensions between the EC/EU and the Nation- State (and between member States), between managed and free market (and trade), between Europe and the wider world, and between local/national identities and globalization. However, it looks very difficult to convincingly fit all these developments (past and present) in a single analytical framework, be it geopolitics, dependency theory, IPE, liberal institutionalism, or just post-modernism. More plausibly, explaining the relationship between football and international politics (possibly like European integration itself) requires a certain amount of sound eclecticism - and, of course, passion.
  22. 22. 22 2.1.8 European Football as Business Kuper (1994), cited in Antonio Missiroli (2008), argued, that since 1990 the world of football in general, and of European football in specific, has undergone structural change. The main driving force has certainly been - once again - television, most notably satellite and cable TV. In 1992 the English Football Association and Rupert Murdoch's Sky Sports channel announced a ground- breaking deal that gave Murdoch exclusive rights to live coverage of the English Premier League. The contract became just another 'model' for the rest of Europe, thus generating huge extra profits for clubs, national football federations, UEFA and FIFA. In essence, the aim of European Football is to get wider reach, and audience, in order to make them a commodity afterwards. Missiroli (2008) noted that „transfer fees and contracts for players have skyrocketed, and the gap between richer and poorer clubs (and leagues) has widened: some of the richest teams have even been listed on the stock exchange, and new entrepreneurs have entered a booming market in which merchandising, sporting goods promotion, and pay-per-view returns have become at least as important as the fans' faithful support and passion. At times, traditional allegiances have been affected by the increasingly pluri-national character of most club teams: take Ajax, Chelsea, Milan, Inter, Barcelona, where "foreigners" often are in a majority on and off the pitch. At the same time, many more national teams have been admitted to international competitions, in Europe and worldwide.
  23. 23. 23 2.1.9 Viewers Demographics Certain demographics characteristics determine media habits of viewers, and explain the audience behaviour from the social category perspective, Schramm and Roberts (1972:43) in Fakayode, 2003) stated that the groups people belong to, had something to do with their communication habits, and these membership lead them to choose and react to messages in such a way as to defend the common norms of the group they value. (Ajibade and Esan 2001:45) add that demographics also determine the social status of individual in the society. With the knowledge of the age, sex, level of education and other demographic elements, “it becomes possible to situate individuals in the societal strata”. Demographics are used to categorize population. Bittner (1997:370) states that “demographic characteristics are the basic statistical data on such things as age, sex, educational level, income, and ethnic background. Demographics are used more often than any other method to pinpoint a specialized audience in view of this (Folarin 2008:59) added; that the basic assumption here is that members of a given social category (determine by age, sex, socio-economic status etc) will seek out similar message which they will also respond to more or less similarly, all things being equal. 2.1.9.1 Viewers Psychographics Bittner (1997:317) says, “Psychographics attempt to define and to distinguish the psychological characteristics of the audience” Each audience consists of individuals who would have their different psychological differences. In view of this, members of the viewers or audience do not respond to a given mass media message in a uniform way. Each is predisposed to it by its own
  24. 24. 24 set of personal values, attitudes, belief perception, prejudices, preferences and other psychological factors. Ajibade and Esan (2001:38). This means that the demographic characteristics are not sufficient to define viewership. An added psychological study of viewership may bring about a proper understanding of its structure and composition. 2.2 Review of related Empirical Study In a study carried out by Oguntuwase (1999) on viewing behaviours of Lagos Youths on Foreign Football leagues in Lagos. The study use survey method as its research design and sample out of 150 respondents in Lagos mainland Local government areas and use multi-stage as research technique in his study. In his findings, it reveals that most of the male youths are aware of the foreign broadcast of football league in Lagos; the study confirmed that most of the youths have preferences for foreign football broadcast on different channels in Lagos. Oba Laaro, (1998) carried out a research on “Television Viewership among University of Lagos Students”. His findings indicated that the attention should be given to the medium as a means of conveying information to the students and the general public. Also, in a research conducted by (Okon 2004) on “attitude of Lagos audience towards the broadcast of foreign football on local channels in Lagos” the researchers use survey as study method, and use descriptive technique to carry out his sampling through using interview guide and questionnaire as research instruments. They study reveals that the most of Lagos audience like to see the foreign football league broadcast on national television in Lagos.
