Successfully reported this slideshow.
Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

6391865fda6c4.pptx

Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Upcoming SlideShare
aseel kutan.pptx
aseel kutan.pptx
Loading in …3
×

Check these out next

1 of 28 Ad

More Related Content

Recently uploaded (20)

Advertisement

6391865fda6c4.pptx

  1. 1. ALCOHOL AS AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL IN AUTOMOBILES Presented by, yadhukriahna vs Reg no:20050135 S5 automobile
  2. 2. OUTLINE o INTRODUCTION o E85 FUEL BLENDED o ETHANOL o BLENDING o POWER MAKING FUEL CHARACTERISTICS FLEXIBLE FUEL VEHICLE o ALCOHOL FUMIGATION o ADVANTAGES o DISADVANTAGES o APPLICATION
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION In this century, it is believed that crude oil and petroleum products will become very scarce and costly. Day-to-day. fuel economy of engines is getting improved and will continue to improve. However, enormous increase in number of vehicles has started dictating the demand for fuel. With increased use and depletion of fossil fuels, alternative fuel technology will become more common in the coming decades. Because of the high cost of petroleum products, energy security , emission problems some developing countries are trying to use alternate fuels for their vehicles
  4. 4. o LIQUID FUELS: Liquid fuels are preferred for IC engines because they are easy to store and have reasonably good calorific value. The main alternative is the alcohol o ALCOHOL: Alcohols are attractive alternate fuels because they can be obtained from both natural and manufactured sources. Methanol and ethanol are two kinds of alcohols that seem most promising.
  5. 5. E85,ALCOHOL FUEL MIXTURE OF 85% ETHANOL AND 15% GASOLINE E85 is an alcohol fuel mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, by volume, ethanol derived from crops (bioethanol) is a biofuel. E85 as a fuel is widely used in Sweden and is becoming increasingly common in the United States, mainly in the Midwest where corn is a major crop and is the primary source material for ethanol fuel production. E85 is usually used in engines modified to accept higher concentrations of ethanol. Such flexible-fuel engines are designed to run on any mixture of gasoline or ethanol with up to 85% ethanol by volume.
  6. 6. Ethanol o HOW IS IT MADE NOW? < HISTORICALLY MADE FROM CORN AND OTHER STARCH SOURCES OR FROM NATURAL SUGARS BY FERMENTATION , COMMON SOURCES INCLUDE RICE, POTATO, CASSAVA-PLUS CORN AND OTHER GRAINS - MANUFACTURING PROCESS WAS VERY ENERGY- INTENSIVE. BUT IS NOW LESS SO IN MOST MODERN PLANTS. DUE TO ADVANCES IN DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY
  7. 7. What about Using Ethanol for Fuel? Photosynthesis NMXKJ t ik-j V-W-COJU.. Closed carbon dioxide greenhouse gas cycle for biofuels. Ethanol & biodiesel are sustainable forms of solar energy.
  8. 8. Sow Properties 0/ Ethanol Meihonol, Geo Ethanol Boiling tempealue 713 Dewitytiy) 079 tilorili: vake iMMg) 26.9 »i|»ratMiii!ilWAg | M SlMfemtrit ratio 9.0 Octane wmber (MON) 106 Calorific nine ol tie midve W 387 -i Diesel Fuel Methano l Gasoline Diesel M.5 ’ 99.2 K;5: 07/ 0.70478 0M 21.3 437 11 1100 300 w 65 15.1 M5 105 79-98 *• » 373 339
  9. 9. Automobile fuels be "oxygenated' in order to reduce air pollution. c A technique to produce alcoholic beverages by mixing different brews. o In addition, removal of lead from gasoline renewed interest in ethanol as octane booster. o However, water and gasoline don’t mix well (are not "miscible", in chemical terms), sothe water must be removed when producing ethanol-gasoline blends. This dry or “anhydrous" ethanol is needed to prevent phase separation of the fuel components in ethanol - gasoline blends.
  10. 10. Power Making Fuel Characteristics 1 .Octane Rating [MON] 2. Burning Rate 3. Latent Heat of Vaporization [kJ/kg] 4. Energy Value [MJ/kg] & 5.Reduction in Green house gases
  11. 11. 1. Octane MON rating is most useful to racers because it is measured under high loads and at high RPM's High MON rated fuels allow the use of higher compression and advanced spark timing E85 delivers MON octane ratings equal to, or better than, most gasoline
  12. 12. 2. Burning Rate <• The speed at which fuel burns and releases its heat energy There is less time for fuel to burn at high RPM’s, so rapid burning fuel is a must in racing <■ Peak horsepower (kW) and engine efficiency are realized if fuel is almost completely burned by 20 degrees after Top Dead Center (TDC)
  13. 13. 3. Latent Heat of Vaporization « Measures a fuel’s ability to cool the intake charge and combustion chamber <• Measured in kJ/ It. <■ Higher rated fuels remove heat better
  14. 14. 3. Latent Heat of Vaporization E85 promotes better cooling: * Making the intake charge more dense, thereby packing more energy (per volume) into the engine ■> Helping to control detonation ■> Reducing temperatures in the engine and oiling system components
  15. 15. 4. Energy Value The total heat energy contained in a given amount of fuel - kJ/kg <• Horsepower generation depends on “Net Energy Value” - Equal to the energy value multiplied by the amount of fuel that can be burned A fuel's “stoichiometric" defines its ideal air/fuel ratio « Lower stoichiometric fuels allow more fuel to be burned which, in turn, increases the Net Energy Value of the fuel
