Plant Biotechnology and Food Security


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Plant Biotechnology and Food Security: Prospects of Nuclear Research
Presented By:
Dr. Mirza Mofazzal Islam
Principal Scientific Officer, Plant Breeding Division and
Head, Biotechnology Division Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA)

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Plant Biotechnology and Food Security

  1. 1. 9th monthly SEMINAR of CARES – SAUPlant Biotechnology and Food Security: Prospects of Nuclear Research Dr. Mirza Mofazzal Islam Dr. Mirza Mofazzal Islam Principal Scientific Officer, Plant Breeding Division and Principal Scientific Officer, Plant Breeding Division and Head, Biotechnology Division Head, Biotechnology Division Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) Mymensingh 2202 Mymensingh 2202 E-mail: E-mail:
  2. 2. Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA)
  3. 3. Human population is rapidly outgrowing
  4. 4. FOOD SECURITYExists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.” (Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N.)Security for Whom? Individual Sufficiency Family Unit Safety (Households) Economic Access Communities Physical Access (Country) Nutrition Regions
  5. 5. Source: Nanyang Technical University, Singapore Capture Aquaculture Fish Natural Ecosystems Animal Feed Poultry Biofuels 3. Access to Food Mammals (Income) 2.Other Uses Access to Food (Market Supply Chain) 1b.Availability (Food Supply) Distribution Demand for Household Food Production, Imports Food Security Stockpiles Urban Processing/ Food Security Distribution Losses Trade 4. Utility Safety/Quality/ Nutritive Value 1a. Availability Science/ (Primary Production) Technology Crops/AnimalsInputs Sunshine 4 – Dimensional Food Labor Land Water Security Conceptual Model Population Increases Fragility of Agro-ecosystems Diet Diversification Climate Change Competition for Land Lifestyle Changes Changing Demographics Urbanization (e.g. fewer/ageing farmers)
  6. 6. Why is food a security issue? DRIVERS CAUSES SYMPTOMS Food Globalization Shortages Deterioration of Health Deterioration of Nutrition Food Price Increases Hunger Food Loss of Life Conflict Insecurity Civil Unrest Poverty Food Economic Instability Hoarding Political InstabilityClimate Change Food Contamination Social Instability
  7. 7. Main Threats to Food Security Food Availability Production Imports Stockpiles Chronic Food Security Transitory Food Security Food Access (Physical) • Demographic changes• Weather disruptions and Access to markets • Poverty pest outbreaks Infrastructure • Underinvestment in• Rising energy prices infrastructure/tech.• Competition from energy Food Access (Economic) • Climate changesector Employment • Fragility of agro-• Policy changes e.g. trade Overseas Remittances ecosystems• Lower holdings of cereal Foreign Direct Investment • Unfriendly policiesstocks Trade towards• Diversion from staple to farmerscash Food Utilization • Declining no. of farmers crops Health and nutrition • Globalisation• Conflict/Terrorist activities Sanitation/Hygiene• Economic factors Storage/processing facilities Clean water Four Dimensions of Food Security
  8. 8. Biotechnology links to Food SecurityFood AvailabilityFood Availability Production Production Losses Losses Climate Change (CC) Climate Change (CC)Food DistributionFood Distribution Losses LossesFood UtilizationFood Utilization Nutrition Quality (Biofortification) Nutrition Quality (Biofortification)
  9. 9. CURRENT STATUS OF FOOD SECURITY IN THE REGION• Ensure food security for the 578 million people already hungry today in Asia and the Pacific• Increase food production for additional 1.1 billion people living in 2050• Food production has to be increased by 77 percent in developing countries by 2050 to ensure physical availability• In the developing countries, 80% of the higher yield should come from productivity growth, increasing cropping intensity and only 20 % from land expansion
  10. 10. Current status of food security in the region (cont’d)• Gains from Green Revolution are increasingly at risks and crop productivity growth in this region has been sluggish• Limited scope for irrigation expansion and increasing uses of water and agricultural lands for other purposes• Very limited opportunity to increase arable lands• In turn, this adds urgency to the need to improve crop productivity
  11. 11. TrendsFood Security• Food security remains elusive to millions• Micronutrient deficiencies are widespread• Slow progress towards the MDG1 targetCrop productivity• Yield growth has slowed down to around 40% of what achieved during the Green Revolution• The rate of increase in rice and wheat production is still well below that of population• Poor performance of pulses
  12. 12. Emerging IssuesPopulation growth and demographic transition- More people in urban areas than rural areas in 2050- People aging 65 and above- 857 million in 2050 from 207 million 2007 (United Nations, 2001)- Feminization of agriculture in rural AsiaWater Scarcity and Water Quality- Water resources are becoming scarcer in Asia- Overdrawing of ground water has depleted aquifers- Intrusion of salt water due to rising of sea levels
  13. 13. Emerging Issues (cont’d)Climate change and vulnerability- Agriculture and food systems are likely to remain vulnerable- Drops in yields of rice and wheat critical for regional food securityBiofuels- Competition for land and water between food and biofuels productionsUnder-investment in Agriculture- Sharp decline of share of agriculture in ODA- Decline of agricultural budget in developing countries- Many governments unable to compensate by allocating more of their own resources
  14. 14. Where do the Hungry Live ?Source: The State of Food Insecurity in the World, FAO (2009)..