  25. 25. 25 2.3 Theoretical Framework According to Earl Babbie (1989) cited in Babatunde Folarin (2005) expressed that a theory is a generalized and more less comprehensive set of statements relating to different aspects of some phenomenon. However Denis McQuail (2003) said a theory consists of set ideas of varying status and origin which seek to explain or interpret some phenomenon. 2.3.1 Theory of Hegemony The theory of hegemony was propounded by an Italian philosopher Anthinio Gramsci (1899- 1937) who argued that a state of hegemony is achieved when a provisional alliance of certain groups exerts a consensus which makes the power of the dominant group appear natural and legitimate, it can only be sustained by won consent of the dominated. In its simplest sense, hegemony means control over yet in referring to hegemonic control we are not repeating the same thing using another phrase, but describing a special form of control, one based not on coercion or force, but resulting from successful persuasion. Hegemony is working when there is a general consensus that is when the mass of the population (or most of it) accepts the controlling influences and decision making of that part of society.Hegemony works smoothly when there is a substantial degree of social, economic, political and cultural security in a society. It provides the power elite with the consent of the ruled. This theory formed a framework for this study, with the ideology of International Football that was exported to the world by the power elite which are the westerners. They (power elites) made European Football win the heart of many, through agreement or consensus, however European Football had been a special form of ideological power that control the youths of Lagos sate, to the extent that they pay to watch their darling European Football teams play in viewing centres. It is a form of structural control.
  26. 26. 26 The westerners (power elite) have package Foreign Football as a cultural product sold to the entire world, hegemony being a capitalist oriented theory, they had made international Football a business where great media corporations pay a quantum of money to have exclusive rights to show the match in which other syndicate media could buy into for the purpose of profit making. 2.3.2 Conversational Theory Conversation theory is a cybernetic and dialectic framework that offers a scientific theory to explain how interactions lead to "construction of knowledge", or, "knowing": wishing to preserve both the dynamic/kinetic quality, and the necessity for there to be a "knower". This work is proposed by Gordon Pask in the 1970s. (Martin and Dobson 1999) Pangaro (2000) expressed that Conversation theory regards social systems as symbolic, language-oriented systems where responses depend on one person's interpretation of another person's behaviour, and where meanings are agreed through conversations. But since meanings are agreed, and the agreements can be illusory and transient, scientific research requires stable reference points in human transactions to allow for reproducible results. Pask found these points to be the understandings which arise in the conversations between two participating individuals, and which he defined rigorously. Scott (2011), he opined, that Conversation theory describes interaction between two or more cognitive systems, such as a teacher and a student or distinct perspectives within one individual, and how they engage in a dialog over a given concept and identify differences in how they understand it.
  27. 27. 27 Klemm (2002) noted that Conversation theory came out of the work of Gordon Pask on instructional design and models of individual learning styles. In regard to learning styles, he identified conditions required for concept sharing and described the learning styles holist, serialist, and their optimal mixture versatile. Thus, this theory signpost how Football Supporters/ fans converse in the viewing centres and how knowledge is been constructed when they (fans) start to analyse football. The viewing centre as a Public Sphere is a place where social values is been transacted, where all forms of social information is accessible to the public (fans). Here, current news on Football players, clubs coaches, and funds in European Football would be dialogued amidst the fans in which other person present in the Public sphere (viewing centre) will get new information about European Football which afterwards forms an ideology in the minds of such European Football Fans.
  28. 28. 28 CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHOD 3.0 Introduction This chapter delves with the research method, on research design, population of study, Sampling techniques and procedure, data collection instrument, method of data collection and method of data analysis. 3.1 Research Design Tejumaiye, A (2003) says research design is the frame work or plan of study that is used in collecting and analysing set of data. For this study, survey method was used, and it was designed to seek people‟s opinions, views, and perceptions on the subject matter. This is in line with Okoro (2001)‟s view that survey design is useful in the measurement of public opinion, attitudes and orientation. The following research questions, informed the use of survey methods: 1. What is the Perception of the viewing centre‟s user to European Football matches? 2. What is the nature of patronage of viewing centre‟s user on European and Local Football matches? 3. What is the pattern of social discourse among viewing Centre‟s users?
