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Legal and Institutional Situation Report 2011 second semester

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The purpose of this Legal and Institutional Situation Report is to identify events that in the second semester of 2011 have impacted the legal and institutional systems as a continuation of previous studies.

This report has been elaborated from the continuous and systematic monitoring and analysis of the group of facts, resolutions and situations that in our judgment have had the most influence in El Salvador’s legal framework, during the observed period.

The report is structured around the strategic themes that guide the work of the Legal Studies Department: 1. Rule of law and Institutionalism, 2. Legal Certainty and Public Safety, 3. Business Climate and Commerce Regulation, and 4. Transparency.

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Legal and Institutional Situation Report 2011 second semester

  1. 1. LEGAL ANDINSTITUTIONALSITUATION REPORT Salvadoran Economic and Social Development Legal Studies Department Foundation
  2. 2. The elaboration of this Reportconcluded on December 31th, 2011ISSN 2218-6859Key title: Informe de coyuntura legal e institucionalAbbreviated key title: Inf. coyunt. legal inst.Salvadoran Economic andSocial Development FoundationFUSADESA publication ofLegal Studies DepartamentThe material in this publication is copyrighted.Copying portions or all of this work withoutpermission may be a violation of applicable law.
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY2. ACRONYMS3. INTRODUCTION 4. RULE OF LAW AND INSTITUTIONALISM4.1. Introduction4.2. Indicators4.3. Inter-organ relations4.4. Regulatory Activity4.5. Law enforcement4.6. Justice Administration4.7. Municipalities4.8. Electoral System4.9. Conclusions5. LEGAL CERTAINTY AND PUBLIC SAFETY5.1. Introduction5.2. Legal Certainty5.3. Public Safety5.4. Conclusions6. BUSINESS CLIMATE AND REGULATION6.1. Introduction6.2. Indicators6.3. Business Regulation6.4. State Modernization6.5. International Regulation6.6. Conclusions LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL SITUATION REPORT 3
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTS 7. TRANSPARENCY 7.1. Introduction 7.2. Indicators 7.3. Regional Transparency 7.4. Developments in Access to Public Information 7.5. Transparency’s System Performance 7.6. Conclusions 8. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS 9. END NOTES4 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL SITUATION REPORT
  5. 5. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYRule of Law and InstitutionalismThis semester has been characterized by the adjustment of the Electoral Regulationsto the unconstitutionality rulings that have expanded to a certain extent, to the rightof suffrage. The first regulations issued by the Parliament in response to these rulingsdid not respect the interpretation given to the constitutional provisions; therefore,new unconstitutionality actions were filed against these regulatory changes, whichended in a second set of reforms to the Electoral Law, which finally, although withsome legal gaps, have guaranteed the right to run as a non-party candidate and to votefor a specific person in the legislative elections.Following on electoral matters, on the other hand, the uncertainty generated by thelack of clarity in the cancelation process for PDC and PCN as political parties, andthe unpunished beginning of political campaigns before the legal periods, has beennegative.Public opinion has criticized the delay in the election of some public officials such asthe Assistant Deputy Prosecutor which was appointed two years after the establisheddate, or the Chiefs of the Government Ethic Tribunal, whom at the closing of thisreport had two months overdue for their appointment which is against the obligationfrom the state on compliance to law aspects. Also a decision of Supreme ElectoralTribunal taken without legal quorum is included in these public reactions.Regarding the inter-organ relation and the separation of public powers, it can behighlighted as positive, the eminent derogation of decree 743, a regulation that annulledthe functionality of the Constitutional Chamber from the Supreme Court of Justice,by demanding all decisions in unconstitutionality matters were unanimous can behighlighted as positive. A determining factor for the annulment was the participationof civil society that defended the Constitution and became a decisive and importantfactor on this issue.Regarding inter-organ controls between the Executive and Legislative Bodies,there is still, comparing to other presidential period, a high number of vetoes andobservations; however, the use of these mechanisms has been done with complianceto the Constitution, and so there is no threat or damage against the Rule of Lawthrough this practice. There also haven’t been any systematic confrontations betweenthe two bodies in regards to their functioning.Finally, the legislative activity has had an important emphasis in electoral issueds,motivated partially by the unconstitutionality rulings on this matter. But it is relevantto point out the approval of several important laws such as the Multipurpose PortTerminal Specialized in Containers Concession Law, from Puerto de La UniónCentroamericana. LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL SITUATION REPORT 5
