Vub calewaert lecture 3 media


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Vub calewaert lecture 3 media

  1. 1. Sport and the media: which role does the EU play? Gianluca Monte Willy Calewaert Chair Second Lecture VUB, Brussels, Thursday, 27 January 2011, 6.00-7.30 pm
  2. 2. Table of contents <ul><ul><li>Sport and the media – an overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of the media at EU level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sports IPR? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright and neighbouring rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IPR vs freedom of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Territorial or pan-European licensing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective selling of rights and EU competition law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The EU’s Digital Agenda </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Sport and the media – an overview <ul><li>Social aspects (stereotypes, representation of violence, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic aspects : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main source of income for professional sport in Europe (Deloitte 2010: “Broadcasting rights continue to be the main source of revenue for the ‘big five’ leagues, with €3,712m (47%) of total revenues coming from this source in 2008/09) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sport as decisive source of content for many media operators (see following slides) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Germany Top 9 prime broadcasts of all time Source: Wikipedia ZDF 30 June 2002 88.00% 27.09 million Germany vs Brazil 2002 FIFA World Cup 9 19 June 2008 78.70% 27.70 million Portugal vs Germany UEFA Euro 2008 8 ZDF 17 November 1985 27.97 million &quot;Die Schuldfrage&quot; The Black Forest Clinic 7 Das Erste 16 June 2008 76.90% 28.04 million Austria vs Germany UEFA Euro 2008 6 ZDF 30 June 1996 76.30% 28.44 million Germany vs Czech Republic UEFA Euro 1996 5 9 July 1990 28.66 million West Germany vs Argentina 1990 FIFA World Cup 4 ZDF 25 June 2008 81.80% 29.43 million Germany vs Turkey UEFA Euro 2008 3 ZDF 4 July 2006 84.10% 57.66 million Germany vs Italy 2006 FIFA World Cup 2 ARD 7 July 2010 83.20% 31.10 million Germany vs Spain 2010 FIFA World Cup 1
  5. 5. United Kingdom Most watched one-off events Source: Wikipedia ITV 30 June 1998 23.78 World Cup 1998 (England v. Argentina) 10 BBC1 21 February 1994 23.95 1994 Winter Olympics (Ice Dance Final) 9 BBC1/ITV 22 November 1963 24.15 JFK Assassination – News Broadcast 8 BBC1 14 November 1973 27.60 Wedding of Princess Anne and Mark Phillips 7 BBC1/ITV 29 July 1981 28.40 Royal Wedding of Charles & Diana 6 BBC1/ITV 29 April 1970 28.49 FA Cup replay : Chelsea vs. Leeds 5 BBC1/ITV 17 April 1970 28.60 Apollo 13 splashdown 4 BBC1/ITV 21 June 1969 and 28 June 1969 30.69 The Royal Family ( documentary ) 3 BBC1/ITV 6 September 1997 32.10 Funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales 2 BBC/ITV 30 July 1966 32.30 1966 FIFA World Cup Final 1
  6. 6. Regulation of the media at EU level <ul><li>The EU framework (I) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary EU law: the Treaty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free provision of services (articles 56 to 62 TFEU) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competition law (articles 101 & 102 TFEU) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other relevant provisions: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial cooperation in criminal matters (articles 82 to 86 TFEU) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sport (article 165 TFEU) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culture (article 167 TFEU) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer protection (article 169 TFEU) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Regulation of the media at EU level <ul><li>The EU framework (II) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary law: EU Directives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of networks : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telecom package 2009 – implementation by May 2011 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer rights </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EU Telecoms Authority </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NGA networks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Regulation of the media at EU level <ul><li>The EU framework (III) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary law: EU Directives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of services : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E-commerce Directive 2000 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Country of origin principle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited liability of ISPs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMS) 2007 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Country of origin principle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technological neutrality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Audiovisual services NOT covered by Services Directive 2006 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other topics: data protection, roaming, radio spectrum, .EU, Safer Internet… </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Is sport part of IPRs? <ul><ul><li>Sport events are not protected by IPR law: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright and neighbouring rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Database (ECJ ruling in case ‘BHB vs William Hill’) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing case in the UK (copyright of databases) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applicable framework: trademark law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast of sport events is part of IPR: neighbouring rights of broadcasters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-assignment of copyright from rights holders to right owners </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Copyright and neighbouring rights - the EU framework (I) <ul><ul><li>The EU Copyright Directive (2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harmonisation of copyright laws across the Member States </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaustive list of optional exceptions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legal protection of technical measures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Enforcement Directive (2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum level of civil sanctions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review in 2011 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Future Directive on criminal sanctions? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Copyright and neighbouring rights - the EU framework (II) <ul><ul><li>The Cable and Satellite Directive (1993) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cross border transmission of programmes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Country of origin principle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Conditional Access Directive (1998) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Main objective: piracy of smart cards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wider scope? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. IPR vs freedom of information – the AVMS Directive (I) <ul><ul><li>AVMS adopted in 2007 to replace Television Without Frontiers (TWF) Directive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technological neutrality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linear vs non-linear services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Country of origin principle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other (promotion and distribution of European works, product placement, regulation of advertising – see also Directive on Tobacco Advertising) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. IPR vs freedom of information – the AVMS Directive (II) <ul><ul><li>Events of major importance for society (article 14 AVMS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced in 1997 review of TWF </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sport events usually concerned (Olympic Games, Football World Cup) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing cases before ECJ (UK, Belgium) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Sports where one or more event is listed, by country
  15. 15. IPR vs freedom of information – the AVMS Directive (III) <ul><ul><li>Short extracts (article 15 AVMS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objective: public access to information on events of high interest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access reserved to broadcasters (exception: intermediaries) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extracts to be used for general news programmes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On-demand use allowed only if programme offered on deferred basis by the same media service provider </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>90 seconds limit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possibility of trans-national broadcasting of extracts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No prejudice to Copyright Directive provisions and exceptions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative measures: access to venues </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Territorial or pan-European licensing? <ul><ul><li>Copyright licensed on a territorial basis: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition of territoriality of copyright in audiovisual services by the ECJ (Coditel I & II rulings) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No country of origin principle for copyright in the E-commerce Directive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possibility of granting pan-European licenses established by Cable & Satellite Directive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Territorial or pan-European licensing? <ul><ul><li>The QC Leisure case (joined cases C-403/08 and C-429/08) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of illicit device according to Directive 98/84/EC </li></ul><ul><li>(Technical questions on Directive 2001/29/EC) </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of Treaty rules on free movement of goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of Treaty rules on competition </li></ul><ul><li>Main issue at stake: grey market </li></ul><ul><li>Possible consequences on the market </li></ul>
  18. 18. Top 10 sports programming by viewing across selected markets (2007)
  19. 19. Collective selling of rights and EU competition law (I) <ul><li>Market definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upstream product markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downstream product markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic markets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joint selling agreements </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiencies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single point of sale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Branding </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The creation of a league product </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Collective selling of rights and EU competition law (II) <ul><li>Cases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UEFA CL (2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bundesliga (2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Premier League (2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remedies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitation of duration/scope of vertical conracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No unused rights – parallel exploitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No single buyer </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The EU’s Digital Agenda <ul><ul><li>Digital Single Market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simplify copyright clearance and management – framework Directive on collective rights management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directive on orphan works </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholder dialogue on cross-border and pan-European licenses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Green Paper on online distribution of audiovisual works </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce protection of rights </li></ul></ul></ul>