  29. 29. 29 3.2 Population of Study The populations of this study are both male and female viewers in Surulere area of Lagos state. This population are strictly adults from the ages of 18 (eighteen and above) who are football viewers. Surulere was chosen because it will be convenient for the researcher to carry out the study. 3.3 Sampling technique and procedure The sampling technique adopted is convenience sampling. This avails the study to make use of a subset of a population, where two viewing centre‟s was picked within Surulere area of Lagos sate Nigeria. Sports Bet viewing Centre is located at 57, Ojuelegba -Yaba road, while Sport 360 viewing centre is located at106, Lawanson road Surulere Lagos state Nigeria. Respondents was picked base on their number of years they have been actively watching football. 3.4 Data Collection Instrument Questionnaire was the instrument used for the study. A total number of twenty one items (21), which is in two sections. Section A, is for the respondents profile, while section B, are for the items drafted out from the research questions. Therefore one hundred and fifty (150) would be sampled and produced, and administer hand to hand by the researcher to the respondents.
  30. 30. 30 3.5 Method of Data collection The researcher waited and collected the complete copies of the questionnaire same day. The topic of the study was interested to the respondents and this manifested in the high response rate. The research instrument was explained to them at the point were being administered on them, they were also given opportunity to call the researcher‟s attention whenever the needed for further explanations. 3.6 Method of Data Analysis The method of data analysis used for this study was simple percentage, which was presented in tables, and inferences were drawn from it. Average and Frequency distribution formed the main basis of our data analysis.
  31. 31. 31 CHAPTER FOUR Data Analysis and Discussion of Findings 4.0 Introduction This chapter focused on the analysis of the responses gathered from the respondents. During one configuration of the data, it was discovered that answering a tale for each term in one questionnaire would be too cumbersome. Important areas were therefore picked for their quantitative values to answer the question posed by the study. The following are the resultant codification and task drawn up from the questionnaire of the 150 questionnaires consisting of 21 questions were administered to viewing centres‟ user at Sports Bet Viewing Centre, and Sports 360 Viewing Centre in which 120 were turned. The data analysis is in two categories the Demographic and information of data section. The first analysed was the demographic variable of one respondents while the second is based on the analysis of the research questions. 4.1 Presentation of Data In furtherance of the purpose of this study, questionnaires were given to sample respondents to collect primary data which will be analysed in this chapter. Below is a summary of the return rate of the respondents to the questionnaire. A total of 150 copies of questionnaire were administered to viewing centre users at Sport Bet Viewing Centre, and Sports 360 Viewing Centre. Of these, 120 copies of questionnaire representing 80% were returned, while 30 copies of questionnaire representing 20% were not returned. A copy of the questionnaire is attached at the appendix of this project. The return rate indicates that the respondents were favourable to answering the questionnaire.
  32. 32. 32 4.2 Data Analysis and Results Section A: Respondents Profile This section gives descriptive of the bio-data of the respondents for this study. This was necessary as the importance of the respondents‟ background information in the social sciences cannot be disregarded. For this reason data on age, gender, marital status, education and employment status were collected and analysed. Using percentages, 50% of the respondents were between 18 - 25 years of age, which represents a majority of the respondents. 38.3% of the respondents were between 26 - 30 years of age, 6.7% represents respondents from the ages of 31-35, while the remaining 5% of the respondents were 36 – 40 years of age. From the data collected on the respondents‟ gender status; there was an equal spread of both genders across the respondents. 70% of the respondents were of the male gender, while the remaining 30% of the respondents were of the female gender. Data collected on the respondents‟ Educational background shows, majority (40%) of the respondents‟ has Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) while 35% of the respondents‟ possess Ordinary National Diploma (OND) and Higher National Diploma (HND) and the remaining 25% of the respondents has Bachelor of Science BSc. The summary of the data collected on the respondents‟ Occupation revealed that 59% of respondents‟ were students‟ which claimed the largest score, while 20% of the respondents‟ were Civil servant, and 21.7% of the respondents were Self Employed.
