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URCA – Universidade Regional do Cariri Departamento de Línguas e Literaturas Letras – VI Semestre Literatura Inglesa – Ren...
The Anglo-Saxons: 449–1066 300s B.C. Celts in Britain 55 B.C–A.D.409 Roman Occupation A.D. 449 Anglo-Saxon Invasion A.D. 4...
Anglo-Saxons Who were the Anglo- Saxons? <ul><li>Angle, Saxon and Jute tribes. </li></ul><ul><li>5th and 6th centur i es <...
The Anglo Saxons
The Anglo-Saxon Invasion A.D. 449  The Anglo-Saxons push the Celts into the far west of the country. Angles Saxons Jutes C...
Page from Anglo-Saxon Chronicle The Anglo-Saxon Invasion Old English
The Celts in Britain <ul><ul><li>Celtic religion a form of  animism </li></ul></ul>Before and during the 4th century B.C. ...
The First People <ul><li>Britain first settled by _______ </li></ul><ul><li>Celts came from continental Europe between 800...
Celtic Invasions <ul><li>Around 500 BC two groups of Celts invaded British Isles  </li></ul><ul><li>Brythons (Britons) set...
Roman Invasions <ul><li>55 BC Julius Caesar invaded Britain </li></ul><ul><li>43 AD Emperor Claudius invaded; marks beginn...
Roman Invasions:  What legacy did the Romans leave? <ul><li>System of roads/highways – height of the empire, one could tra...
Germanic Invasions - 449 <ul><li>Angles, Saxons, and Jutes </li></ul><ul><li>  Deep sea fishermen and farmers </li></ul><u...
Germanic Invasions – 449  A.D. <ul><li>Created the Anglo-Saxon England (“Engla land”) that lasted until 1066 </li></ul><ul...
Viking Invasions 8 th -12 th  Centuries <ul><li>Invaders from Norway and Denmark  </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo-Saxons unprepare...
Viking Invasions 8 th -12 th  Centuries <ul><li>Vikings destroyed monasteries and sacred object </li></ul><ul><li>Slaughte...
Review:  <ul><li>Celts: member of one of the races that now include the Irish, Welsh, Cornish and highland Scots. </li></u...
Society
Society Anglo-Saxon Society <ul><ul><li>kinship groups led by strong warrior chief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people farme...
Anglo-Saxon Society <ul><ul><li>Lived in tribal groups with a high class of warriors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kings eme...
What were Anglo- Saxons buildings like? Life Where did the Anglo- Saxons live? <ul><li>In few buildings.  </li></ul><ul><l...
Life Dress Varied from region to region.
Women <ul><li>Unimportant </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic and child-bearing duties </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally had some infl...
Women Clothing <ul><li>Some women had metal clasps at the wrists to fasten the sleeves of a simple blouse. Other women had...
Life Men  and Women  Knives, spears - hunting, fighting and farming.  Tools - sewing and weaving ,
King
Qualities of a King <ul><li>Brave </li></ul><ul><li>Strong </li></ul><ul><li>Generosity-expected to give gifts to his foll...
Qualities of a Follower <ul><li>Brave </li></ul><ul><li>Strong </li></ul><ul><li>Loyal to king and family </li></ul><ul><l...
Life Civilized yet violent the sea is a part of life Glorification of war and death Fame-attain glory, be brave Slavery Ma...
Life Freeman or slave A freeman - land and slaves.  A slave – nothing Richer freemen - 'thanes'.
Life Crime and punishment For minor crimes - a nose or a hand might be cut off.  If a person killed someone they had to pa...
The Anglo-Saxon religion <ul><ul><li>offered no hope of an afterlife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>valued earthly virtues of ...
Beliefs Early Anglo- Saxons When people died they were either cremated and put in a pottery urn or buried with their belon...
Beliefs A king’s burial
Over the two centuries, many Saxons turned to Christianity and hundreds of churches and monasteries were built.   The comi...
Beliefs Monasters The monasteries were centres of learning, where monks and nuns devoted themselves to studying the Bible.
The Spread of Christianity <ul><ul><li>Christianity and Anglo-Saxon culture co-exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian ...