  15. 15. Jeffrey Sachs. 2005. The end of Poverty. Penguin
  16. 16. Food Price CrisisPercentage change, 2006-2008 Source: The State of Food Insecurity in the World, FAO (2009).
  17. 17. Low Income Food Deficit Countries (LIFDC), FAO) Courtesy: Michael Sheinkman, WFP, Thailand
  18. 18. Prevalence of Undernourished (MDG indicator)
  19. 19. Food Security: geographic connectivity Conceptualization of the inter-relationships between Food Supply and Demand at regional and global levels -- Distribution ASEAN ASIA-PACIFIC EUROPE & AMERICAS Global Food Supply Chain
  20. 20. CONSEQUENCE ------  Social unrest and food protests, some violent, have flared in countries around the globe  Poor are hardest hit by rising prices.  850 million people worldwide going hungry  Millions more now are being pushed below the one- dollar-a-day poverty level
  21. 21. Global Climate Change Sea level riseIncrease salinity intrusion Increase evaporation Drought Decreasing precipitation in dry season Increase snow melt in the Himalayas Increase precipitation in monsoon Increase flood intensity Prolonged monsoon Submergence of coastal areas Impact on agriculture
  22. 22. Effect of Climate ChangeFlash flood affected Ayla Affected people in Southern Farmers field part of Bangladesh
  23. 23. Climate Change Adaptation” We need~~~~• Trait improvement: Heat and drought tolerance (Drought-tolerant maize) Waterlogging tolerance Frost, pest and disease resistance Water-use efficiency (e.g. Water-efficient Maize for Africa) Nutrient-use efficiency Early vigor Reduced dependence on low temperatures to trigger flowering or seed germination• Reducing water loss from agriculture: Less ploughing means trapping moisture
  24. 24. Major Problems of Rice Agriculture Abiotic stress Biotic stress Socioeconomics Submergence Disease Marketing Salinity Insect Resource Drought constraints Weed Temperature Knowledge gap Soil fertility Post harvest Loss, Yield Gap
  25. 25. The Race to Feed the World We are producing more food per person• Scientists & policymakers pursue a goal of food security, the guarantee of an adequate and reliable food supply for all people at all times —Devote more fossil fuel energy to agriculture —Plant and harvest more frequently —Increase the use of irrigation, fertilizer, and pesticides —Increase the amount of cultivated land —Develop more productive crop and livestock varieties
  26. 26. The Race to Feed the WorldWe face undernourishment, over nutrition, and malnutrition• Undernourishment in developing countries – an economic problem (low incomes… half the world population lives on < $2/day). About a billion undernourished people. 31 million Americans are “food insecure”• Overnutrition in developed nations – abundance of food, cheap junk food, sedentary lifestyles• Malnutrition – shortage of nutrients the body needs. Can affect both undernourished and overnourished individuals
  27. 27. The Race to Feed the World The “green revolution” boosted agricultural production• The desire for greater quantity & “… A temporary success in man’s war quality of food led in the mid- against hunger and deprivation.” and late-20 century to the th green revolution• In the 1940s Norman Borlaug introduced a special strain of wheat to Mexico, which soon tripled wheat production• Other developing nations followed – India, Pakistan, etc. (saved India from famine in 1970s)• Grain production per person has decreased 9% since 1985 (varies by region)• Nearly all the planet’s arable land has been claimed• There is no guarantee that food production will continue to outpace population growth
  28. 28. Green revolution (1960-1970)Green revolution leads to greatly increased crop yieldsbased on the incorporation of dwarfing genes discovered byNorman Borlaug and the widespread use of agrochemicals
  29. 29. • Three-step green revolution – Selectively bred monocultures – High yields through high inputs – fertilizer, pesticides, and water – Multiple cropping• Second green revolution – fast-growing dwarf varieties of wheat and rice• Past 50 years – world grain production tripled