  33. 33. 33 SECTION B: Answers to research questions Research Question one: What is the perception of the viewing centre users to European Football matches. To answer this question one, item 2, 3, 4, 10, and 12 in the questionnaire will be presented in tables 1-5 below. Table 1: Respondents’ likeness to watch European Football League Option Frequency Percentages To a great extent 68 56.7 To some extent 50 41.6 Neutral 2 1.7 Not at all ____ ___ TOTAL 120 100% Output from Field Survey 2013 From table 1, the responses presented reveal that 56.7% of the respondents like to watch European Football to a great extent, and this statistics claimed the higher percentage in the table which apparently was on the high side. Another 41.6% of the respondents said they like to watch their darling European Football to some extent. However, an aggregate of 1.7% of the respondents were of a different perspective, this they indicated neutral. In line with,(Abell. Condor and others 2007) “football promotes the maintenance of mental well-being, social interaction, social cohesion, a sense of place and community. It has the ability to develop pro-
  34. 34. 34 social behaviour.” in other words people are favourably disposed to watching football as a kind of sport, because of social benefits like, social cohesion and interaction. People get to talk about football when they visit the viewing centres, they make friends and feel happy not because of the match but for the benefits. For instance, (Alegi 2009) claimed that the game of football helps to unite the nation of Ghana and it gained independence from British rule in 1957. Table 2: Respondents’ length of watching European football Option Frequency Percentages 2 years 26 21.7 3-5 years 54 45 6 years and above 38 31.6 Others (Please Specify) 2 1.7 TOTAL 120 100% Output from Field Survey 2013 Drawing inference from Table 2, 21.7% of the respondents revealed that they have been watching European Football for the last 2years.On the other hand majority (45%) of the respondents claimed that they have been watching European Football for the past 3-5years. However 31.6% of the total respondents showed that they have been watching Football for the past 6years and above. A lower 1.7% of the total respondents said otherwise.
  35. 35. 35 Table 3: Respondents’ view about European Football as a tool for Cultural Hegemony Option Frequency Percentages Strongly Agree 8 6.7 Agree 12 10 Undecided 80 66.7 Disagree 20 16.6 TOTAL 120 100% Output from Field Survey 2013 Table 3, above present data that measures the respondents view about European Football as a tool for cultural Hegemony, a 6.7% of the respondents strongly agreed to the statement, while an average 10% agreed that European Football is a tool for cultural hegemony. While a majority of 66.7% were undecided about the notion. The remaining 16.6% disagreed that European football is used as a tool for cultural hegemony. “in the twentieth century, the dominant ideology has shifted towards sanctifying consumer satisfaction as the premium definition of the „pursuit of happiness‟ in this way justifying corporate domination of the economy. What is hegemonic in consumer capitalist ideology is precisely the notion that happiness, or liberty, or equality or fraternity can be affirmed through the existing private commodity forms under the benign, protective eye of the national security state.”(Gitlin 2002) This assertion evaluates the modern power that hegemony possessed, to present itself as legitimate as possible. In other words the consumer perceived the ideology sold to them as a mere pursuit of happiness, and afterwards general agreement comes in to make it a norm or values. In the table above a larger respondents were clueless as to whether European football is seen as a form of cultural control
  36. 36. 36 Table 4: Respondents’ choice of European Football is influenced by the high quality of broadcast coverage. Option Frequency Percentages Strongly Agree 88 73.3 Agree 30 25 Undecided 2 1.7 Disagree __ __ Strongly Disagree __ __ TOTAL 120 100% Output from Field Survey 2013 Table 4, here, shows a larger 73.3% of the total respondents strongly disagree that they are influenced by the high quality of broadcast coverage. While another 25% of the respondents agreed to that notion as well. A lower 1.7% of the total respondents were undecided about the view that high quality of broadcast coverage influenced them to watching European Football. Here, the major influencing factor, attracting football viewers to watching European football is High quality and consistent coverage of live football matches, which is lacking, and has resulted in a major setback in our local football league. According to the dependency theory proposed by Sandra Ball-Rokeach and Melvin DeFleur opined that developing nations depend on the developed nation, for Technology, culture norms information and so on, Which adversely will render the developing nation a collector and not a producer. In other words European football viewers like to watch the matches, because of the high broadcast technology in its coverage and high resolute motion pictures influenced the fans to watching it, in which indirectly they depend on the westerners (developed Nations) to give technology and entertainment simultaneously.