Pagan and Christian Beliefs
Pagan vs. Christianity in  Beowulf <ul><li>Pagan </li></ul><ul><li>Strong nature presence </li></ul><ul><li>Strength of th...
Religious influence in literature <ul><li>Following the time periods, religion can be seen as a great influence in literat...
Characteristics of  Anglo-Saxon Poetry (applies to riddles, Beowulf, The Seafarer, etc.)
Anglo-Saxon Literature:  Beowulf <ul><li>Poem based on early Celtic and Scandinavian folk legends </li></ul><ul><li>Scener...
Characteristics of Epic Poetry <ul><li>The hero is a figure of high status and often of great historical or legendary impo...
<ul><li>There was no written tradition </li></ul><ul><li>People were farmers and hunters </li></ul><ul><li>Warfare was a w...
Characteristics of Epic Hero <ul><li>Is significant and glorified </li></ul><ul><li>Is on a quest </li></ul><ul><li>Has su...
Main Character <ul><li>A hero is a figure of heroic stature, of national importance, and of great historical or legendary ...
Characteristics of Old English Poetics <ul><li>Epic Poetry is characterized by repetition of words, phrases, or lines </li...
Old English Poetics <ul><li>Alliteration – repetition of consonant and vowel sounds at the beginning of words </li></ul><u...
Old English Poetics <ul><li>Kennings – a metaphorical phrase used to replace a concrete noun.  Ready made descriptive comp...
Old English Poetics Epithets : Using an appropriate  adjective  (often habitually) to characterize a person or thing.  &qu...
Old English Poetry <ul><li>3 major types of OE poetry:  </li></ul><ul><li>heroic verse—celebrates courage, honor, loyalty ...
 
Pastimes Fests H eld in the lord's hall Winter months Loyalty Gathering around the fire for a fest roast meats bread, frui...
Pastimes Entertainment <ul><li>stories about brave warriors and their adventures   </li></ul><ul><li>Beowulf, a heroic pri...
Pastimes Riddles and runes <ul><li>Riddles </li></ul><ul><li>letters called runes </li></ul><ul><li>Magical powers </li></ul>
Poems <ul><li>Recited for entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes to celebrate a military victory </li></ul><ul><li>Poem...
<ul><ul><li>Anglo-Saxons did not believe in afterlife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>warriors gained immortality through songs...
Anglo Saxon Kings <ul><li>The small kingdoms fought amongst each other until 829—King Egbert of Wessex won control of all ...
King Alfred against the Danes 8th–9th centuries   Vikings called Danes invade Britain 878   King Alfred unifies Anglo-Saxo...
The Norman Invasion <ul><ul><li>William of Normandy crosses the English Channel </li></ul></ul>The Norman Invasion,  Bayeu...
1066 <ul><li>King Edward died </li></ul><ul><li>William (the Duke of Normandy)** laid claim to the throne (Edward may have...
This brought French culture to England <ul><li>feudalism—land is divided among lords who are loyal to the king. The lords ...
<ul><li>1066 marks the beginning of what we consider English culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Old English: a combination of the ...