  6. 6. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Legal Certainty and Public Safety On Legal Certainty matters, during this semester is noted the rulings issued by the Constitutional Chamber, are noted because they clarify that the law´s formation process is unconstitutional as long as it is debated in the General Legislative Assembly, even when it has been passed with a dispensation proceeding, meaning, whenever it hasn’t been previously discussed. On the other hand, for this period, the violence issued in El Salvador has maintained alarming levels. Homicides, which constitute mostly used indicator to measure crime, have accounted until December 31st, 2011: 4,354; 367 more than in 2010. The safety component in the Partnership for Growth Initiative subscribed between the United States and Salvadorean governments is a valuable opportunity to implement norms and strengthen public safety, and the commitments acquired, are the most concrete measures proposed by the government in the matter of safety. The situation of prisons is still alarming despite the efforts made in the electronic safety and the systematization of inmates information systems. Problems such as overcrowding and inside murders still persist. The penitentiary farms are a novelty and an interesting proposal in terms of rehabilitation, but the advances in the project are still very small. Business Climate and Commerce Regulation The setbacks of the competitiveness index and the constant insecurity and lack of suitable conditions for business characterized the business climate, partially explained by the existence of various risks, such as the legal and political uncertainty and the lack of public safety. However, the subscription of the Conjoint Action Plan from Partnership for Growth between the United States and Salvadorean governments, among other activities, generates an important opportunity to drive projects that establish clear rules for a bigger and sustained economic growth. During the semester, a positive highlight is the observation made by the President to the Credit Card System Law reforms that avoided the approval of an unconsulted regulation that would affect the consumer’s access to credit. On the other hand, there is a setback in the arbitration regulation, due to the Constitutional Chamber’s ruling that contradict the nature of the figure by allowing judicial participation through the appealing resource. Also, another negative sign to the business climate, is the approval of tax reforms on December 2011, without the extensive discussion needed and in absence of a fiscal pact to include public expense. Also, another negative aspect was the violation of the tax secret through the publication of confidential fiscal information from several taxpayers.6 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL SITUATION REPORT
  7. 7. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIn the state modernization’s agenda, the approval of the Puerto de La UniónCentroamericana Concession Law and the end of the discussion in the Economic andSocial Council of the Public-Private Partnership Law, is noted as possitive because itestablishes clear rules and competences defined by the international public purchaseof the public infrastructure, expected to be discussed in Parliament next semester.TransparencyAdvances and setbacks in the state’s transparency agenda have characterized thissemester.In the setbacks, the unconsulted creation and issuing made by the Executive bodyof the Access to Public Information Law Regulation, a text with substantial errorsin content that may be considered as unconstitutional, specifically for the facultiesself-attributed by the Executive body: rejecting the list of candidates proposed by thecivil society for the election of the Access to Public Information Institute members;and, the ability to declare the reservation of public information on the basis of“political safety”, a broad and undetermined concept. These two inclusions can affectsubstantially the implementation of this law. These types of attributions are to beregulated exclusively by law in accordance to multiple precedents and rulings fromthe Constitutional Chamber from the Supreme Court of Justice of El Salvador andinternational standards.Another negative aspect observed during the semester was the lack of appointmentfrom Parliament of the Government Ethics Tribunal’s President, as well as theAudit Court’s, Public Ministry’s and Executive Body´s omission to appoint the threeremaining members of that same institution, being the SCJ the only one