  37. 37. 37 Table 5: To what extent does viewership of European Football affects my viewership of local league. Option Frequency Percentages To a Great Extents 66 55 To Some Extents 32 26.7 To a Few Extents 14 11.6 Not at All 8 6.7 TOTAL 120 100% Output from Field Survey 2013 Table 5, shows that a larger 55% of the total respondents claimed that viewership of European football affects their viewership of local league to a great extents. However an average 26.7% of the respondents said European football viewing is affecting the amount of time spend on local football to some extents. On the other hand 11.6% opines that European football is affecting their viewership of local football to a few extents. A 6.7% of the total respondents‟ claimed that European football viewing does not affect their viewership of local football (not at all). (Watson 2003) opined that a state of hegemony is achieved when a provisional alliance of certain groups exerts a consensus which makes the power of the dominant group appear natural and legitimate. It can only be sustained by won consent. Speaking on the existing won consent, supporters (fans) are favourably disposed to watching European football because the idea has been sold to prefer the latter first before any other football league which has apparently proven to
  38. 38. 38 be a norm. Football viewers like to watch more European games than the local football league, only few ardent followers of their local league do. Research Question Two: What is the nature of patronage of viewing centres user on European and local Football Matches To answer the research question two, item 15 in the questionnaire is analysed in Table 6 below. Table 6: How often do you use the viewing centre to watch your darling European Teams. Option Frequency Percentages Very Often 72 60 Often 28 23.3 Rarely 12 10 Occasionally 8 6.7 TOTAL 120 100% Output from Field Survey 2013 Table 6, above present‟s data that measures the patronage of viewers‟ watching European football on viewing centre, a majority of the respondents (60%) of the respondents said they visited the viewing centre very often. While another, 23.3% claimed that they patronised the viewing centre often. On the other hand 10% of the total respondents confirmed that they patronised the viewing centre rarely. 6.7% out of total respondents‟ visited the viewing centre occasionally. European football is capitalist oriented. Murphy (2003) claimed that nowadays, people now live on football as a means of business by establishing viewing centres where football lovers can watch different European football leagues matches for example, England Premiership, UEFA
  39. 39. 39 Champions league, Europa league and so on. Going by the percentage in the table above, a larger percentage of the audience visit the viewing centre often to watch their different football matches. Research Question Three: What is the pattern of Social Discourse among viewing centre users This research question is answered in item 13 and 14 in the questionnaire. It is presented in table 7 and 8 below. Table 7: How often do you comment, argue a point, in the viewing centres during any European football match. Option Frequency Percentages Very Often 34 28.3 Often 60 50 Rarely 12 10 Occasionally 14 11.7 TOTAL 120 100% Output from Field Survey 2013 Table 7, shows the pattern of discourse that goes on in the viewing centre during any European football match. A larger 50% of total respondents said they argued often in the viewing centre. On the other hand 28.3% of the respondents claimed that they argued very often. A 10% of the respondents argued rarely. And a selected 11.7% of the respondents occasionally argued a point in the viewing centre during any European football match. (Jibola 2001) According to habermasian theory of public sphere, is a social place or gatherings where meanings illustrations are shared. The viewing centre is perceived to be a public sphere
  40. 40. 40 where groups of people discussed and share meanings. a lot of conversations go on during football matches, supporters (fans) say their opinions about an event, which will be deliberated upon. Here, the table above shows only few vast people in football talk. Table 8: I get more information, and am exposed more to, European football through the arguments made by viewing centres user. Option Frequency Percentages Strongly Agree 60 50 Agree 52 43.3 Undecided 6 5 Disagree 2 1.7 TOTAL 120 100% Output from Field Survey 2013 Table 8, shows the response on whether respondents get information, and are exposed more to, European football through the arguments made by viewing centre users. Here, the table presented reveal that 50% of the respondents strongly agreed to get information, and exposed more to European football through the arguments made by viewing centre user. On the other hand 43.3% agreed with the notion. However, 5% were undecided that they get information and they are exposed when they watched their European football through arguments made in the viewing centre. On a different scale 1.7% disagreed that they do not get information and not exposed to European football through arguments.