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Urca Anglo Saxon Period Aula 02 Dezembro 2009

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Aula de Literatura Inglesa do dia 02 de Dezembro 2009: Anglo Saxon Period . Prof. Fabione Gomes

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Urca Anglo Saxon Period Aula 02 Dezembro 2009

  1. 1. URCA – Universidade Regional do Cariri Departamento de Línguas e Literaturas Letras – VI Semestre Literatura Inglesa – Renaissance – 18 th Century 449 BCE-1066 BCE Anglo-Saxons Prof. Esp. Fabione Gomes
  2. 2. The Anglo-Saxons: 449–1066 300s B.C. Celts in Britain 55 B.C–A.D.409 Roman Occupation A.D. 449 Anglo-Saxon Invasion A.D. 400–699 Spread of Christianity A.D. 1066 Norman Invasion A.D.878 King Alfred against the Danes A.D. 600 A.D. 300 A.D. 1 300 B.C . A.D. 900 A.D. 1200
  3. 3. Anglo-Saxons Who were the Anglo- Saxons? <ul><li>Angle, Saxon and Jute tribes. </li></ul><ul><li>5th and 6th centur i es </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Germany, Denmark, northern Holland </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Anglo Saxons
  5. 5. The Anglo-Saxon Invasion A.D. 449 The Anglo-Saxons push the Celts into the far west of the country. Angles Saxons Jutes Celts
  6. 6. Page from Anglo-Saxon Chronicle The Anglo-Saxon Invasion Old English
  7. 7. The Celts in Britain <ul><ul><li>Celtic religion a form of animism </li></ul></ul>Before and during the 4th century B.C. Stonehenge <ul><ul><li>Druids were Celtic priests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain named for one Celtic tribe—the Brythons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain home to several Celtic tribes </li></ul></ul>The First People
  8. 8. The First People <ul><li>Britain first settled by _______ </li></ul><ul><li>Celts came from continental Europe between 800-600 B.C. </li></ul>Celts
  9. 9. Celtic Invasions <ul><li>Around 500 BC two groups of Celts invaded British Isles </li></ul><ul><li>Brythons (Britons) settled island of Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Gaels settled on Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Picts settled in Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>Organized into clans; loyal to chieftain </li></ul><ul><li>Religion – animism (from Latin for “spirit”) </li></ul><ul><li> Believed spirits controlled every aspect of life </li></ul><ul><li> Druids – priests who settled arguments, presided over religious </li></ul><ul><li> rituals, and memorized and recited poems about past </li></ul><ul><li>Conquered by Romans in the first century A.D. and became part of the Roman Empire. </li></ul>Druids thought that the soul was immortal, passing in death from death from one person to another. Considered mistletoe and oak trees sacred and generally held their rites in old oak forests.
  10. 10. Roman Invasions <ul><li>55 BC Julius Caesar invaded Britain </li></ul><ul><li>43 AD Emperor Claudius invaded; marks beginning of Roman Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Began to Christianize the Celts; Celtic religion vanished </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled world from Hadrian’s Wall to Arabia </li></ul>Roman Helmet
  11. 11. Roman Invasions: What legacy did the Romans leave? <ul><li>System of roads/highways – height of the empire, one could travel on post roads and use same currency from Northumbria to Middle East; not possible since </li></ul><ul><li>Provided an organized society which kept other invaders out for several centuries </li></ul><ul><li>410 A.D. - Rome threatened and Romans pulled out of Britain </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman alphabet introduced literacy and a transfer of knowledge. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Germanic Invasions - 449 <ul><li>Angles, Saxons, and Jutes </li></ul><ul><li> Deep sea fishermen and farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Britons no match, but didn’t go quietly </li></ul><ul><li> Pushed west to Wales </li></ul><ul><li> King Arthur was probably a Celtic </li></ul><ul><li>chieftain. (Captain) </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Common language now known as Old </li></ul><ul><li> English (similar to Dutch and German) </li></ul><ul><li>Religion – pagan – similar to Norse mythology </li></ul>Angles/Saxons from Germany Jutes from Denmark
  13. 13. Germanic Invasions – 449 A.D. <ul><li>Created the Anglo-Saxon England (“Engla land”) that lasted until 1066 </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into separate kingdoms: Kent, Northumbria, Mercia and Wessex most important </li></ul><ul><li>United themselves in last two centuries to resist invasions from Vikings, or Norsemen (whom they called Danes). </li></ul>Seven kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon Period: Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex, East Anglia, Essex, Sussex, and Kent
  14. 14. Viking Invasions 8 th -12 th Centuries <ul><li>Invaders from Norway and Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo-Saxons unprepared for ferocity of Vikings </li></ul><ul><li>Common prayer: “From the furor of the Norsemen, Oh Lord protect us.” </li></ul>Viking Ship, known as the Oseberg Ship, dates 825 AD.