to appointthe official in time. At the closing of this report, the institution remains chief-lesssince November 1st, 2011, and there is no indication of an advance to come to aconsensus to elect the members over the basis of adequacy and independence.Within the positive advances projected this semester, is the creation of the new andstrengthened Government Ethics Law, since this is a tool that sets to establish formalproceedings of investigation and significant economic sanctions to public servers thatviolate ethic principles.Also, even if there have been substantial setbacks in the Access to Public InformationLaw, there is a noticeable interest from the Anti-corruption and Transparency sub-secretary and from the civil society in general. A hopeful expectation has rise from thefact that a company has been hired to audit the Audit Court. LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL SITUATION REPORT 7
  8. 8. ACRONYMS • APII: Access to Public Information Institute • APIL: Access to Public Information Law • ARENA: Nationalist Republican Alliance, political party* • CAP: Conjoint Action Plan in Partnership for Growth • CEL: Hydroelectric Executive Commission from Rio Lempa* • CPI: Corruption Perception Index • CS: Competition Superintendence • DR-CAFTA: Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement • ESC: Economic and Social Council • FMLN: Farabundo Martí Front for National Liberation, political party* • FUSADES: Salvadorean Foundation for Social and Economic Development • GANA: National Unity Great Alliance, political party* • GEL: Government Ethics Law • GET: Government Ethics Tribunal • GOES: El Salvador’s Government* • IBD: Inter-American Bank of Development • IMF: International Monetary Fund • LACAP: Acquisitions and Contracting of the Public Administration Law* • MESICIC: Mechanism for follow-up on the Implementation of the Inter-American Convention against Corruption • NJC: National Judges Council • OAS: Organization of American States • PCN: National Conciliation Party, political party* • PDC: Christian Democrat Party, political party* • RIOE: Executive Organ Internal Regulation* • SBA: Salvadorean Banking Association • SCJ: Supreme Court of Justice • SET: Supreme Electoral Tribunal • SICA: Central American Integration System* • SPA: Sea Port Authority • TAS: Transparency and Anticorruption Subsecretariat • UNCAC: United Nations Convention Against Corruption • UNPD: United Nations Program for Development • USAID: United States Agency for International Development • WEF: World Economic Forum • WJP: World Justice Project • WTO: World Trade Organization *its acronym in spanish.8 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL SITUATION REPORT
  9. 9. INTRODUCTIONThe Legal and Institutional Situation Report from 2011’s second semester, has beenelaborated from the continuous and systematic monitoring and analysis of the groupof facts, resolutions and situations that in our judgment have had the most influencein El Salvador’s legal framework, during the observed period.The methodology is developed from an investigation based in the recollectionand monitoring of information from different trustworthy sources, that includeexternal sources such as media news and international indicators, among them:the Doing Business Report from the World Bank, the Economic Freedom Indexfrom the Heritage Foundation, the Global Competitiveness Index from the WorldEconomic Forum, the Rule of Law Index from the World Justice Project, theCorruption Perception Index from International Transparency, the Open BudgetIndex from the International Budget Partnership, among others, as well as referencesto FUSADES’ own production sources such as studies, reports and memorandumsfrom other departments like the Legal Studies Bulletin, Institutional Positions, andinformation from the Judicial and Legislative Observatories, property of the LegalStudies Department. Once obtained, this information is analyzed with the purpose ofdetermining its impact in the semester and compared with the data from the previoussemester.The report is structured in four chapters that contain the strategic topics that guidethe work from the Legal Studies Department at FUSADES: 1. Rule of Law andInstitutionalism, 2. Legal Certainty and Public Safety, 3. Business Climate andCommerce Regulation and 4. Transparency. In the development of each topic, thecontents are analyzed systematically, to compare them with the results in the report aswell as with previous studies from the Legal Studies Department, such as “DemocraticInstitutions in El Salvador: Performance Valuation and Strengthening Plan I and II”,elaborated jointly between FUSADES and the University of Salamanca, Spain. Thereport closes with the most relevant considerations to characterize the period. LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL SITUATION REPORT 9
  10. 10. 10 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL SITUATION REPORT