  41. 41. 41 In the concept of interaction, Scott (2011) describes conversation between two or more cognitive systems, such as a teacher and a student or distinctive perspectives within one individual and how they engage in a dialogue over a given concept and identify differences in how they understand it. This assertion tries to elucidate how people converse i.e engage in dialogue, and how differences can occur in trying to understand a particular meaning. In other words people get to argue in a 4.3 Discussion of Findings Going by the findings of this study, persons from the ages of 18 – 41 above are fully aware and are highly exposed to European football, in which the male counterpart of the respondents are more influenced and active to watching European football and than the female respondents. However, Persons from the ages from 18 - 25 visited the viewing centre more than all ages in the age distribution category. Research question one dealt with the perspective of viewing centre user to European football. This study found that only few educated persons that possess one of these degrees (HND, BSc and MSc) understood the term “hegemony” knew that there is a high dose of cultural hegemony embedded in European football. On the other hand, other people who knew not the term observed European football as a pursuit of happiness and a means of entertainment, ruling out any form of control from the game they love to watch (European football). This finding is in line with theory of Hegemony by Athonio Gramsci. Watson (2003) “argued that a state of hegemony
  42. 42. 42 is achieved when a provisional alliance of certain groups exerts a consensus which makes the power of the dominant group appear natural and legitimate.” However still on the perception of the viewing centre user to European football, this study found out that people are influenced to watching European football because of the consistent coverage and the high quality picture they get from watching their darling game. In other words the respondents mind had been fixed to European football, in a simplest form it had been idolized because of the happiness they derived from watching. Research question two, dealt with the patronage of viewing centre users, people usually visited the viewing centre very often. In other words the patronage is very high. Because the market is big, growing and limitless, considering the different categories of European football expanding from England Premiership, to Spanish La Liga, German Bundesliga, and French Ligue 1. Viewing centre user often comment and argued during any European football in which more information will be unearth through criticisms and suggestions. Therefore viewing centre is used as a public sphere where more knowledge is gained about football through conversation. On the other hand, this study found out that before hegemony set in conversation usually ensued between two or more people in a public sphere before a consensus is reached about a phenomena, a case in point in Table 8 the statistic above revealed that 50% of the respondents used for the research claimed that they are more exposed to, and they get information through arguments made by fellow viewing centre users. (Gabner 2003) viewed communication as, “someone perceived an event, react in a situation through some means to make available material in some form and context conveying content of some consequences”. This definition agrees with how European football viewers are persuaded to loving European Football. However, in the long run their acceptance of European football came with consequences. In
  43. 43. 43 other words European football is a capitalist ideology in which the society becomes a commodity of that ideology without being compelled but persuaded. This study reveals as follows: I. Most of the respondents like to watch European Football matches. II. A larger percentage of the viewing Centre users are youths from the ages of 18-25. III. Majority of the respondents (viewing Centre users) are not aware that European football had an element of control (hegemony), in other words they saw it as legitimate and mere pursuit of happiness. IV. Majority of the respondents patronize the viewing Centre very often, (on daily basis) even if they have the wherewithal to watch it at home. V. Only few vast people in European football usually comment, and argue in the viewing Centre. VI. Majority of the respondents claimed that they frequently get information and learn more when they visit the viewing Centre. VII. Only educated respondents (12%) claimed that they are fully aware of Hegemony in European football. VIII. All respondents agreed that high quality and consistency in broadcast coverage influenced them to watching European football.
  44. 44. 44 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.0 Introduction This chapter comprised of summary, conclusion and recommendation as it‟s related to this study. 5.1 Summary of Work The study set out to understand the high dose of hegemony (structural control) that the European football had on viewing centre users, its process of influence which was measured by awareness, of the game from viewing centre users, and their loyalty was also seen towards European football. This success of European Hegemony was researched in this study, and the danger it poses to our own indigenous local league. The patronage of viewing centre by its user was also analysed in details. This study analyses various concepts from existing literatures (Secondary data) that delves on culture and hegemony like, Concept of cultural hegemony, European football cultures and integration, European football as business, concept of culture and Hegemony, which formed the basis of this study, the two communication theory used for this research are; the Theory of Hegemony by Anthonio Gramsci, and Conversational Theory by Gordon pask. However the Chapter three revealed the fulcrum of the study, i.e. Method of study where the researcher deployed convenient sampling technique. The target sample for the study was drawn from viewing centre users in Surulere Lagos State Nigeria (Sports Bet Viewing Centre, and Sports 360 Viewing Centre). On the hand, the major findings, of this study are: I. Majority of the respondents claimed that they frequently get information and learn more when they visit the viewing Centre.