  30. 30. A Revolution in Biology 1953 – DNA structure • 1970s – rDNA technology • 1980s – Metabolic engineering • 1990s – Genomics • 21st Century – “Systems” biology (post-genome biology)Biology and Computingare being integrated to achieve aPredictive Understanding of livingsystems
  31. 31. Agri Biotech era includes followingtechnologies GMOS (Seeds) Plant Tissue Culture Plant Based Phyto Phyto-chemicals Algae Farming Biofertilizers Biopesticides Mushroom Farming Animal /Plant (ELISA KITS) Biofuels
  32. 32. Flavr Savr Tomato Antisense RNA against the enzyme activity developed to inhibit the synthesis of the enzyme and delayed the fruit ripening of tomato by GM technology. These tomato have longer shelf life called as “FLAVR SAVR TOMATO”
  33. 33. Nuclear Applications for Food Security
  34. 34. Crop Improvement by Mutation Techniques• Evolutionary variation has been used as the basisfor selection since the beginning of agriculture• Spontaneous mutation rates causing geneticvariation in living organisms are low• Radiation significantly increases mutation rates• Induced mutants are not genetically modifiedorganisms, as there is no introduction of foreignhereditary material• Induced mutation has accelerated traditionalplant breeding as the basis of crop improvement
  35. 35. Radiation (mutation induction) is used to produce- • Improved high-yielding plants • Adaptable to harsh climate (Drought or flood) • Resistant to diseases and insect pestsMutation technique is  Safe  Proven (Since the 1920s)  Cost-effective To provide sustainable, long-term solutions, we mustmake use of all available resources Nuclear research is urging a revival of nuclear cropbreeding technologies to help tackle world hunger
  36. 36. Soil-Water-Crop Nutrition Management• Isotopes can be used as tracers in soil and watermanagement and crop nutrition• Isotopes can be used to develop cost-effective soil-water management technologies to enhance soil qualityand fertilizer/water use efficiency, for example: Biological nitrogen fixation (N-15) Nutrient use efficiency (N-15, P-32 and S-35) Greenhouse gas (CH4, CO2 and N2O) emissions(C-13, C-14 and N-15) Soil carbon sequestration (C-13, C-14 and N-15) Water use efficiency (O-18, C-13)
  37. 37. Insect Pest Control by Sterile Insect Technique• Radiation is used to induce lethal mutations inchromosomes of insect pests to cause sterility• Sterile males are released into the field where theycompete with wild males and mate with wild females• SIT relies on:  Mass production of the target pest  Sterilization and shipment  Systematic releases mostly by air  Mating results in no offspring• SIT integrated with other pest control methods is appliedfor pest suppression, containment, or eradication
  38. 38. Improving Food Safety by Irradiation• 5,000 deaths and 325,000 hospitalizations a year in USAdue to food-borne illness• Irradiation at appropriate doses can kill harmful bacteria,parasites, pests, and extend the shelf-life of foods• More than 55 countries permit the application of irradiation• An estimated 500,000 tons of foods are treated annually in180 Cobalt-60 and a dozen electron beam facilitiesworldwide• Increased acceptance of irradiation as a plant quarantinemeasure
  39. 39. Improving Food Safety by Control of Food Hazards• Ensuring that the food supply is safe, traceable andauthentic: Developing analytical traceability systems to determine product origin/authenticity and ensure food safety Detecting contaminants by radioassay and isotope dilution assay Optimizing sample preparation using radioisotopes Radioisotopes for metabolic/transfer studies• Procedures to control food-borne hazards developed and transferred to Member States• Leading to the improvement of overall food security, food safety and an increase in international trade
  40. 40. Mutation techniques- Improving crop cultivars - Enhancing biodiversity - Increasing farmer’s income
  41. 41. Spontaneous mutation the motor ofevolutionUnmasking Hidden Potential in Plants • Height of a plant • Yield • Susceptibility or resistance to diseaseAll of these possibilities are written into a plant´s blueprint,its Genome, but only a few are expressedPlant need a long period of time to adapt itself to differentconditions through a process of spontaneous mutation andnatural selection
