ALCOHOL AS AN
ALTERNATIVE FUEL IN
o E85 FUEL BLENDED
o POWER MAKING FUEL CHARACTERISTICS
FLEXIBLE FUEL VEHICLE
o ALCOHOL FUMIGATION
o ADVANTAGES o DISADVANTAGES
In this century, it is believed that crude oil and petroleum products will become very scarce
Day-to-day. fuel economy of engines is getting improved and will continue to improve.
However, enormous increase in number of vehicles has started dictating the demand for
With increased use and depletion of fossil fuels, alternative fuel technology will become
more common in the coming decades. Because of the high cost of petroleum products,
energy security , emission problems some developing countries are trying to use
alternate fuels for their vehicles
o LIQUID FUELS:
Liquid fuels are preferred for IC engines because they are easy to
store and have reasonably good calorific value. The main alternative is
Alcohols are attractive alternate fuels because they can be obtained
from both natural and manufactured sources. Methanol and ethanol
are two kinds of alcohols that seem most promising.
E85,ALCOHOL FUEL MIXTURE OF 85% ETHANOL AND 15%
E85 is an alcohol fuel mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, by
volume, ethanol derived from crops (bioethanol) is a biofuel.
E85 as a fuel is widely used in Sweden and is becoming
increasingly common in the United States, mainly in the Midwest
where corn is a major crop and is the primary source material for
ethanol fuel production. E85 is usually used in engines modified to
accept higher concentrations of ethanol. Such flexible-fuel engines
are designed to run on any mixture of gasoline or ethanol with up to
85% ethanol by volume.
o HOW IS IT MADE NOW?
< HISTORICALLY MADE FROM CORN AND OTHER STARCH
SOURCES OR FROM NATURAL SUGARS BY FERMENTATION
, COMMON SOURCES INCLUDE RICE, POTATO, CASSAVA-PLUS
CORN AND OTHER GRAINS
- MANUFACTURING PROCESS WAS VERY ENERGY-
INTENSIVE. BUT IS NOW LESS SO IN MOST MODERN
PLANTS. DUE TO ADVANCES IN DISTILLATION
What about Using Ethanol for Fuel?
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Closed carbon dioxide greenhouse gas cycle for biofuels.
Ethanol & biodiesel are sustainable forms of solar energy.
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Automobile fuels be "oxygenated' in order to reduce air pollution.
c A technique to produce alcoholic beverages by mixing different
o In addition, removal of lead from gasoline renewed interest in
ethanol as octane booster.
o However, water and gasoline don’t mix well (are not "miscible", in
chemical terms), sothe water must be removed when producing
ethanol-gasoline blends. This dry or “anhydrous" ethanol is needed
to prevent phase separation of the fuel components in ethanol -
Power Making Fuel
1 .Octane Rating [MON]
2. Burning Rate
3. Latent Heat of Vaporization
4. Energy Value [MJ/kg]
5.Reduction in Green house gases
MON rating is most useful to racers
because it is measured under high loads
and at high RPM's
High MON rated fuels allow the use of
higher compression and advanced spark
E85 delivers MON octane ratings equal
to, or better than, most gasoline
2. Burning Rate
<• The speed at which fuel burns and releases its
There is less time for fuel to burn at high RPM’s, so
rapid burning fuel is a must in racing
<■ Peak horsepower (kW) and engine efficiency are
realized if fuel is almost completely burned by 20
degrees after Top Dead Center (TDC)
3. Latent Heat of Vaporization
« Measures a fuel’s ability to cool the intake
charge and combustion chamber <•
Measured in kJ/ It.
<■ Higher rated fuels remove heat
3. Latent Heat of
E85 promotes better cooling:
* Making the intake charge more dense,
thereby packing more energy (per volume)
into the engine ■> Helping to control
detonation ■> Reducing temperatures in
the engine and oiling system components
4. Energy Value
The total heat energy contained in a given
amount of fuel - kJ/kg
<• Horsepower generation depends on “Net Energy
Value” - Equal to the energy value multiplied by the
amount of fuel that can be burned
A fuel's “stoichiometric" defines its ideal
« Lower stoichiometric fuels allow more fuel to be
burned which, in turn, increases the Net Energy
Value of the fuel
ETHANOL AND FLEXIBLE FUEL VEHICLES (FFVS)
What is a FFV?