  16. 16. ETHANOL AND FLEXIBLE FUEL VEHICLES (FFVS) What is a FFV? • FFVs are specially designed to run on all ethanol blends up to 85% • FFVs can use any mixture of gasoline or E85 • FFVs have fuel sensors which monitor ethanol/gasoline ratios
  17. 17. FLEXIBLE FUEL VEHICLE o Flexible Fuel Vehicles, also known as FFVs. are designed to run on gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. The "Flexible” nature of the vehicle gives the driver the flexibility to switch back and forth between gasoline and E85. Ethanol contains more oxygen than gasoline. The vehicles come equipped with an oxygen sensor which determines the amount of ethanol in the fuel at any time. It provides this information to the onboard computer, which then adjusts the engine to maximize efficiency and performance. The fuel may contain anywhere from zero to 85% ethanol. FFVs are widely available and include sedans, minivans. SUVs, and pickup trucks.
  18. 18. UTILIZATION OF ALCOHOL FUELS IN COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINES o difficulties encountered:- 1. More alcohol fuel than diesel fuel is required by mass and volume. 2. Large percentages of alcohol do not mix with diesel fuel, hence use of diesel-alcohol blends is not feasible 3. Alcohols have extremely low cetane numbers, whereas the diesel engine is known to prefer 4. Diesel fuels serve as lubricants for diesel engine. Alcohol fuels do not have the same lubricating qualities. 5. The poor auto-ignition capability of alcohols is responsible for severe knock due to rapid burning of vaporized alcohol.
  19. 19. ALCOHOL FUMIGATION o Fumigation is a method by which alcohol is introduced into the engine by carburating, o vaporizing or injecting the alcohol into the intake air stream. This requires the addition of a carburetor, vaporizer or injector, along with a separate fuel tank, lines and controls.
  20. 20. Fumigation has some following advantages: It requires a minimum of modification to the engine. o The engine can switch from dual fuel to diesel fuel operation and vice-versa by disconnection and connection of the alcohol source to the injector. If an engine is limited in power output due to smoke emissions, fumigated ethanol could increase the power output because alcohol tends to reduce smoke. This is because of good mixing of the injected charge with alcohol. Fumigation can substitute alcohol for diesel fuel. Up to 50% of the fuel energy can be derived from alcohol by fumigation
  21. 21. ADVANTAGES: o It is a high octane fuel with anti-knock index numbers of over 100-Engines using high octane fuel can run more efficiently by using higher compression ratios. Alcohols have higher flame speed. It produces less overall emissions compared to gasoline, c When alcohols are burned, it forms more moles of exhaust gases, which gives higher pressure and more power in the expansion stroke. : It has high latent heat of vaporization which results in a cooler intake process. This raises the volumetric efficiency of the engine and reduces the required work input in the compression stroke. c Alcohols have low sulphur content in the fuel. o Reduced petroleum imports and transportation.
  22. 22. DISADVANTAGES: O Alcohols have low energy content or in other words the calorific value of the fuel is less. With equal thermal efficiency and similar engine output usage, twice as much fuel would have to be purchased. Alcohol contains oxygen and thus requires less air for stoichiometric combustion. More fuel can be burned with the same amount of air. Alcohol is much more corrosive than gasoline on copper, brass, aluminum, rubber, and many plastics. This puts some restrictions on the design and manufacturing of engines to be used with this fuel. Methanol is very corrosive on metals. It has poor cold weather starting characteristics due to low vapor pressure and evaporation.(E85 rectifies it)
  23. 23. APPLICATION BRAZIL World leader in production and export of ethanol. Ethanol produced per day equivalent to 200,000 barrels of gasoline 24% blend ethanol mandatory. Competitiveness Bio diesel initiatives underway U.S.A. Ethanol: a big boost to economy E85 sells cheaper than gasoline Currently production aimed at 4.5 Billion gallons/yr India Sources of ethanol: Sugarcane, MolassesA Agricultural waste Low average cost of Rs.18/litre projected Annual production capacity of 1.5 Billion litres
  24. 24. DIFFICULTIE S Extensive research and development is difficult to justify until the fuels are accepted as viable for large numbers of engines. Most alternate fuels are very costly at present since the quantity used is very less. There is lack of distribution points (service stations) where fuel is available to the public.
  25. 25. Conclusion I Wciuld sum up the A whole presentation into few lines saying that reducing fossil fuels in the near future would be a great loss to mankind if we are not able to find out any alternative for it and I found alcohol to be effective as it can be produced easily and the flexible fuel vehicle will be proved to be of great advantage.
  26. 26. THANK YOU

×