Fowodenewsletter 2013

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Fowodenewsletter 2013

  1. 1. FOWODE E-NEWS, P.O. BOX 7176, Kampala Uganda | Plot 15Vubya Close, Ntinda Nakawa Rd.Email: fowode@fowode.org www.fowode.org. Facebook: http://facebook.com/FowodeUganda 1FOWODENEWSLETTERJANUARY - MARCH2013, ISSUE 6Inside this Issue1. FOWODE gets a new Board of Directors2. Affirmative Action In Uganda3. Celebrating International Women’s Day4. Performance of Agriculture Sectorin UgandaFowodenewsletter.indd 1 4/19/13 1:03 PM
  2. 2. FOWODE E-NEWS, P.O. BOX 7176, Kampala Uganda | Plot 15Vubya Close, Ntinda Nakawa Rd.Email: fowode@fowode.org www.fowode.org. Facebook: http://facebook.com/FowodeUganda2Each year, International Women’sDay (IWD) is celebrated on March 8around the world. Countries use thisday to mark the economic, politicaland social achievements of women.The theme this year was,“TheGender Agenda Gaining Momentum”.In commemoration of InternationalWomen’s Day, Forum for Women inDemocracy as a leading organisationadvocating for increased numbersand effectiveness of women inpolitics began conversations on therelevance of affirmative action in thepolitical sphere today.Key questions were asked onwhether Affirmative Action hashelped or hurt the cause of Ugandanwomen’s political representation?Should Affirmative Action be revisedto address its shortcomings andencourage women to compete ablywith their male colleagues? Giventhe gender injustices that continueto characterise Ugandan life, shouldaffirmative action be expandedfrom its current spheres of politicsand education in order to includeissues of access and representationin healthcare, agriculture and otherareas which have a big impact onwomen’s lives?A position paper was developed onthe effects of Affirmative Action forpolitical representation of Ugandanwomen.This formed the basis foradvocacy and also informed ourdiscussions in the communities andvia media.Additionally, FOWODEorganised community Dialogues inLuwero, Kabale, Kibaale, Masindi,Mityana, Gulu, Napak,Amuru,Amuria,Rukungiri, Lyantonde, Kibuku, Busiaand Wakiso and a Debate on Radioand a National Television was held toexamine the relevance of affirmativeaction in Uganda.In this edition, FOWODE presentsthe position paper on AffirmativeAction and an Interview withFOWODE’s Executive DirectorPatricia Munabi Babiiha.With Affirmative action, some peoplethink women are asking for too much.As women, there is already a largepercent in political leadership seats,top government positions and topmanagement levels in the differentinstitutions; shouldn’t women refocuswhat they want?This sentiment is based on amisconception. In no area of Ugandanpolitical life do women hold the largerpercentage of representation.Womenoccupy 35 percent of the seats inparliament, 2 out of the 6 SupremeCourt and High Court judges arewomen, and only in the lower levels ofpublic service, which does not benefitfrom affirmative action, do women makeup the 35% of positions constitutionallymandated. Considering that womenmake 51% of the population, I wouldnot say that this is “asking for toomuch”This question also speaks to the widely-held sentiment, that Ugandan womenare given space at decision makingtables as a favour. Ugandan womenas much as men have the right toparticipate in the processes that governtheir lives.Affirmative action quotas arenot a favour but a temporary measureintended to address the structuralbarriers, like culture, lack of education,and others, that prevent women frombeing elected to power at the samerates as men.What has the rural woman benefitedfrom the 33% women representation?Rural women have gainedrepresentation from local councilsto parliament as a result of theprovisions in the Constitution and thelocal Government Act. It has enabledthem to voice issues of concern tothem and their communities.As theirawareness and skills and knowledge arebeing built they have contributed tothe visilblity of critical women’s issuesand demanded for accountability. Alot more can be done but the womenhave begun to make inroads, we arenot where we were 20 years ago.Thepresence of women has helped todeepen discussions around povertyand the meaning of development.Asmore women like formerVice PresidentSpecioza Wandera Kazibwe and the RtHon. Speaker Rebecca Alitwala Kadagagain visibility and success in the publicspheres, so is the increase in the numberof young women getting inspired tojoin leadership, and opportunities formore women to be elected and betterrepresent their constituency, women.Should a woman MP stay in a seat formore than three terms, where is theevidence that they have transformedtheir female voters, if none of themtakes up the same seat? Doesn’t it looklike one-woman emancipation and notall?There is a benefit to women staying in aseat for at least two terms as usually thefirst term is for navigation of the spaceand understanding the workings of thelegislature.We believe that each womanMP should groom other women so thatwhen the time comes to give up herseat, there is a wealth of empowered,pro-poor, gender-sensitive andtransformative women candidates withthe potential to replace her. Howeverthe emancipation of poor Ugandans isnot the responsibility of only womenMPs, it is the responsibility of all policymakers who have been elected to thatWe believe that eachwoman MP should groomother women so that whenthe time comes to give upher seat, there is a wealthof empowered, pro-poor,gender-sensitive and trans-formative women candi-dates with the potential toreplace her”Patricia MunabiBabiihaThe Gender AgendaGaining MomentumFowodenewsletter.indd 2 4/19/13 1:03 PM
