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LINKING WORDS FOR FCE

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LINKING WORDS FOR FCE

  1. 1. LINKING WORDS Linking words connect different ideas. 1. BECAUSE, AS and SINCE, to introduce the reason/cause of an action BECAUSE OF: We use BECAUSE OF when the reason is a NOUN, not a sentence. Claudia knew Damian BECAUSE OF her job. She didn’t recognise him BECAUSE OF the beard.
  2. 2. LINKING WORDS LINKING WORDS EXPRESSING CONTRAST 1. (AL)THOUGH and EVEN THOUGH MAIN CLAUSE LINKING WORD CONTRAST CLAUSE They won the match ALTHOUGH/ EVEN THOUGH They played awfully THOUGH is usually used at the end of the sentence. They played the match. the weather was rainy THOUGH.
  3. 3. LINKING WORDS LINKING WORDS EXPRESSING CONTRAST 1. DESPITE/ IN SPITE OF are used to introduce CONTRAST. 1. IN SPITE OF/DESPITE DESPITE/ IN SPITE OF are followed by –ing OR A NOUN. The match was not put off DESPITE /IN SPITE OF the rain. IN SPITE OF/DESPITE being raining, the match was not put off.
  4. 4. LINKING WORDS LINKING WORDS EXPRESSING CONTRATS 1. DESPITE THE FACT THAT/ IN SPITE THE FACT THAT. DESPITE THE FACT THAT/ IN SPITE THE FACT THAT are followed by a CLAUSE, and a SUBJECT must be introduced: . We went to the beach IN SPITE THE FACT the weather was cloudy. DESPITE THE FACT THAT Tom didn’t study, he passed the exam.
  5. 5. LINKING WORDS 2. SO and THEREFORE We say SO and THEREFORE when we give the result of something Their neighbours weremaking a lot of noise………………..SO they called the police. SO is usually in the middle of the sentence. THEREFORE is in the beginning of a new sentence. It is usually used in writing.
  6. 6. LINKING WORDS 3. TO and IN ORDER TO (PURPOSE SENTENCES) 1. (IN ORDER) TO: when both subjects are the same I’m studying hard in order to pass my examinations (POSITIVE) I’m studying hard in order not to fail my examinations (NEGATIVE) 2
  7. 7. LINKING WORDS 2. SO (THAT)/ IN ORDER THAT: when both subjects are different or we want to introduce the same subject again: - She called Tom so that / in order that they could make arrangements for the cinema. - She is studying English (in order) to get a diploma for a better job = - She is studying English SO THAT she can get a diploma for a better job. 3. SO AS NOT + INFINITIVE (NEGATIVE) Children should go to bed early SO AS NOT to be sleepy for school.
  8. 8. WRITING, PART 1: LINKING WORDS PRACTICE 1. Peter missed his station because he fell asleep on the train SO HE Peter fell asleep on the train………………………………missed his station 2. Thieves steal from parked cars. Therefore it is important to lock your vehicle. SINCE/BECAUSE THIEVES It is important to lock your vehicle………………………………………..…steal from parked cars. 3. I’m working at home because I want to save money on train fares. (IN ORDER) TO I’m working at home………………………………………save money on train fares. 4. Philip opened the parcel since he believed it was for him. SO HE Philip believed the parcel was for him…………………………………………opened it. 5. She is applying in order to get a better job. SO She is applying………………………………she can get a better job. 6. She forgot the file at home so she had to go back. THEREFORE She forgot the file at home.………………………………………she had to go back.
  9. 9. WRITING, PART 1: GENERAL REVISION 1. Tom’s coffee is too hot to drink. Tom’s coffee is………………………………………………..… Not cold/cool enough to drink. 2. Tim asked if the whole class would participate in the contest. He asked:”………………………………..Will the whole class participate in the contest?” 3. He can’t play tennis any more. He is…………………………………………………Not able to/ unable to play tennis any more. 4. Fortunately, I managed to win the last game. Fortunately, I …………………………………………..Could/ was able to win the last game. 5. I need to take the coat to the cleaner’s this week. I need to get…………………………………………………………My/ the coat cleaned this week. 6. They suggested to go to the shopping center. They suggested: “………………………………………..What/ how about going to the shopping center?” 7. I finished writing the postcard a minute ago. I’ve …………………………………………………..Just finished writing the postcard. 8. You know you mustn’t leave before 3.30 You know you are…………………………………………..Not allowed to leave before 3.30. 9. He learned to drive in order to get a job as a salesman. He learned to drive …………………………………………….So that he could get a job as salesman. 10. They say that the film has some frightening scenes. They say……………………………………..That there are some frightening scenes in the film.
  10. 10. WRITING, PART 1: GENERAL REVISION 1. Tom’s coffee is too hot to drink. Tom’s coffee is………………………………………………..… Not cold/cool enough to drink. 2. Tim asked if the whole class would participate in the contest. He asked:”………………………………..Will the whole class participate in the contest?” 3. He can’t play tennis any more. He is…………………………………………………Not able to/ unable to play tennis any more. 4. Fortunately, I managed to win the last game. Fortunately, I …………………………………………..Could/ was able to win the last game. 5. I need to take the coat to the cleaner’s this week. I need to get…………………………………………………………My/ the coat cleaned this week. 6. They suggested to go to the shopping center. They suggested: “………………………………………..What/ how about going to the shopping center?” 7. I finished writing the postcard a minute ago. I’ve …………………………………………………..Just finished writing the postcard. 8. You know you mustn’t leave before 3.30 You know you are…………………………………………..Not allowed to leave before 3.30. 9. He learned to drive in order to get a job as a salesman. He learned to drive …………………………………………….So that he could get a job as salesman. 10. They say that the film has some frightening scenes. They say……………………………………..That there are some frightening scenes in the film.

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