Ending Hunger Worldwide


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Slides of the presentation held by George Kent during the FSN Forum Conference in FAO/Rome on Friday December 2010.

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  • http://www.fao.org/hunger/hunger_graphics/en/
  • Ending Hunger Worldwide

    1. 1. George Kent University of Hawai’i
    2. 2.
    3. 3.
    4. 4.
    5. 5. <ul><li>Nutrition Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Widening Gaps  </li></ul><ul><li>Food Trade  </li></ul><ul><li>Rights-based Social Systems </li></ul><ul><li>The Human Right to Adequate Food </li></ul><ul><li>Global Obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional Safety Nets </li></ul><ul><li>Household Food Production </li></ul><ul><li>Community-based Nutrition Security </li></ul><ul><li>Food/Nutrition Policy Councils </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosing Global Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-level Strategic Planning   </li></ul>ENDING HUNGER WORLDWIDE
    6. 6. <ul><li>“ . . . for the first time in human history, more than one billion people are undernourished worldwide. This is about 100 million more than last year and around one-sixth of all humanity (FAO)” </li></ul>
    7. 7.
    8. 8. We talk about hunger in the world as if it were a scourge that all of us want to see abolished. That rather innocent view prevents us from coming to grips with what causes and sustains hunger.
    9. 9.
    10. 10. <ul><li>In 1960 gross domestic product per capita in the richest 20 countries was 18 times that in the poorest 20 countries. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1995 this gap had widened to 37 times. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2008 that ratio was well over 75. </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>“ . . . one person in the United States will, by 4 AM in the morning of January 2, already have been responsible for the equivalent in climate change causing carbon emissions that a Tanzanian would take a whole year to generate.” </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>When poor people work cheaply, others get inexpensive goods. </li></ul><ul><li>People at the high end are not rushing to solve the hunger problem. For them, hunger is not a problem, but an asset. </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Hunger and poverty persist because of the powerlessness of the poor and the indifference and exploitativeness of the rich.    </li></ul><ul><li>The powerful have the capacity but not the will to address the problems, while the powerless have the will but not the capacity. </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Concentration of Wealth and Power </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidies </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Interests </li></ul><ul><li>Grabbing Land and Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Free Trade Agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Food Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Remedies </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>The Essence of Rights Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights-holders and their rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duty-bearers and their obligations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanisms of accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Varieties of Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Rights-based School Feeding Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Human Rights Principles </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Global Recognition of the Right to Food </li></ul><ul><li>The Human Right to an Adequate Standard of Living </li></ul><ul><li>Food in International Human Rights Law </li></ul><ul><li>General Comment 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Dignity: Dignity comes from providing for oneself, not from being fed. </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>The Global Food System </li></ul><ul><li>Global Obligations </li></ul><ul><li>The Right to Food Viewed Globally </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of Global Obligation </li></ul><ul><li>The Need for Planning </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>By definition, safety net programs establish a lower limit to how far people are allowed to fall by providing services to those who are most needy. </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>Methods of Household Food Production </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond Primary Production </li></ul><ul><li>Cautions </li></ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Using the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Community-based Food Production </li></ul><ul><li>The Role of Government </li></ul><ul><li>Political Significance  </li></ul>
    20. 20.
    21. 21. <ul><li>While localizing food production might have advantages, it is more important to localize and democratize decision-making . </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Trade when beneficial </li></ul><ul><li>Local control </li></ul><ul><li>Self-rule </li></ul><ul><li>Swaraj </li></ul><ul><li>Autarky </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum trade </li></ul><ul><li>Local production to meet local needs </li></ul><ul><li>Economic independence </li></ul><ul><li>Swadeshi </li></ul><ul><li>SELF-RELIANCE </li></ul><ul><li>SELF-SUFFICIENCY </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>The major objective should be self-reliance, not self-sufficiency. Importing and exporting food is fine so long as local people have made a fair and informed judgment about what serves their interests. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Malnutrition occurs in a social context. The extent to which people suffer from hunger and other forms of malnutrition depends on how they treat one another.
    25. 25. In the practice of mutual aid . . . we thus find the positive and undoubted origin of our ethical conceptions; and we can affirm that in the ethical progress of man, mutual support not mutual struggle—has had the leading part.
    26. 26. <ul><li>In strong communities, in which people care for one another’s well being, people don’t go hungry. </li></ul>
    27. 27. “ . . . as a rule, the individual in primitive society is not threatened by starvation unless the community as a whole is in a like predicament. Under the kraal-land system of the Kaffirs, for instance, &quot;destitution is impossible: whosoever needs assistance receives it unquestioningly.” No Kwakiutl &quot;ever ran the least risk of going hungry.” &quot;There is no starvation in societies living on the subsistence margin.”
    28. 28. de Waal, Frans 2009. The Age of Empathy: Nature’s Lessons for a Kinder Society . New York: Harmony.
    29. 29. <ul><li>People living in strong communities do not exploit one another. They do not steal from each other’s gardens. They talk with each other about their concerns. They care for each other. </li></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>The Hunger Project </li></ul><ul><li>Millennium Villages </li></ul><ul><li>Intentional Communities </li></ul><ul><li>MLK’s Beloved Community </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial Programs (India’s Dairy Cooperatives; Micro-loans) </li></ul><ul><li>Worker Cooperatives (Mondragon) </li></ul><ul><li>Community Supported Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Community Gardens </li></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>Nutrition Policy Councils brings together stakeholders from diverse food-related areas to examine how the food system is working and propose ways to improve it. </li></ul><ul><li>An NPC may be an official advisory body on nutrition issues to a city, county, or state government, or it may be a grassroots network . . . </li></ul>
    32. 32. <ul><li>The overall objective of these councils should be to ensure good nutrition for all, under all conditions . </li></ul>
    33. 33.
    34. 35. <ul><li>At global conferences on food and nutrition, the focus has been on the formulation of national plans of action, not a comprehensive global plan of action. </li></ul><ul><li>The conferences do not give enough attention to the role that the international community must play if hunger is to be sharply reduced. </li></ul>
    35. 36. <ul><li>A serious strategic plan is one that can be expected to result in achievement of the goal. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no serious global planning currently underway for dealing with large-scale malnutrition. There never has been. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not that the effort has failed, but rather that there has been no serious effort. </li></ul>
    36. 37. <ul><li>There is a need not for top-down planning or bottom-up planning, but joint planning. The rich and the poor should work together in planning to end hunger in the world. </li></ul>
    37. 38. <ul><li>The task is to work out an appropriate division of responsibilities, with the localities taking the leading role. </li></ul><ul><li>The principle of subsidiarity provides the basis for the central role of local self-reliance in ending hunger worldwide. </li></ul>
    38. 39. <ul><li>Given decent opportunities, few people would allow themselves, their families, or their neighbors to become seriously malnourished. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need to ensure that everyone has those opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>We can’t make hunger end. The task is to surround people with opportunities, and let it end. </li></ul>
    39. 40. <ul><li>Nutrition policy at every level should be guided by the principle of subsidiarity, “the principle that each social and political group should help smaller or more local ones accomplish their respective ends without, however, arrogating those tasks to itself.” </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing should be done at a higher level that can be done as well or better at a lower level. </li></ul>
    40. 41. <ul><li>NPCs could complement and support one another. Higher level NPCs should provide technical advice and coordination services according to the wishes of lower level NPCs </li></ul><ul><li>NPCs at lower levels could provide information and recommendations to those at higher levels. </li></ul>
    41. 42. If we find a way to ensure the health of every cell and every organ of the global body, based on how they are managed from within and also from the outside, we will have solved the hunger problem.