  45. 45. 45 II. Only educated respondents (12%) claimed that they are fully aware of Hegemony in European football. III. All respondents agreed that high quality and consistency in broadcast coverage influenced them to watching European football. 5.2 Conclusion All the way through the findings of the study, it can be said that European football had hegemony to persuade or influence the public towards European culture at the detriment of our indigenous local league. It can also be concluded that male viewers are more influenced by European football compared to female viewers, and it can also be reached that a larger percent of viewers are not aware that European football had control over them, lest they perceived it to be a mere pursuit of pleasure. On the other hand, most viewers affirmed that they are influenced to watching European football because of its consistence coverage and high picture quality they derived from the darling football. Finally, the researcher strongly believed that hegemony as a concept of consensus through its legitimate presentation and persuasion imbedded in European football had come to stay but can be checked. 5.3 Recommendation The recommendation of this study, erupt basically from the findings discussed earlier in the previous chapter, these recommendations include the following:
  46. 46. 46 I. In view of factors necessary to reduce the high dosage of hegemony absorbed by viewing centre users, watching European football, these measures are needed. The first step is total rebranding of our indigenous local league to make it attractive for every fan. In other words organizers of Nigeria local league should send forth a new hegemony and form new strategies for our local league to survive. II. Indigenous media should embrace 21st century technology to enhance professional techniques to create substantial high quality and consistence coverage, and to also generate awareness about the importance and the usefulness of watching local football. III. New trends such as “sport bet” is popular in European football, its soul aim is to gather more viewers all over the world. Such can be replicated to salvage our local league. IV. Viewing centre owners should note that football has grown even larger than sport, thus they should invest more in creation of strong brands and image for them to gain leverage, because viewers do brag about quality. Therefore the patronage will continue to rise. 5.4 De-Limitation of the study The delimitation of this study is, two centres were used as the population of the total viewing centres in Lagos state Nigeria, instead of using all viewing Centres located in Lagos state or the whole of Nigeria. 5.5 Limitation of the study Factors limiting this study are firstly, it was difficult to find Nigerian authors whose works may have been used to make more direct comparisons with what is obtainable in Nigeria, on the other hand no local journal had written on European football as it were.
  47. 47. 47 Lastly, due to the time allocation for the research completion some of the pertinent issues could not be covered by the researcher, this invariably had its effect on the conclusion arrived at. 5.6 Suggestion for further study There is quantum of Literatures on this particular study, research for further studies should ensure that materials used for the study are thoroughly prepared so that errors do not distort findings. It therefore requires that researchers, especially Mass Communication who understand the concept of Hegemony can carry out a study on how new hegemony can be formed to enhance Indigenous local league and to attract local viewers already sold to European football. Also the issue of Sport bet should also be looked into, as a factor influencing people to be aware of other European teams and see whether it can be replicated to help savage the local league. More so, robust studies should be conducted in the area of digital television, satellite etc