  11. 11. 1. INTRODUCTION An established Rule of Law and a strong sense of institutionalism are essential to a country’s development. This report analyses the national reality contrasted with the ideal of the Rule of Law and Institutionalism that El Salvador needs to move towards to; a critical judgment is made to evaluate if in the last six months there have been advances or backward steps in this path, and when pertinent, some suggestions are made to ensure the country is heading over that route. To that effect, Rule of Law will be understood as: “A social situation in which a society functions effectively by a self imposed regulation”. In other words, a state in which society, in an overwhelming majority, subjects itself to the established legal rules1. The concept of institutionalism on the other hand has a double dimension. From a legal point of view, it is understood as the group of constitutional organs in the state’s sovereign powers. Nowadays, these state fundamental organizations, its specific functions, its faculties and competences are stipulated in constitutional provisions, due both to their importance and the desire to establish immutability in time, which is supposed to be inherent to the concept. From the political science point of view, it is understood based on the studies of the “Democratic Institutions in El Salvador: a Performance Assessment and Strengthening Plan”2, which defines institutions as the game rule setters, creating incentives that structure behavior of democracy participants, constitute available choices and accept the elaboration of public policies by structuring the political election and determining the democratic performance. This report refers to legislative changes in the institution structure and their functioning in compliance of these dispositions.12 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL SITUATION REPORT
  12. 12. 2. INDICATORS2.1. Trust in institutions measured by the Latin-barometer 2011 ReportThe Institutionalism component in this section, presents the findings from 2011´sLatin-barometer Report, presented by the Latin-barometer Corporation3.Institutions are essential to democracy, because they build the rules to politicalcompetition, resolving collective problems and give structure to the exercise ofpower4. On the other hand, trust is essential to institutions, because it is the resultfrom the perception that citizens have in whether or not the institutions fulfil theirresponsibilities, the more trust, the more legitimate and respected they will be, whichin the long run, strengthens the system.Graphic 1 shows four state institutions and the church. Since 2010, all of these haveincreased their level of trust by citizens towards them.Graphic 1. Trust in institutions 2010 and 2011 Table 1. Assembly Da Trust in Institutions 104 of 07- 06-3 07-2011 201 2010 2011 106 of 07- 07-1 21-2011 201 100 % of “a lot” and “some” 90 113 of 09- 09-1 14-2011 201 80 70 62 64 60 118 of 10- 10-1 27-2011 201 50 38 40 31 28 30 34 121 of 11- 11-1 30 22 25 22 17-2011 201 20 124 of 12- 11-3 7-2011 201 10 0 126 of 12- 12-1 Judicial Power Parliament Political Police Church 20-2011 201 Parties InstitutionsSource: 2. Observations from 2011’s second semester Report. Table Elaborated with data from the Latin-barometer 2011 Assembly Date Observations Count Commentaries 116 of 09-29- Presidential Observations to the 1 Partially Reforms to Wages Law next year 1 10-06- 2011 reforms on the Penal Code, related to accepted on 0 2011 honor crimes. 11-9-2011’s Reforms to Budget Law next year 1 0 Assembly 1 Lifetime Pensions Concession 118 of 10-14- Presidential Observations to the 2 Pending 0 1 10-27- 2011 reforms on the Credit Card System Law. Burial Authorizations 0 2011 Official Positions Exoneration 2 0 119 of 10-27- Presidential Observations to the 3 Overruled on 1 Foreign troops and ships Authorization 11-3- 2011 transitory disposition referred to the 12-20-2011’s 0 0 2011 electoral propaganda authorization. Assembly Person Nationalization 1 10-28- Presidential Observations to the 4 Partially RIAL reforms 0 1 2011 Government Ethics Law. accepted on 2 Wages Law next year 11-17-2011’s 2 Assembly 2 Budget Law next year 2 124 of 12-2- Presidential Observations to the General 5 Pending Special Budgets 0 2 12-7- 2011 Youth Law. 1 2011 Public Official Election 2 3 Treaty Confirmation 3 10 Loan Authorization 4 2 Reforms to Wages Law 5 60 7 Loan or donation Agreement 5 54 “a lot ” plus “plenty” responses 4 State’s asset transfer authorization 6 50 44 44 6 42 Honorific mentions granted 39 39 10 40 37 5 34 Authorization to receive official awards 32 32 31 11 30 30 28 5 Permanent Laws 11 21 0 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL SITUATION REPORT 20 19 19 19 16 12 Municipal Delimitations Tax Exemptions 13 10