  42. 42. Shall we live millions of years and survey billions of hectares (acres) of land with 100 percent precision?We would find variants with all of the traits we´re looking forbut which have mutated naturallyBut we can´t wait millions of years to find the plants that arenecessary now, if we want to feed the world. So with inducedmutation, we are actively speeding up the processToday, scientists apply mutagens - for example Gamma rays or chemicals - toaccelerate the process
  43. 43. PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGYOffers several possibilities for increasing Productivity Diversification ProductionFor developing a more sustainable agriculturePlant biotechnology includes Genomic analysis Breeding and plant-disease diagnoses Plant tissue culture techniques Use of advanced molecular biology techniques for plant transformation  Biopesticide production Effective instrument to mitigate consequences of climatic change Offer cropping alternatives in lands degraded by erosion and desertification or by careless agricultural use
  44. 44. Induced mutation simply accelerates Natural process of spontaneous changes occurring in plants Exposure to radiation changes a plant´s blueprint at one position in the genetic code, creating a variant that is different from the parent plant Huge numbers of mutants are produced in the search for desired traits - perhaps a resistance to certain diseases or pests, or an ability to thrive in saline soil or drought conditions
  45. 45. Induced mutation – a short course for high Induced mutation – a short course for high level management level management Radiation (mutagenic treatment)MoMo(’000) M11 M (’000) (10,000-’ 00,000) M2 mutation (after mutagenic treatment) (segregating population) AA Aa AA Aa aa bb bb 1 (self-fertilization) bb :2 bb :1 bb CC CC CC CC CC mutant
  46. 46. - New variety - Prebreeding sd mutantMutagenic M4treatment M0 M1 M2 M3 Mutated generations
  47. 47. Chimerism of M1 plants Parent cultivar Mutagenic treatment seeds Radiation (multicellular embryo meristem, leaf etc.) Mo Chemical mutagenesis Insertional mutagenesis (embryo) M2 seeds M1 (meiosis) (embryo) (M1 plant, chimera) Segregating M2 population (Selection on single plant basis) M3
  48. 48. Handling of mutants Segregating M2 population Segregating M3 M3 - Homozygosity test of population putative mutants selected in M2 (Selection of mutants among lines derived from individual M2 plants) M4 - Homozygosity test of selected M4 - Homozygosity test of selected mutants, preliminary evaluation, mutants, preliminary evaluation, seed multiplication seed multiplication Selection M5 - Mn Cross-breeding Multilocation trials Cross-breeding Direct release
  49. 49. Modern Plant Breeding• Modern crop varieties contribute ~40% to the yield increase during last half century• Plant breeders make use of genetic variability for developing new varieties• Generating genetic variability: (1) exists in (agro-)biodiversity (e.g. preserved landraces, related wild species) (2) induced using nuclear techniques (3) transferred among different species by transgenics
  50. 50. Plant Breeding MethodsModern plant breeding, based on the means of generatinggenetic variability, is classified into:Cross breeding: the key component is “cross” [betweencommercial varieties and/or landraces] and “selection”;the end products are recombinants of existing alleles. Thepotential is mostly explored by prospection (spontaneousmutations).Mutation Breeding: Generating new gene alleles notexisting in the germplasm; or improving a few key traits ina otherwise excellent variety (induced mutations). NoGMO, no intellectual property (IP) issues.Transgenic breeding: Adding foreign genes into acommercial variety. GMO, IP issues (monopoly of newvarieties)
  51. 51. Mutation Assisted Breeding Strategies elite mutant + agronomic valueelite + resistance+ agronomic value pre-breeding mutant- resistance +/- agronomic value + resistanceagronomic value: •yield (agro)biodiversity •quality - agronomic value •adaptability + resistance •a.o.