  3. 3. FOWODE E-NEWS, P.O. BOX 7176, Kampala Uganda | Plot 15Vubya Close, Ntinda Nakawa Rd.Email: fowode@fowode.org www.fowode.org. Facebook: http://facebook.com/FowodeUganda 3position on the mandate of improvingthe lives of ordinary Ugandans.When will women activists focustheir energies on maternal and infantmortality?There are a number of activistorganisations and individuals who dealdirectly with the issues of maternaland infant mortality.TERREWODE(The Association for the Reorientationand Rehabilitation for Women inDevelopment) sensitises womenabout the dangers of obstetricfistula.The White Ribbon campaignis an alliance of actors including civilsociety, government partners and theprivate sector for safe motherhood.FOWODE itself has published researchon financing for family planning andmaternal health.The statistic that 16women die daily from preventablepregnancy-related complicationshas been a rallying cry for demandsfrom citizenry and civil society, thatgovernment does more for the healthof Ugandan women and children.Advocacy by FOWODE and othercivil society actors led to an increasein allocation to the health budget inthe last financial year. So it is not aquestion of when women activists willfocus their energies on maternal andinfant mortality, but when will we seesignificant results in response to ouradvocacy.What recommendations would youmake, to see affirmative action be amore effective mechanism for theempowerment of Ugandan women?Affirmative action needs to bemaintained and strengthened.Thisincludes a critical review on how totranslate physical presence of womeninto strategic engagement.Womenpoliticians need capacity building so thatwhen they are elected, they are ableto participate effectively and representthe concerns of their constituents.As itis many of the sub-county and districtwomen councillors have such low levelsof education that they are not engagingon equal footing with their malecounterparts in council.Districts are often made up of twoor three counties and so while bothWomen MPs and Constituency MPsshare equal votes in parliament,WomenMPs represent a much larger area.Women MPs receive similar allowancesfor travel to their constituencies, andsimilar amounts for their ConstituencyDevelopment Fund for a muchlarger constituency than their malecounterparts. Many Ugandans do notknow that a Woman MP represents awhole district, leading to misconceptionsabout the effectiveness of Woman MPs.This is an issue that must be addressed.Affirmative action for women withinpolitical parties needs to be enforced.Major parties e.g. NRM and FDC haveprovisions for 40% women in leadershippositions which have remained onpaper.Women achieving equal status inthe political spheres means more thanalways deputising them.As we go aboutreforming our electoral system, we needto consider the system of ProportionalRepresentation, which guaranteesrepresentation for minorities, evenwithout affirmative action.There should be a deliberate effortto support women to contestmainstream seats, not only to expandthe opportunities for women generally,but also to get the voting populationto engage with their own prejudicesparticularly the preference of malecandidates. Even when women do notwin in great numbers, the very pointof competing on the mainstream seatsgets society to engage, thereby pushingthe boundaries for women’s politicalparticipation. Research especially by theSchool of Women and Gender Studiesat Makerere University indicates thatprejudices against women are slowlybeing dented. In 2006 the Monitornewspaper of March 8, reported a62% success rate for women whocontested mainstream seats.Thisparticular election indicated that therewas more willingness to vote womencandidates especially on the basis thatthey held a promise for more pro-poordevelopment.The quest for gender diversity onmainstream seats should not beconfused with the idea of competingwith men or being ‘as good as men’. Mencannot be the yardstick of somethingthey have dominated simply on thebasis of male privilege.The quest shouldrather be about the right for womento occupy that space that men havemonopolized for a long time.The Gender AgendaGaining Momentum cont’dCommemoratingthe InternationalWomen’s Day inNakasongolaAVBC member explaining theVBC modelto one of the Women Leaders from ButalejaDistrict who visited the FOWODE StallAVBC member explaining theVBC modelto one of the Women Leaders from ButalejaDistrict who visited the FOWODE StallTo