• FFVs are specially designed to run on all ethanol blends up to 85%
• FFVs can use any mixture of gasoline or E85
• FFVs have fuel sensors which monitor
FLEXIBLE FUEL VEHICLE
o Flexible Fuel Vehicles, also known as FFVs. are designed to run on gasoline, E85,
or any combination of the two. The "Flexible” nature of the vehicle gives the driver
the flexibility to switch back and forth between gasoline and E85.
Ethanol contains more oxygen than gasoline. The vehicles come equipped with an
oxygen sensor which determines the amount of ethanol in the fuel at any time. It
provides this information to the onboard computer, which then adjusts the engine to
maximize efficiency and performance. The fuel may contain anywhere from zero to
85% ethanol. FFVs are widely available and include sedans, minivans. SUVs, and
UTILIZATION OF ALCOHOL FUELS IN
COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINES
o difficulties encountered:-
1. More alcohol fuel than diesel fuel is required by mass and
2. Large percentages of alcohol do not mix with diesel fuel, hence
use of diesel-alcohol blends is not feasible
3. Alcohols have extremely low cetane numbers, whereas the diesel
engine is known to prefer
4. Diesel fuels serve as lubricants for diesel engine. Alcohol fuels do
not have the same lubricating qualities.
5. The poor auto-ignition capability of alcohols is responsible for
severe knock due to rapid burning of vaporized alcohol.
o Fumigation is a method by which alcohol is introduced
into the engine by carburating, o vaporizing or injecting
the alcohol into the intake air stream. This requires the
addition of a carburetor, vaporizer or injector, along with a
separate fuel tank, lines and controls.
Fumigation has some following advantages:
It requires a minimum of modification to the engine.
o The engine can switch from dual fuel to diesel fuel operation and vice-versa by
disconnection and connection of the alcohol source to the injector. If an engine is limited in
power output due to smoke emissions, fumigated ethanol could increase the power output
because alcohol tends to reduce smoke. This is because of good mixing of the injected
charge with alcohol.
Fumigation can substitute alcohol for diesel fuel. Up to 50% of the fuel energy can be
derived from alcohol by fumigation
o It is a high octane fuel with anti-knock index numbers of over
100-Engines using high octane fuel can run more efficiently by
using higher compression ratios. Alcohols have higher flame
It produces less overall emissions compared to gasoline, c
When alcohols are burned, it forms more moles of exhaust gases,
which gives higher pressure and more power in the expansion
: It has high latent heat of vaporization which results in a cooler
intake process. This raises the volumetric efficiency of the engine
and reduces the required work input in the compression stroke.
c Alcohols have low sulphur content in the fuel.
o Reduced petroleum imports and transportation.
O Alcohols have low energy content or in other words the calorific value of the
fuel is less.
With equal thermal efficiency and similar engine output usage, twice as
much fuel would have to be purchased.
Alcohol contains oxygen and thus requires less air for stoichiometric
combustion. More fuel can be burned with the same amount of air. Alcohol is
much more corrosive than gasoline on copper, brass, aluminum, rubber, and
many plastics. This puts some restrictions on the design and manufacturing
of engines to be used with this fuel. Methanol is very corrosive on metals. It
has poor cold weather starting characteristics due to low vapor pressure and
evaporation.(E85 rectifies it)
World leader in production and export of ethanol. Ethanol
produced per day equivalent to 200,000 barrels of gasoline
24% blend ethanol mandatory. Competitiveness
Bio diesel initiatives underway
Ethanol: a big boost to economy E85 sells cheaper than
gasoline Currently production aimed at 4.5 Billion gallons/yr
Sources of ethanol: Sugarcane, MolassesA Agricultural
waste Low average cost of Rs.18/litre projected Annual
production capacity of 1.5 Billion litres
Extensive research and development is difficult to justify until the fuels
are accepted as viable for large numbers of engines.
Most alternate fuels are very costly at present since the quantity used is
There is lack of distribution points (service stations) where fuel is
available to the public.
I Wciuld sum up the A whole presentation into few lines saying that reducing fossil
fuels in the near future would be a great loss to mankind if we are not able to find
out any alternative for it and I found alcohol to be effective as it can be produced
easily and the flexible fuel vehicle will be proved to be of great advantage.