  52. 52. Phenotype gap –combining mutagenesis and genomics Phenotype gap –combining mutagenesis and genomicsTo obtain the full range of phenotypes we need to increaseTo obtain the full range of phenotypes we need to increase both the breadth and depth of the mutant resources both the breadth and depth of the mutant resources breadth Mining Mining Tool: new loci new induced alleles in mutations Mutation known Approach: grid loci mutational analysis depth Deletion lines
  53. 53. Gene Finding & Function Analysis Strategies Gain of function high-throughput - Resistance molecular screening + Resistance HAPPY-mapping DNA-chips TILLING Loss of function SAGE DArT ... - Resistance + Resistance
  54. 54. Crop improvement by mutation techniques No mutation Mutant cultivars Negative mutation - Higher yielding - Disease resistant - Environmental stress tolerant - Climate resilient - Well adapted - Better nutrition/quality
  55. 55. Pathway reconstruction Gene network interactions Output Z Output ? ?≡Z ?≠Ζ MutationPositive interaction Preserved interactionNegative interaction Not preserved interaction Reversed sign of interaction New interaction modified from Ralph J. Greenspan (2001)
  56. 56. Mutagenesis meets Genomics Pathway reconstructionReference, tester Mutant modified from
  57. 57. Mutant Varieties2012: 3218 officially released mutant varieties worldwide from 214 different plant speciesMore than 80% mutant varieties have been developed by using nuclear techniques
  58. 58. Selection of Herbicide Tolerant MutantsField and screenhouse set-up of herbicide Mutants and WT at one week after herbicide spraying: WT are placed in both ends of seed box forscreening the replicated set-up and for M2 and M3 set-up, additional line of WT was placed in the middle. •53 mutant lines of NSIC Rc156 and NSIC Rc144 with a total of 339 individual plants survived and were seed increased. •For mass screening of NSIC Rc218 SR mutant lines, 43 M3 and 108 M2 plants were selected.
  59. 59. Selection of Tungro Resistant MutantsPictures above show tungro reactions of a) ARC-resistant check b) TN1-susceptible check ; c) NSIC Rc218 –WT; d)NSIC Rc218-M2; e) NSIC Rc144-WTand NSIC Rc144-3-16-3. From above right, control checks reaction against tungrovirus and from below left transplanted R and I plants for seed increase.
  60. 60. Selection of Bacterial Blight Resistant Mutants Inoculation of plants at 35 DAT using clip method IR24: S check IRBB21: R check Mutant entry :MR 24 plants from an original mutant line exhibited resistant reaction (<10cm lesion length). The susceptible check (IR24) exhibited an average lesion length of 28.2cm while the wild type wild type (NSIC Rc144) has 23.5cm lesion length
  61. 61. Drought field screening
  62. 62. Response of popular varieties to drought stress PSB PSB Rc14 PSB Rc82 PSB Rc82 Rc14PSB Rc18 PSB NSIC NSIC Rc18 Rc146 Rc146
  63. 63. BREEDING FOR ULTRA-EARLY MATURING RICE VARIETIESVarieties NSIC Rc134 and PSB Rc10 with ion beam treatments,40 and 250 Gy, have been evaluated in the field. Generally themutants were phenotypically better than the parent varieties interms of reactions to BLB. Early maturity with slow senescencerate was observed in the 250 Gy treatment
  64. 64. Y DAM DO (orig) - clustered Y DAM DO (orig) SCRL-2008DS-269 SCRL-2008DS-266 SCRL-2008DS-271 (b) SCRL-2008DS-271 - clustered SCRL-2008DS-277 - heavy Y DAM DO SCRL- SCRL-2008DS- SCRL- SCRL-2008DS- (a) SCRL-2008DS-263 - light (c) (ORIG) 2008DS-269 266 2008DS-271 271 SCDL: Variations in panicle (a), grain size and shape (b), and kernel quality of lines from YDAMDOvariations in panicle (a), grain size & shape (b), and variations in grain size &shape, and absence of awnkernel quality ofJepun observed among the lines from Nerica 2
  65. 65. Mutant varieties / lines developedRice• PSB Rc78 (Pampanga): derived from Sigadis Milagrosa , gamma Co 60 source at 25 kR, an aromatic irrigated lowland variety• NSIC Rc130 (Tubigan 3) – anther culture-derived, very early maturing irrigated lowland variety• Anther-culture derived varieties for saline areas NSIC Rc186 (Salinas 3) NSIC Rc188 (Salinas 4) NSIC 2011 Rc290 Salinas 6 NSIC 2011 Rc292 Salinas 7 NSIC 2011 Rc294 Salinas 8
  66. 66. Production of Mutant Populations and Selectionof Mutant Lines with Improved TraitsFour mutant lines derived from NSICRc144 and NSIC Rc156 gave a yieldrange of 9.1-13.52 tons/ha with yieldadvantage of 131.72-195.35 % overyield checks (PSB Rc82 & NSIC Rc222)and their respective wild types.