commemorate the InternationalWomen’s Day 2013, FOWODEparticipated in the national levelcelebrations that were held inNakasongola District. FOWODEmobilized the village budget clubmembers of Luwero district who heldan exhibition and shared informationon our work in Luweero District.It was an enlightening moment formany of the women that FOWODEsupported to attend the celebrationsas often times, majority stay homeand as Justine explains, for many itwas the first time to participate inmarking the women’s day “I feel, as afarmer, FOWODE has exposed me toparticipate in national activities that Ihad not participated in before.This participation has empoweredme to get confidence in articulatingwomen’s concerns and our workin monitoring service delivery tovisitors at the FOWODE stall” saidJustine Kivumbi aVBC member fromKasaalaVillage-Kasaala Parish-inLuweero Sub County. FOWODE alsofacilitated other grassroots women inall 17 districts where we operate toparticipate in district level celebrations.Affirmative action for women withinpolitical parties needs to be enforced.Major parties e.g. NRM and FDC haveprovisions for 40% women in leadershippositions which have remained on paper.Fowodenewsletter.indd 3 4/19/13 1:03 PM
  4. 4. FOWODE E-NEWS, P.O. BOX 7176, Kampala Uganda | Plot 15Vubya Close, Ntinda Nakawa Rd.Email: fowode@fowode.org www.fowode.org. Facebook: http://facebook.com/FowodeUganda4FOWODE gets a new Board of DirectorsForum for Women in Democracy (FOWODE) in Januarythis year elected a new Board of Directors.The new boardwill serve for 3 years and their term expires in 2015. Thenew Board members bring diverse, inspiring perspectivesand wide-ranging experiences, as well as significantachievements in their fields of expertise.We believe each ofthese highly qualified gallant women will uniquely contributeto strengthening FOWODE’s ability to achieve it missionand goals as their commitment to the cause of women’s’empowerment remains unquestionable.Solome Nakaweesi Kimbugwe the Board Chairperson is a Feminist Activist, Shewas elected back into this position having been elected chair in 2009. Solome who holds aMasters degree in Development Studies and a Bachelors degree in Social Sciences, previouslyworked as the Executive Director for Akina Mama Wa Africa (AMWA) and Uganda Women’sNetwork (UWONET) among others. She served on different boards including that of theUganda National APRM Governance Council, District Service Commissions of Mityana andMubende Districts;Transparency International and the Independent Media Council. Solomealso carries with her experience working with Lower Local governmentsLina Zedriga Waru theVice Chairperson possesses knowledge of the global and nationalwomen’s movement and has a track record of working on women’s issues.A lawyer by profession,Lina holds 2 Masters Degrees of Arts in Peace and Conflict studies and Human Rights, and aBachelors Degree in Laws. She is the Director for Women Peace and Security, Regional Associatesfor Community Initiatives; the Secretary Board of Trustees for Trust for Africa’s Orphans Ugandaand has previously served as aVice Chair of Center for DomesticViolence (CEDOVIP).Lina is alsoa peace and security advocate and a trainer for Gender equity and diversitySylvia Namabidde Ssinabulya the Finance Secretary was elected back into this positionhaving been elected in the same position in 2009. Sylvia who holds a Masters Degree in PublicHealth Leadership and a Post Graduate Diploma in Management is theWoman Member ofParliament for Mityana district. Sylvia has served as Chairperson of the Network of AfricanWomen Ministers and Parliamentarians Uganda Chapter. She is the current chair of theParliamentary Committee on Education and Sports and an active Member of the social servicesand government assurance committees in Parliament.Beth Mwebaze Juna a Board member is one of the longest serving members ofFOWODE. She holds a diploma in Social Work and a Certificate in Public Administration. Bethis the current LC IV Woman Councilor, Ruharo ward in Mbarara. She is also the Directorfor Ruharo Infant School while at the same time serving as,Vice Chair for Mbarara Women’sDevelopment Association; Board Member Mbarara High school and Secretary for Finance inMbarara Municipality. She is also a trainer on gender and women’s empowerment.Tezira Jamwa a Board member is one of the founder members of FOWODE. She was a memberof the Constituent Assembly (CA) and the Gender working group of the CA.Tezira has a Mastersin Public service, an Undergraduate Degree in Social Work & Social Administration and a PostGraduate Diploma in Management. She bounced back on the FOWODE board having briefly servedas Chairperson of FOWODE in 2002.Tezira is a former Resident District Commissioner and aMember of Parliament. She is also an experienced trainer on gender and women’s empowerment.Fowodenewsletter.indd 4 4/19/13 1:03 PM