  13. 13. 3. INTER ORGAN RELATIONS Democracy as a government system implies the coordinated functioning of institutions, so that they cooperate to promote the most convenient policies for the country. But it also implies inter organ controls such as the checks and balances system to help maintain the power leveled. 3.1. Vetoes and observations One of the indicators regarding the relation between the Executive and Legislative Organs is the vetoes and observations, meaning the control process between the powers that the President holds over legislative decrees, because it may highlight the lack of cooperation or confrontation between organs when the usage of this resource is excessive. This semester, as shown in tables 1 and 2, Parliament has received, 7 vetoed decrees and 5 observations from the President. Compared to last semester, there are 4 more vetoes, while 5 less observations. With these, the President now adds 23 vetoes and 41 observations in two years and a half of his administration. In this period, again, there is a high average of vetoes considering the elapsed time; if this pace remains, in 5 years there would be a total of 46 vetoes, which would be the second highest number in the last 5 administrations, only behind Francisco Flores’ administration, which had 59 vetoes. The comment made last semester about vetoes and observations was that this activity followed a normal course of the inter organ control use and the inexistence of a systematic confrontation is still valid. It’s worth highlighting that 5 from the 7 vetoes have been issued by reasons of inconvenience, which implies an inter organ control of political nature. With this, it can be said that the control has consisted in the President considering that the laws approved are inconvenient or untimely, but not contrary to the Constitution, with the exception of some reforms on the pro person vote. It is noted that the present Parliament has for the first time overruled a veto from President Funes, on the Tobacco Law. This is the same as saying that while the President considered some elements of the law inconvenient, a qualified majority in Parliament considered otherwise.14 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL SITUATION REPORT
  14. 14. INTER ORGAN RELATIONS Table 1. Vetoes from 2011’s second semester Table 1. Vetoes from 2011’s second semester Assembly Date Veto Count Reason 104 of 07- 06-30- Presidential Veto over the reform to 1 Inconvenience 07-2011 2011 the decree that contains the Special Law to facilitate the cancelation of agrarian and agricultural debts. 106 of 07- 07-18- President Mauricio Funes veto to the 2 Inconvenience. 21-2011 2011 Tobacco Control Law. Overruled 07-22- 2011 113 of 09- 09-13- Presidential Veto over the transitory 3 Inconvenience 14-2011 2011 dispositions of the Industrial Promotion National Bank and the Salvadorean 62 64 Investment Corporation Law. 118 of 10- 10-12- Presidential Veto over the reforms to 4 Inconvenience 27-2011 2011 the National Security Academy (NSA) Organic Law.30 34 121 of 11- 11-14- Presidential Veto over the reforms on 5 Unconstitutionality 17-2011 2011 the Electoral Law. 124 of 12- 11-30- Presidential Veto over the dispositions 6 Inconvenience 7-2011 2011 of payment options for people who obtained financing to acquire shares of private sugar production houses. 126 of 12- 12-19- Presidential Veto to the transitory reforms 7 UnconstitutionalityPolice Church 20-2011 2011 of the payment options contained in the special dispositions for people who obtained financing to acquire shares from the companies of sugar production houses, according to the established in the Sugar Production House and Alcohol Plants Law. Source: Elaborated with the Legislative Observatory Bulletin from n° 152 to n° 175 Reforms to Wages Law next year 1 0 Reforms to Budget Law next year 1 Regarding the observations, this semester, there were two observations overruled, 0 these were made last semester on the Territorial Order and Development Law and Lifetime Pensions Concession 1 0 the reforms on the Agriculture and Fishing Promotion General Order Law. With this, 1 Burial Authorizations 0 all the observations made last semester are settled5. In this subject Decrees published in the O Table 3. it is necessary to Official Positions Exoneration 2 remember that Parliament does not have a deadline established in the legal system to 0 1 decide over observations, but observations have been solved in a reasonable time. Foreign troops and ships Authorization 0 Institution Person Nationalization 0 Transitory decrees issued by the Pr 1 RIAL reforms 0 Reforms to Extraordinary Budget fo 1 Wages Law next year 2 Audit Court 2 2 Ministry of Education Budget Law next year 2 Tax Ministry 0 Special Budgets 2 Reforms to existing regulations and 1 Public Official Election 2 University of El Salvador Treaty Confirmation 3 Ministry of Economy 3 10 Ministry of Public Health and Socia Loan Authorization 4 2 Ministry of Agriculture and Farming Reforms to Wages Law 5 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL SITUATION REPORT SIGET 15