  67. 67. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW PHYTIC ACID (LPA) RICE: PROGRESS AND PROSPECTTwo lpa mutants (Os-lpa-MH86 and Os-lpa-XQZ), wild types, andassociated molecular markers for lpa, were obtained from ZhejiangUniversity, China. Initial morpho-agronomic traits evaluated atPhilRice Nueva Ecija revealed that Os-lpa-MH86 has good tilleringability, plant height and dense spikelets compared to Os-lpa-XQZ.Hybridization was conducted using these mutants with NSIC Rc160to develop segregating populations for genetic and molecular markeranalysis.Phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexakisphosphate) is the seedphosphorus storage compound needed for the germination of legumes andgrains including rice. It is known for its anti-cancer and antioxidantproperties and is located in globoids in the rice bran and germ. However, italso binds minerals and significantly lower iron absorption when oneconsumes rice as “brown rice.”
  68. 68. Holistic Food Safety Systems “farm to fork”
  69. 69. NOTABLE AND SUSTAINABLE IMPACTSResearch for development activities have deliveredcontinuous results that have improved livelihoods and foodsecurity while helping to protect the environment Improved agricultural productivity Higher incomes More sustainable use of natural resources Facilitated growth in agricultural trade Promoted applications of nuclear technology
  70. 70. Success Stories of Nuclear Research In Different Parts of World Improved crop varieties: High yielding, disease andinsect resistant leading to higher economic returns Combating water scarcity and soil salinization through managing and conserving irrigationwaterapplication of integrated salinity managementpractices Diagnostic capacity building for animal diseases Fruit fly control: Implementation of area-wide fruit flymanagement programmes, which include an SITcomponent Upgrading Food Analysis Laboratories
  71. 71. Scenario of various stresses in BangladeshSalinity: In Bangladesh, there are 1.02 million hectares ofcultivable land affected by soil salinity ranging 2.0 to > 16.0dS/m The coastal areas of Bangladesh cover more than 30% ofthe cultivable lands of the country About 53% of the coastal areas are affected by salinity Agricultural land use in these areas is very poor, which ismuch lower than country’s average cropping intensity Salinity causes unfavorable environment andhydrological situation that restrict the normal cropproduction throughout the year
  72. 72. Salinity Problem World wide, salt affected areas = 400 – 950 m. ha (Lin et al., 1998). 170 x 106 ha Russia8.5 x 106 ha In Asia, only rice lands = 37 China USA 54 m.ha 11 13 x 106ha Pakist Indonesia Bangladesh: 2.8 m.ha an 24 21 x 106 ha Another 9.5 m. ha of Paraguay 86 x 10 ha 6 11 India x 106 ha x 357 saline soil => managed by 9 x 106 Argentina 10 ha Australia 6 ha Ethio irrigation drainage and by Chile pia chemical treatment….i.e., too costly. Need salt tolerance varieties.
  73. 73. Challenges in coastal saline areas
  74. 74. • Saline area in 1973 =0.833 mha• Saline area in 2000 = 1.02 mha• Saline area in 2012 = 2.80 mha
  75. 75. Soil SalinityMap 2009 Legend 2009 2000 1973
  76. 76. Coastal zone• About 2 M ha for rice• 25-60 cm H 2 O stagnation• EC 6-12 dS/m (soil and water)• Improving the productivity
  77. 77. Submergence: Submergence areascover about 15% oftotal cultivable landwhich are tidal flood,flash flood and flood Flash floodsaccounts for More than2.0 mha areas ofBangladesh by Flood: Mymensingh District, 2011different grades
  78. 78. Flash floods regularly affect rainfed lowland rice (RLR) ecosystems where flood water remains for around three weeks in many parts of the country Up to 100% yield losses may occur due to Flash floodsdepending upon different factors of submergence proneecosystem
