Energy efficiency by use of locally made fuel efficient cooking stoves and groundnut shell briquettes by Anthony Tabbal
GreenTech’s Objectives & Targets• Provide affordable environmental solutions• Pro poor response to up-winding energy crises• Mitigate climate change and other environmental challenges through alternative renewable energy sources and energy saving devices• Increase environmental knowledge and understanding through trainings and sensitization• Strengthen the environmental sector through networking and cooperation• Improve livelihoods, especially for women• Contribute to poverty reduction• Allow a bright future for the next generations
Background• 1st idea at Green Mamba Garden Restaurant, where management realized that too much charcoal was used• Management consists of economist and environmentalist• Economist: “The use of charcoal is getting too expensive!”• Environmentalist: “It’s an environmental disaster!”• Both: “Can we solve the problem with fuel efficient stoves and groundnut shell briquettes for us and for others? Let’s try!”
Landmarks• April 2010: Company Registration• June 2010: Business Plan Compilation after one year of research in Gambia and abroad• January 2011: Private funding secured• February 2011: First designs of fuel efficient stoves• March-June 2011: Construction of basic structures• March-May 2011: Order of Briquette Pressing Machine, training abroad• and shipping preparations in Denmark• July 2011: Machine arrives and is connected and adjusted• August 2011: Expected quality of briquettes achieved, 2nd generation of fuel efficient stoves successfully tested, samples distributed, GreenTech opens its doors for presentation and demonstration of production and products• November 2011: Launching of the innovative cooking unit• December 2011: Winning of SEED Award with partners and introduction of stove/briquette donation scheme for needy families• January 2012: 1st video documentary compiled (available on request!)• February 2012: involvement in MRC testing series of stoves and fuels
The Production Processof groundnut shell briquettes
Resources•The briquettes are purely made of groundnut shells, as they are picked upfrom the dumping sites around Denton Bridge.•GreenTech is collaborating with the women at the site, who make their livingfrom separating the remaining groundnuts from the shells and packing shellsin bags.•GreenTech’s press has especially been adjusted to press groundnutshells, butgenerally also other biomass can be pressed in briquettes.•Groundnutshells appear to be a perfect material for briquetting, as theircalorific value is comparable to high quality firewood and the pressing resultsare excellent in quality and quantity.•As electricity is one of the major inputs for the production, GreenTech wouldprefer to receive electricity from renewable energy sources, as wind craft,when available, as indicated in the initial businessplan.
Necessary Infrastructures Structures The ground-nutshells are Vehicle transported in bags per truck to the pressing plant in Kololi. The manager underwent training in Denmark to adjust, operate andStand by Generator maintain the high quality pressing machine. Pressing Machine All staff was trained on site on operations and safety measures.
Pressing Process•Groundnutshells are checked for correct humidity leveland sprinkled with water, if necessary• the shells are filled in the silo, no binders or chemicalsadded•An endless screw feeds the groundnutshells in a pipe•The crumbled shells are heated up to 130 degrees,which releases the lignin, a natural binder in all biomass•A flywheel hammers the groundnutshells in layers inthe pipe with a force of 4 tons, 5 times per second•Groundnutshell briquettes exit the machine throughthe cooling line
Cooling and Packing The briquettes harden in the cooling line. So far, they are packed at the end of the cooling line by hand in used bags to be ready for pick-up and transport. More packaging options and a delivery system are currently explored.
Testing Phase 14 tons of briquettes were pressed within two weeks to adjust the machine and to explore the correct balance of humidity and pressure to achieve high quality briquettes.In the meantime the fuelefficient stoves, made by localwelders from recycled metalwere developed and testedwith the first material.
Stove Development From Gasifier to “Forno Anchu”•In cooperation with welders, GreenTech continuously designs and improves fuel efficientstoves, that are compatible with the briquettes.•Individual wishes and comments from users are welcome and integrated in the process.•Strong isolation and smart airflow are key for the efficiency of stoves and satisfying use ofbriquettes.•User training is available at GreenTech free of charge and highly recommended for best results.
Current Stove Models 3 commonly used sizes: Forno Mam Iffi: catering and parties Forno Anchu: household Forno Susso: attaya brewing
Advantageof using the innovative cooking unit• Saving forest, as groundnut shell briquettes form an affordable alternative to firewood and charcoal;• Reducing CO2 Emission, as the fuel efficient stove reduces the overall fuel consumption;• Managing and recycling waste, as the briquettes are pressed from groundnut shells dumped near the de-coating site;• Protecting family health, as the combined setting causes less smoke during the cooking process than firewood;• Saving finances, as the combined cooking setting can save easily 60% of fuel costs compared to traditional charcoal cooking and the stove pays off within less than a months for the average cooking unit;• Saving efforts and time, especially for women, as the briquettes are fast to light and easy to handle, store and transport.
Testing Results for ComparisonThree cooking settings were compared:Briquettes in Forno Anchu Firewood in Firewood Forno Charcoal on Charcoal Forno Comparison of Cooking Units, cooking Domoda for 12 adults, based on 2.5 kg rice Parameter Briquette in Forno Firewood in Firewood Charcoal in Charcoal Forno Anchu Forno Fuel weight in kg 2.7 4 2.6 Prize in GMD 16.2 15.4 39 Cooking time in minutes* 150 145 210 Time for fire preparation** 3 17 8 Total time of above 153 162 218
Where to use groundnutshell briquettes• Households• Restaurants• Industries/Boilers• (Fish) Smokery• Bakeries/Ovens• Kilns (Pottery, Bricks)• Canteens (Schools, Prison, ...)• anywhere, where heat is needed, or usually charcoal or firewood are used, just a matter of trying and adapting
Who is using groundnut-shell briquettes currently – Private Households – RestaurantsHow can the general public access groundnut- shell briquettes – Sales points – Delivery service
Challenges– change of habits– fuel efficient stove as precondition– transport/de-centralisation– Poverty– industries access firewood under value
GreenTech is working on solutions:• Cooperation with women groups to develop user friendly distribution systems• Search for funds to accelerate the establishment of young retail businesses for decentralization• Access funding to development delivery service for door to door sales• Open options for Subsidies and Micro-financing• Acceleration of Donations Scheme/CSR Projects• Step by step implementation of Promotion/Marketing plan
More information• webpage: www.greentechgambia.com• e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org• Lemongrass Cafe, every Wednesday 11 am at the GreenTech plant. Demonstration of production and use of groundnut shell briquettes and fuel efficient stoves
Call for support• Please support our donation scheme for needy families and communities! Thanks for your kind attention!