  15. 15. Viking Invasions 8 th -12 th Centuries <ul><li>Vikings destroyed monasteries and sacred object </li></ul><ul><li>Slaughtered everyone in settlements that couldn’t pay enough to them </li></ul><ul><li>King Alfred of Wessex (871-899) forced Vikings to northern England </li></ul><ul><li>Danelaw – dividing line between Viking Britain and Anglo-Saxon Britain </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  16. 16. Review: <ul><li>Celts: member of one of the races that now include the Irish, Welsh, Cornish and highland Scots. </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo-Saxons: one of the race of people who settled in England (from NW Europe ) before the Norman Conquest; their language ( also called Old English ) </li></ul><ul><li>The Normans: those who conquered England in 11th century (Scandinavian and Frankish descendant </li></ul>
  17. 17. Society
  18. 18. Society Anglo-Saxon Society <ul><ul><li>kinship groups led by strong warrior chief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people farmed, established local governments, produced fine craftwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English emerged as a written language </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Anglo-Saxon Society <ul><ul><li>Lived in tribal groups with a high class of warriors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kings emerged as society developed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spoke Old English. This was the language that Beowulf was written in. </li></ul><ul><li>Became Christians but still valued heroic ideals and traditional heroes. </li></ul><ul><li>Their culture valued human contact, family, virtue, and a good story. They feared humiliation and loneliness in their lives. In addition, the Anglo-Saxons desired richness, power, and appreciated heroic actions of warriors . </li></ul>
  20. 20. What were Anglo- Saxons buildings like? Life Where did the Anglo- Saxons live? <ul><li>In few buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>2-3 families </li></ul><ul><li>Wooden </li></ul><ul><li>Thatched roofs </li></ul><ul><li>In Suffolk buildings around larger hall, 1 room with hearth </li></ul>
  21. 21. Life Dress Varied from region to region.
  22. 22. Women <ul><li>Unimportant </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic and child-bearing duties </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally had some influence on Thanes. ( Feudal Lord) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Women Clothing <ul><li>Some women had metal clasps at the wrists to fasten the sleeves of a simple blouse. Other women had worn short-sleeves . </li></ul><ul><li>They used to wear brooches at the shoulders pinned two sides of a tubular dress together . </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of beads were often found across the chest. Strings of beads were very pretty. They were usually made of brightly coloured glass . </li></ul>Saxon women had other useful items hanging from a belt around the waist. The belts rotted away, but buckles survived . Simple blouse brooches dress Metal clasps belt
  24. 24. Life Men and Women Knives, spears - hunting, fighting and farming. Tools - sewing and weaving ,
  25. 25. King
  26. 26. Qualities of a King <ul><li>Brave </li></ul><ul><li>Strong </li></ul><ul><li>Generosity-expected to give gifts to his followers </li></ul>
  27. 27. Qualities of a Follower <ul><li>Brave </li></ul><ul><li>Strong </li></ul><ul><li>Loyal to king and family </li></ul><ul><li>Does not complain about struggles </li></ul><ul><li>Felt small and insignificant, pitted against hostile elements </li></ul><ul><li>Warrior </li></ul><ul><li>Struggles with the forces of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Brags about deeds and boasts about future deeds </li></ul><ul><li>Once a promise is made it must be kept or he will die trying </li></ul>
  28. 28. Life Civilized yet violent the sea is a part of life Glorification of war and death Fame-attain glory, be brave Slavery Male dominated Weapons are important and handed down Swords may have names Wyrd-fate Battle is a way of life
  29. 29. Life Freeman or slave A freeman - land and slaves. A slave – nothing Richer freemen - 'thanes'.
  30. 30. Life Crime and punishment For minor crimes - a nose or a hand might be cut off. If a person killed someone they had to pay money to the dead person's relatives.
  31. 31. The Anglo-Saxon religion <ul><ul><li>offered no hope of an afterlife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>valued earthly virtues of bravery, loyalty, generosity, and friendship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>similar to what we call Norse mythology </li></ul></ul>Wednesday Thursday The Anglo-Saxon Religion Thunor Thor Woden Odin Day of week Anglo-Saxon god Norse god
  32. 32. Beliefs Early Anglo- Saxons When people died they were either cremated and put in a pottery urn or buried with their belongings.
  33. 33. Beliefs A king’s burial
  34. 34. Over the two centuries, many Saxons turned to Christianity and hundreds of churches and monasteries were built. The coming Christianity Beliefs
  35. 35. Beliefs Monasters The monasteries were centres of learning, where monks and nuns devoted themselves to studying the Bible.