  5. 5. FOWODE E-NEWS, P.O. BOX 7176, Kampala Uganda | Plot 15Vubya Close, Ntinda Nakawa Rd.Email: fowode@fowode.org www.fowode.org. Facebook: http://facebook.com/FowodeUganda 5Affirmative Action for Women inUganda: Navigating through MuddyWaters and Pushing on!Interesting patterns on the world scale arethat Rwanda (56.3%) ranks number one,Sweden (42.7%) comes fourth together withSenegal, and Tanzania comes 20th just aboveUganda. UK (22%) and USA (16.85) come54 and 78th respectively. No doubt, thesenumbers in politics and other areas suchas higher education in Uganda today, are acause for celebration. However, from thesefigures, it is very clear that we may not easilymake clear connections between the level ofregime democratization in a specific countryand women’s presence in the legislature.Neither can we easily discern the impact ofthe women’s presence in the decision makingstructures. So then what should we think andsay about affirmative action for women as westand today?In Uganda, anxieties about women’s physicalpresence in political decision makingstructures abound. On the part of thewomen’s movement there is anxiety aboutthe pace of change. Accordingly Uganda hasachieved the critical mass widely regarded assufficient for women to have direct impact,for example, towards gender sensitivelegislation and policies that positively impacton women’s lives, in all their diversity.Withinthe wider society there is a more reactionaryanxiety which classifies those womenwho come to decision making spaces viaaffirmative action as less deserving, as wellas concerns on whether it benefits the elitewomen to the disadvantage of the grassrootswoman.There is a whole discussion of the needfor term limits such that affirmative actionseats are structured as training grounds sothat senior women politicians are able tomove into mainstream seats to create spacefor their juniors to compete on affirmativeseats.The bottom line that should guide alldialogues, including anxieties and misgivingsis to say that affirmative action should not beseen as a favour but rather a compensationfor structural barriers that women meet inthe electoral process.The direct as well ashidden societal barriers that prevent womenfrom being selected as candidates and gettingtheir fair share of political influence are wellknown.In other words, through quotas, society isonly correcting what was wrong from thevery beginning.Through quotas society istrying to clean up its own mess, and allowsthat women should not have to bear theburden of tearing down structural barrierson their own. Indeed the Constitution ofthe Republic of Uganda is clear.The NationalObjectives and Directive Principles ofState Policy enshrined in the Constitutionstipulates that the state shall ensuregender balance and fair representation ofmarginalized groups on all constitutional andother bodies. Specifically,Article 32 providesfor affirmative action. It states that, the stateshall take affirmative action in favour ofgroups marginalised on the basis of gender,age, disability or any other reason created byhistory, tradition or custom, for the purposeof redressing imbalances that exist againstthem.Article 33 (5) of the same Constitutionprovides that “Without prejudice to Article32.Women shall have the right to affirmativeaction for the purpose of redressing theimbalances created by history, tradition orcustom.” Hence the Constitution puts theburden on the state to correct historicalimbalances as opposed to “helping’” women.That said, however, there is a tacitsocial contract between the women’srepresentatives and the broader womenfolk,a sense in which the women in politicalleadership should be accountable to womenin general.The relevance of this socialcontract becomes even more relevant in thespecific case of Uganda, where affirmativeaction was a result of mobilisation politicsand some level of women’s activism,particularly, in the 1980s and 1990s todemand space at the decision making table.To this extent then, women in Uganda arefaced with the question of beyond numbersand how to achieve the desired quality ofresult and impact.At the general level, weneed to acknowledge that presence andaction of women has expanded and relativelydeepened public concerns. Both at thenational and local levels, the relative presenceof women has brought new questions on thepolitical agenda.Without doubt the robustdebates around equal access to health,education and water, gender based violencecan be partly attributed to women’s presencein the legislature and other key spaces.Accordingly presence of women has helpedto deepen discussions around poverty andthe meaning of development. The experienceof the constitution making process in 1994and the resultant 1995 constitution indicatethat the numerical presence of womenin the Constituent Assembly had a lot tocontribute to the gendered contestations andoutcomes.The outlook of decision makingbodies has changed ideologically to relativelyaccommodate the construction of a leader asmale and female.Furthermore the increased presence asengineered by affirmative action has givenspace for the women to demonstrate theirability to govern.The formerVice PresidentDr. Specioza Wandira Kazibwe once said inan interview that,“if there was no affirmativeaction, nobody would have seen that she hadthe potential to be a leader”. We can arguewithout doubt that Hon. Rebecca AlitwalaKadaga the current speaker of Parliamentdemonstrates a direct link where measuresto bring women into decision making spacesWith 35% of women inparliament, Uganda rankedabove the regional averageof 17% in the 1990s. TodayUganda is 21st in the worldrankings, with 35%. Withthe minimum 30% at localgovernment level, Ugandabeats the world average of 19%.Affirmative action should notbe seen as a favour but rather acompensation for structuralbarriers that women meet inthe electoral process.continued to page 8...Fowodenewsletter.indd 5 4/19/13 1:03 PM