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  49. 49. 49 McCray, L. (2001). Etymological background to soccer, an introduction. London, England: Focal Press Publishers. McQuail, D. (2000). Mass media and communications, London, England: Arnold Missiroli, A. (2002). European football cultures and their integration: the' short' Twentieth Century, retrieve 02/03/2013 http://www.ingenta.com/content/routledge/css/2002/00000005/art00002. Murphy, I. (2003). Football in Lagos retrieved on 11/04/2013 www.lobainternational/.org/node/20. Otasi, O. (1999). Mass communication Theories, An approach. Lagos, Nigeria: Batapin Press. Pangoro, P. (2000). Cybernetics and connection. Retrieved on 12/03/2013 https://en. Wikipedia.org/wiki/second-order_cybernetics. Phyllis, M. (2004). Leisure and society in Congo Brazzaville, retrieved 09/03/2013 www.amazon.com/leisure-society-colonial -Brazzaville- African/dp/ 0521524466. Stoddart, C. (2000). Cultural hegemony, an ideology, Retrieved 9/03/2013 Kuscholarwork.ku.edu/dspace/bitstream/1808/5226/1/ STARV28A9.PDF. Tejumaiye, A. (2003). Mass communication research. An introduction, Ibadan: Scepter Prints Ltd Tylor, E. (2005). Concept of culture, Retrieved on 13/03/2013 Uleth.ca/200502/anthloooy/PDF.slides/concept of culture.pdf
  50. 50. 50 Watson, J. (2003). Media Communication, an Introduction. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan Publishers. www. Wikipeadia.com
  51. 51. 51 QUESTIONNAIRE Dear Respondents, I am FADESIRE TEMITOPE, a graduating student of Lagos State University, School of Communication Department of Broadcasting. I am currently carrying out a study on European Football as a Cultural Hegemony, a study of selected viewing centres; your candid response will go a long way in determining the success of this research. SECTION A 1. What is your gender? (A) Male [ ] (B) Female [ ] 2. What is your age grade? (A) 18-25 [ ] (B) 26-30 [ ] (C) 31-35 [ ] (D) 36-40 [ ] (E) 41-above [ ] 3. What is your educational background? (A) O‟Level/SSCE [ ] (B) OND-HND [ ] (C) BSc [ ] (D) MA/PhD [ ] 4. What is your Occupation? (A) Student [ ] (B) Civil Servant [ ] (C) Self Employed [ ] 5. What is your Religion? (A) Islam [ ] (B) Christian [ ] (C) African Traditional Religion [ ]
  52. 52. 52 SECTION B 6. Do you like to watch European Football? (A) Yes [ ] (B) No [ ] (C) Not at all [ ] 7. If yes, to what extent do you like watching European football? (A)To a great extent [ ] (B)To some extent [ ] (C) Neutral [ ] (D) Not at all [ ] 8. How long have you been watching European football? (A) 2 years [ ] (B) 3-5 years [ ] (C) 6 years and above [ ] (D) Others (Please Specify)………………………. 9. Do you agree that European football is a tool for cultural control? (A) Strongly Agree [ ] (B) Agree [ ] (C) Undecided [ ] (D) Disagree [ ] 10. To what extent would you rate European football above indigenous local league? (A) Very High [ ] (B) High [ ] (C) Averagely [ ] (D) Neutral 11. In your own estimation, to what extent can you rank the percentage of European football viewers? (A) Very High [ ] (B) High [ ] (C) Averagely (D) Not Really Sure 12. If your answer is high how sure are you? (A) Very Much Sure [ ] (B) Averagely Sure [ ] (C) Undecided [ ] (D) Not at all 13. I am positively inclined towards European football to local? (A) Strongly Agree [ ] (B) Agree [ ] (C) Undecided [ ] (D) Disagree [ ] (E) Strongly Disagree 14. My inclination towards European football affects my viewership of local football league? (A)Strongly Agree [ ] (B) Agree [ ] (C) Undecided [ ] (D) Disagree [ ] (E) Strongly Disagree [ ] 15. My choice of European football is influenced by the high quality of broadcast coverage? (A) Strongly Agree [ ] (B) Agree [ ] (C) Undecided [ ] (D) Disagree [ ] (E) Strongly Disagree [ ] 16. Viewership of European football affects my viewership of local football league? (A) Strongly Agree [ ] (B) Agree [ ] (C) Undecided [ ] (D) Disagree [ ] (E) Strongly Disagree 17. To what extent does viewership of European football affects my viewership of local league
  53. 53. 53 (A) To a Great Extents [ ] (B) To some Extents [ ] (C) To a Few Extents [ ] (D) Not At All 18. How often do you comment, argue a point, in the viewing centres during any European football match? (A) Very Often [ ] (B) Often [ ] (C) Rarely [ ] (D) Occasionally [ ] 19. I get more information, and am exposed more to, European football through the arguments made by viewing centres user. (A) Strongly Agree [ ] (B) Agree [ ] (C) Undecided [ ] (D) Disagree [ ] (E) Strongly Disagree 20. How often do you use the viewing centres to watch your darling European team? (A) Very Often [ ] (B) Often [ ] (C) Rarely [ ] (D) Occasionally [ ] 21. I watch European Football because of its consistence coverage and picture quality? (A) Strongly Agree [ ] (B) Agree [ ] (C) Strongly Disagree [ ] (D) Disagree [ ] Thank you.

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