  36. 36. The Spread of Christianity <ul><ul><li>Christianity and Anglo-Saxon culture co-exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian monks settle in Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British pagan religions replaced by Christianity </li></ul></ul>Around A.D. 400 By A.D. 699
  37. 37. Pagan and Christian Beliefs
  38. 38. Pagan vs. Christianity in Beowulf <ul><li>Pagan </li></ul><ul><li>Strong nature presence </li></ul><ul><li>Strength of the warrior </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>God is mentioned by two of the main characters in the poem: Beowulf and Hrothgar. </li></ul><ul><li>Grendel as Lucifer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both are outcasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform a task for God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grendel is described as a son or descendant of Cain, a clear Biblical reference. </li></ul></ul>The Anglo-Saxons mixed both pagan and Christian traditions. Beowulf contains traces of both beliefs.
  39. 39. Religious influence in literature <ul><li>Following the time periods, religion can be seen as a great influence in literature as a writer’s own religious views can impact a story. Also, during this time period, literature that was written out was largely that which could influence the religious beliefs of the literate. Sometimes, the religious affiliation was also in control of what kinds of materials were printed, so as not to influence people differently than instructed by government or heads of church. Therefore, literature of the time period was often recited or written to preach/teach values, morals and religion to the illiterate crowd. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Characteristics of Anglo-Saxon Poetry (applies to riddles, Beowulf, The Seafarer, etc.)
  41. 41. Anglo-Saxon Literature: Beowulf <ul><li>Poem based on early Celtic and Scandinavian folk legends </li></ul><ul><li>Scenery described is from Northumbria; assumed that poet was Northumbrian monk </li></ul><ul><li>Only manuscript available dates from the year 1000; discovered in the 18 th century </li></ul>
  42. 42. Characteristics of Epic Poetry <ul><li>The hero is a figure of high status and often of great historical or legendary importance. </li></ul><ul><li>The actions of a hero often determine the fate of a nation or group of people. </li></ul><ul><li>The plot is complicated by supernatural beings an events. </li></ul><ul><li>The setting is large in scale, involving more than one nation and often a long and dangerous journey through foreign lands. </li></ul><ul><li>Long, formal speeches are often given by the main character. </li></ul><ul><li>The poem treats universal ideas, such as good versus evil or life and death. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>There was no written tradition </li></ul><ul><li>People were farmers and hunters </li></ul><ul><li>Warfare was a way of life </li></ul><ul><li>People believed in many different gods (polytheistic) </li></ul>Thunor (aid to warriors in battle) Tyr (god of glory and honor) Woden (protector of heroes)
  44. 44. Characteristics of Epic Hero <ul><li>Is significant and glorified </li></ul><ul><li>Is on a quest </li></ul><ul><li>Has superior or superhuman strength, intelligence, and/or courage </li></ul><ul><li>Is ethical </li></ul><ul><li>Risks death for glory or for the greater good of society </li></ul><ul><li>Performs brave deeds </li></ul><ul><li>Is a strong and responsible leader </li></ul><ul><li>Reflects the ideals of a particular society </li></ul>
  45. 45. Main Character <ul><li>A hero is a figure of heroic stature, of national importance, and of great historical or legendary significance. </li></ul><ul><li>Represents national and cultural values </li></ul>
  46. 46. Characteristics of Old English Poetics <ul><li>Epic Poetry is characterized by repetition of words, phrases, or lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alliteration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caesura </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kennings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epithets </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Old English Poetics <ul><li>Alliteration – repetition of consonant and vowel sounds at the beginning of words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize particular words or images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heighten moods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create musical effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aid memorization in oral tradition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caesura – a natural pause or break in the middle of the line of poetry and joined by the use of a repeated vowel or consonant sound </li></ul>Out of the marsh // from the foot of misty Hills and bogs // bearing God’s hatred Grendel came // hoping to kill Anyone he could trap // on this trip to high Herot