  79. 79. >2.0 million hectarerice areas are affectedby flash flood during T.Aman seasonT. Aman rice often getssubmerged duringvegetative stages foraround 2 weeksincurring yield lossSubmergence toleranthigh yielding ricevarieties along withproduction packagesare required for thisunfavorable ecosystem
  80. 80. Drought: More than 2.0 millionhectares of cropped land areaffected by drought duringboth dry (upland) and wet (T.Aman) seasons. Drought resistance in riceis a complex trait controlledby different root and shootcharacters and physico-chemical activities atdifferent stages of growth
  81. 81. Drought•It is very difficult toscreen rice varietyfor complete droughtresistance• Varieties withmoderate resistanceunder moderatelyrainfall areas areemphasized
  82. 82. • Around 2.0 mha rice area are affected by drought in RLR and upland ecosystem• Early drought in T. Aman hampers crop establishment, delays transplanting, reduces yield.• Terminal drought in T. Aman season affect the reproductive phase, causes sterility, partial grain filling and reduced yield.• Early rice varieties escape drought.• BINA needs genetically drought resistant varieties
  83. 83. Sl. Stress Area VarietiesNo (Mha)1 Salinity 2.0 BR23, BRRI dhan40, BRRI dhan41, BRRI dhan47, BRRI dhan53, BRRI dhan54, BINA dhan8 and BINA dhan102 Submergence >2.0 BRRI dhan51, BRRI dhan52, Ciherang-sub1 (proposed BINA dhan11) and Samba Mahsuri-sub1 (proposed BINA dhan12)3 Drought 2.0 BR24, BRRI dhan42, BRRI dhan43 (upland ecosystem), BRRI dhan56, BRRI dhan57, NERICA mutants
  84. 84. Variety released By the peaceful use of Nuclearenergy Crop Number Rice 10 Jute 2 Oilseed 16 Pulse 22 Vegetables 9 Total 59
  85. 85. BINASARISHA-4Released in 1997High yieldingDuration : 80Average yield: 1.9 t/ha
  86. 86. Short duration variety BINADHAN-7 • Developed by irradiating seeds of Tai Nguyen (a Vietnamese variety) with 250 Gy dose of BINADHAN-7 gamma-rays • Released in 2007 for transplant aman season • Most popular early maturing Transplant aman variety • High yielding (Average 5.5-6.5 t/ha maximum 7.6 t/ha ) • Semi dwarf • Erect and short culm • Long slender bright grains
  87. 87. Salt Tolerant Rice Variety BINADHAN-8 Salt cultivation field Binadhan-8 Released in 2010 Crop duration 130-135 days Salinity tolerance : Seedling stage: 12-14 dS/m Mature stage: 8-10 dS/m Suitable for cultivation in Boro, Aus and Aman season Yield: Boro: 4.5-5.5 t/ha in saline condition 8.0 t/ha in non-saline field Aman: 4.0 t/ha in saline Field demonstration of Binadhan- condition 5 t/ha in normal 8 in Bashkhali, Chittagong, Boro- condition 2010
  88. 88. Salt Tolerant Rice Variety Binadhan-10 Released in 2012 Crop duration 125-130 days Salinity tolerance : Seedling stage: 12-14 dS/m Mature stage: 10-12 dS/m Suitable for cultivation in Boro, Ausand Aman season Yield:Boro: 5.0-5.5 t/ha in saline condition 8.5t/ha in non-saline field Aman: 4.5 t/ha in saline condition 5.5t/ha in normal condition
  89. 89. Salt Tolerant Rice VarietyField evaluation of Binadhan-10, Dumuria, Khulna Boro, 2012
  90. 90. Tikabunia, Dumuria, Khulna, boro, 2012 Binadhan-10 Experimental fieldSalt affected field Shrimp cultivation
  91. 91. Tikabunia, Dumuria, Khulna, boro, 2012 Experimental field Binadhan-10Salt affected field
  92. 92. Tikabunia, Dumuria, Khulna, boro, 2012 Expt. field Binadhan-10Salt affected field
  93. 93. Shyamnagar, Satkhira Fallow landShrimp Gher
  94. 94. Binadhan-7 Potato (Diamont) BINADHAN-7 (Aman)Monga mitigation Modelfor northern BangladeshBINA dhan7-Potato-Maize Maize
  95. 95. Irrigated Rice: Major yield loss factors HOW DOES CLIMATE CHANGE THE EFFECT OF THESE FACTORS ON CROP YIELD AND LOSS?SubtropicsColdDrought Humid TropicsK deficiency StemborerP deficiency Drought Sub-humid tropicsN deficiency Submergence WeedsOrganic matter Rice bugs Stemborerdeficiency BLB Bacterial leaf blightSubmergence BPH DroughtLodging Bacterial blight BlastSheath blight Lodging Gall midgeBlast Sulfur deficiency Army worm Zinc deficiency Rodents Zinc deficiency Leaffolder