  15. 15. Judicial Power Parliament Political Po Parties INTER ORGAN RELATIONS Institutions Table 2. Observations from 2011’s second semester Table 2. Observations from 2011’s second semester Assembly Date Observations Count Commentaries 116 of 09-29- Presidential Observations to the 1 Partially 10-06- 2011 reforms on the Penal Code, related to accepted on 2011 honor crimes. 11-9-2011’s Assembly 118 of 10-14- Presidential Observations to the 2 Pending 10-27- 2011 reforms on the Credit Card System Law. 2011 119 of 10-27- Presidential Observations to the 3 Overruled on 11-3- 2011 transitory disposition referred to the 12-20-2011’s 2011 electoral propaganda authorization. Assembly 10-28- Presidential Observations to the 4 Partially 2011 Government Ethics Law. accepted on 11-17-2011’s Assembly 124 of 12-2- Presidential Observations to the General 5 Pending 12-7- 2011 Youth Law. 2011 Source: Elaborated with the Legislative Observatory Bulletin from n° 152 to n° 175 60 54 Percentage “a lot ” plus “plenty” responses 50 44 44 42 39 39 40 37 34 32 32 31 30 30 28 21 19 19 19 20 16 12 10 0 Uruguay El Salvador Panamá Chile Rep. Dominicana Ecuador Brasil Honduras Costa Rica Venezuela Nicaragua Argentina Paraguay Colombia Guatemala México Bolivia Perú Latin America Country16 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL SITUATION REPORT
  16. 16. 2011 113 of 09- 09-13- Presidential Veto over the transitory 3 Inco 14-2011 2011 dispositions of the Industrial Promotion National Bank and the Salvadorean 62 64 Investment Corporation Law. 118 of 10- 10-12- Presidential Veto over the reforms to 4 Inco 27-2011 2011 the National Security Academy (NSA) 38 Organic Law. 25 22 28 30 34 4. REGULATORY ACTIVITY 121 of 11- 17-2011 11-14- 2011 Presidential Veto over the dispositions 6 124 of 12- 11-30- Presidential Veto over the reforms on 5 the Electoral Law. Unco Inco 7-2011 of payment options for people who 2011 4.1. Legislative Activity obtained financing to acquire shares of private sugar production houses.wer Parliament Political Police Church 20-2011 2011 of the follow up transitory reforms 7 Through the Legislative Observatory, there has been a dailypaymentto theon Parliament’s 126 of 12- 12-19- Presidential Veto options contained in Unco Activity. In regards to its production, there has been a special dispositionsdecrees issued the count on the for people who Parties during the semester, which have not necessarily turned into law. In total,acquire are 196 obtained financing to there shares from the companies of sugar decrees, classified according to various criteria, as shown in the following. Institutions production houses, according to the established in the Sugar Production House and Alcohol Plants Law. Graphic 2: Legislative Production 2011’s second semester vs. 2010’s second semester. from 2011’s second semester Count Commentariesbservations to the 1 Partially Reforms to Wages Law next year 1e Penal Code, related to accepted on 0 11-9-2011’s Reforms to Budget Law next year 1 0 Assembly 1 Lifetime Pensions Concession Observations to the 2 Pending 0 1e Credit Card System Law. Burial Authorizations 0 Table 3. Decr Official Positions Exoneration 2 0 Observations to the 3 Overruled on 1position referred to the 12-20-2011’s Foreign troops and ships Authorization 0 Institutionaganda authorization. Assembly Person Nationalization 0 Transitory d 1 Observations to the 4 Partially RIAL reforms 0 Reforms to E 1thics Law. accepted on 2 Audit Court Wages Law next year 11-17-2011’s 2 2 Ministry of E Assembly Budget Law next year 2bservations to the General 5 Pending Tax Ministry 0 Special Budgets 2 Reforms to e 1 Public Official Election 2 University o Treaty Confirmation 3 Ministry of E 3 10 Ministry of P Loan Authorization 4 2 Ministry of A Reforms to Wages Law 5 SIGET 7 Loan or donation Agreement 5 New regulati 4 State’s asset transfer authorization 6 Supreme Ele Honorific mentions granted 6 Permanent 10 5 Ministry of N34 Authorization to receive official awards 32 32 30 31 11 Ministry of E 28 5 Permanent Laws 11 Ministry of E 21 0 19 19 19 Municipal Delimitations 16 Ministry of L 16 12 29 Cultural Affa Tax Exemptions 25 16 Ministry of F Budget Law reforms 28 18 Civil Aviatio Transitory Laws and Law extensions 31Honduras Costa Rica Venezuela Nicaragua Argentina Paraguay Colombia Guatemala México Bolivia Perú Latin America 14 CONACYT Reforms to existing laws 31 FICAFE 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Total Country Source: Elaborated with the Legislative Observatory Bulletin from n°. 152 to n° 175 Decrees issued were mostly legal reforms, transitory laws and law extensions. In this semester, there has been an emphasis on the reforms of electoralTable 7. Resolutions reac laws for the upcoming elections, especially to the regulations on independent candidates and unlocked lists. Category Disciplinary Function Judge Appointment Other Administrative decisio Jurisdictional decisions Last minutes approval and a modification LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL SITUATION REPORT Various 17 Total

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