  48. 48. Old English Poetics <ul><li>Kennings – a metaphorical phrase used to replace a concrete noun. Ready made descriptive compound words that evoke vivid images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kennings are formed by </li></ul></ul><ul><li> prepositional phrases </li></ul><ul><li> possessive phrases </li></ul><ul><li>compound words </li></ul>Preposition phrase – Giver of knowledge Possessive phrase – mankind’s enemy Compound word – sea path
  49. 49. Old English Poetics Epithets : Using an appropriate adjective (often habitually) to characterize a person or thing. &quot; Bravely bold Sir Robin rode forth from Camelot. He was not afraid to die, oh brave Sir Robin. He was not at all afraid to be killed in nasty ways, brave , brave , brav e, brave Sir Robin.&quot; ( Monty Python and the Holy Grail)
  50. 50. Old English Poetry <ul><li>3 major types of OE poetry: </li></ul><ul><li>heroic verse—celebrates courage, honor, loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>elegy—mourns a loss </li></ul><ul><li>religious verse—focuses on Christian teachings and stories </li></ul><ul><li>*****Beowulf contains all three. </li></ul>
  51. 52. Pastimes Fests H eld in the lord's hall Winter months Loyalty Gathering around the fire for a fest roast meats bread, fruit beer, mead
  52. 53. Pastimes Entertainment <ul><li>stories about brave warriors and their adventures </li></ul><ul><li>Beowulf, a heroic prince who killed several monsters </li></ul><ul><li>8th to 9th centuries </li></ul><ul><li>the songs and poems </li></ul><ul><li>lyre </li></ul>
  53. 54. Pastimes Riddles and runes <ul><li>Riddles </li></ul><ul><li>letters called runes </li></ul><ul><li>Magical powers </li></ul>
  54. 55. Poems <ul><li>Recited for entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes to celebrate a military victory </li></ul><ul><li>Poems were performed by Scops </li></ul><ul><li>Gleemen were their assistants </li></ul>
  55. 56. <ul><ul><li>Anglo-Saxons did not believe in afterlife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>warriors gained immortality through songs </li></ul></ul>Why were the scops important? The Anglo-Saxon bards <ul><ul><li>called scops </li></ul></ul>Anglo-Saxon harp <ul><ul><li>strummed harp as they sang </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sang of heroic deeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>were often warriors </li></ul></ul>The Anglo-Saxon
  56. 57. Anglo Saxon Kings <ul><li>The small kingdoms fought amongst each other until 829—King Egbert of Wessex won control of all A/S kingdoms. Unfortunately, by the end of Egbert’s reign, Vikings had captured much of the kingdom (Vikings were Scandinavian—called Norse because they had crossed the North Sea—predominantly Danes); Vikings had taken over much of France, and that area became known as Normandy. </li></ul>In 878, Alfred, King of Wessex (Egbert’s grandson) defeated the Danes at the Battle of Edington. Alfred went on to recapture most of England, as well as promote education and literacy among his people. He became known as “Alfred the Great.” Alfred’s son and grandson won back the rest of England and made peace with the Vikings.
  57. 58. King Alfred against the Danes 8th–9th centuries Vikings called Danes invade Britain 878 King Alfred unifies Anglo-Saxons against the Danes. 871 Alfred of Wessex is king of England. <ul><ul><li>England becomes a nation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King Sweyn and his Danish troops arrive in England, from a manuscript (c. 14 th century) </li></ul></ul>
  58. 59. The Norman Invasion <ul><ul><li>William of Normandy crosses the English Channel </li></ul></ul>The Norman Invasion, Bayeux Tapestry <ul><ul><li>French replaces English as the language of the ruling class </li></ul></ul>1066 <ul><ul><li>William defeats Harold and Anglo-Saxon army </li></ul></ul>
  59. 60. 1066 <ul><li>King Edward died </li></ul><ul><li>William (the Duke of Normandy)** laid claim to the throne (Edward may have promised the throne to William) </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, the English council of elders chose Harold II as king </li></ul><ul><li>Duke William attacked, defeated the A/S and killed Harold at the Battle of Hastings. He became King William I </li></ul><ul><li>**Remember: France = Vikings </li></ul>
  60. 61. This brought French culture to England <ul><li>feudalism—land is divided among lords who are loyal to the king. The lords give land to vassals in exchange for military duty. </li></ul><ul><li>chivalry—knights are expected to be honorable, brave, generous, skillful in battle, respectful to women, and helpful to the weak. </li></ul>
  61. 62. <ul><li>1066 marks the beginning of what we consider English culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Old English: a combination of the languages spoken by the Anglo-Saxons. Today it looks like a foreign language . </li></ul>

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