  96. 96. Yield losses in rice cultivation•Stresses Yield loss (as % of production)________________________________•Pest infestation 6.8•Problem soils 6.4•Water stresses 9.9•Average loss 23.1________________________________
  97. 97. Salinity screening at seedling stage THDB Pokkali NON-SALINIZED SETUP SALINIZED SETUP12 dS/m
  98. 98. Salinized (EC 6dS/m) Non-salinizedSalinity screening of genotypes for salt tolerance at thereproductive stage
  99. 99. Fakirhat, Bagherhat, Boro, 2009-10 Binadhan-8 EC: 8 dS/m
  100. 100. Mongla, Bagherhat, Boro, 2009 Binadhan-8 EC: 9 dS/m
  101. 101. Shyamnagar, Satkhira, boro season, 03-11-2011 BRRI dhan28 (EC:7.5 dS/m) Binadhan-8 (EC:7.5 dS/m)
  102. 102. Bashkhali, Chittagong, Boro 2010-2011, DAE (EC 10 dS/m)
  103. 103. New Salt Tolerant Rice Variety: Hope for the Coastal Farmers Binadhan-8 BRRI dhan28 (EC:8.0 dS/m) (EC:8.0 dS/m)Demonstration of Binadhan-8, Munshiganj (near Sundarban, Shyamnagar,Satkhira, 03-11-2011
  104. 104. Salt cultivation fieldDemonstration of Binadhan-8 at Bashkhali, Chittagong, 2011-12 by DAE
  105. 105. Bashkhali, Chittagong, Boro 2010-2011, DAE (EC 10 dS/m)
  106. 106. Demonstration plot Shrimp culture
  107. 107. Shyamnagar, Satkhira Fallow landShrimp Culture
  108. 108. Impact of salt tolerant rice varieties• BINAdhan-8 is being recognized as Mega Variety (released in 2010)• Suitable for Aus, Aman and Boro season• BINAdhan-8 and 10 are being cultivated in the salt affected areas (13 coastal districts)• 40-50% fallow land of coastal saline area will be covered with these salt tolerant varieties and additional 4-5 million tones of rice could be produced
  109. 109. Submergence activities:We have some recent success in submergenceresearch as we have two very promising lines- Ciherang-Sub1 (proposed Binadhan-11) and Samba Mahsuri-Sub1 (proposed Binadhan-12) Can survive under submerged condition, 25 days Growth duration (Normal condition: 125-130 daysand Submerged: 150-155 days) of Ciherang-Sub1 iscomparatively lower than Samba Mahsuri-Sub1(Normal condition: 135-140 days and Submerged: 160-165 days) Yield (4.0-4.5 t/ha) The field evaluation of two lines has already been done in boro(dry) season 2011
  110. 110. Ciherang-sub1 (Proposed Binadhan-11) SCA Evaluation Team
  111. 111. Ciherang-sub1 (Proposed Binadhan-11)
  112. 112. Drought activities: In 2010, we collected three rice varieties New Ricefor Africa “NERICA” (NERICA-1, NERICA-4 andNERICA-10) seed from BADC Irradiated them in different doses of Gammaradiation (250 Gy, 300 Gy and 350 Gy) to createvariability.These are now in M4 generation and are beingevaluation at BINA HQ farm.
  113. 113. Nano biotechnology Nano-Technology is one of the emerging interdisciplinaryfields which is about to bring a technological revolution. Itis a engineering at the atomic or molecular scale, dealswith devices typically less than 100 nanometers in size, or sizeone billionth of a meter, or one ten-thousandth the width ofa human hair Nanotechnology provides a new basis for innovation inthe life sciences, revolutionary biotechnology processes,the synthesis of new drugs and their targeted delivery,regenerative medicine, neuromorphic engineering stemcell research, genomics, proteomics as well as the well-established fields of agriculture, environmentalmanagement, medical device manufacturing
  114. 114. “Food security exists when all people, at alltimes, have physical and economic access tosufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet theirdietary needs and food preferences for an active andhealthy life” - World Food Summit, 1996Food security is given the topmost priority inBangladesh. Side by side with domestic foodproduction, greater importance is given to ensureaccess to adequate and safe food by all people atall times for maintaining an active and healthy life.Unlocking the Potential:- National Strategy for Accelerated Poverty Reduction (PRSP)