  6. 6. FOWODE E-NEWS, P.O. BOX 7176, Kampala Uganda | Plot 15Vubya Close, Ntinda Nakawa Rd.Email: fowode@fowode.org www.fowode.org. Facebook: http://facebook.com/FowodeUganda6PICTORIALPatricia Munabi, FOWODE ED distributing Black MondayFlyers, January 2013Women activists during a courtesy visit to the Rt. Hon.Speaker of Parliament, January 2013FOWODE members casting their votes for the newboardBishop Zac Niringiye addressing FOWODE Members onthe gender dimensions in corruption, January 2013.FOWODEVillage Budget Clubs during a meeting at study tour in one ofthe areas of operation for Uganda Debt Network’s, March 2013Hon. Sylivia Ssinabulya honouring Hon. Benigna Mukiibi as ab outgoingFOWODE member.Fowodenewsletter.indd 6 4/19/13 1:03 PM
  7. 7. FOWODE E-NEWS, P.O. BOX 7176, Kampala Uganda | Plot 15Vubya Close, Ntinda Nakawa Rd.Email: fowode@fowode.org www.fowode.org. Facebook: http://facebook.com/FowodeUganda 7KibukuVBC presenting a song during the district Women’s dayCelebration, at Tirinyi primary school grounds 22nd March 2013Women Councilors in Wakiso during an Effective LegislativeEngagement TrainingLomunoVBC members during field visitWakisoVBC with other partners cleaning Kira town council in preparationof the women’s day 8th march 2013.FOWODE staff wearing black as a sign of solidarity for theBlack Monday movementFowodenewsletter.indd 7 4/19/13 1:03 PM
  8. 8. FOWODE E-NEWS, P.O. BOX 7176, Kampala Uganda | Plot 15Vubya Close, Ntinda Nakawa Rd.Email: fowode@fowode.org www.fowode.org. Facebook: http://facebook.com/FowodeUganda8may, in practical and ideological termsdemonstrate their ability to govern. Anumber of women have also performedexceptionally well in various capacities, inparliament and political party structureswithin the ruling party as well as in theopposition partiesYet, there is a tendency to individualisewomen’s strengths and collectivisetheir failures. For example, women MPsare more liable to being looked at as acollective, where the failings of someof the women are easily attributable tothe entire collective, yet the strength ofa number of women does not work tocreate a positive collective identity forthem as a group. Men on the other handtend to be viewed more as individualsthan as a collective. Failings of individualmen are less likely to be attributed to theentire group.This is also partly the reasonwhy there tends to be anxiety around theperformance of women politicians.The other level of anxiety stems fromthe reality.This is the reality of stagnationand backlash.There seems to be a wavethat threatens to roll back the gainsthat Ugandan women have made overthe years.The wave threatens to turnwomen once again into subjects to onlysupport that which, the powers that arecomfortable with. Again the women in thespotlight are those occupying spaces ofdecision making, which inadvertently bringsthe question of affirmative action into play.How do we push on through thesemuddy waters? And how do we addressthe daunting question of quality ofresult? The demand for greater women’srepresentation in its broadest formulationshould not attempt to predetermine theways in which women politicians shouldrepresent their constituency.The issue israther one of access to arenas of publicdecision making so that various interestsof women can be debated and acted upon.Framed this way, the question then alertsus to the fact that it takes more thanwomen politicians for the complexities ofgender inequalities to be fully addressed inpolicy terms. Presence is the basic startingpoint.The leap from this very basic startingpoint should involve broader socialmobilisation and transformation.In this way the quality of women’sparticipation becomes a function of severalfactors, without question starting with thenumbers and the social base of the womenpoliticians but much more importantlyincluding the level of activism of womenand their organisations to demandaccountability and push for a democraticculture.To borrow from the Ann MarieGoetz, a renowned feminist politicalscientist, we ought to look at the extentto which women’s access to parliamentis translatable results in a shift in systemsthat enables previously excluded groups toinfluence decision making in a tangible way.On with Affirmative Action, should thepolicy be reviewed in view of the newrealities?Whatever the answer to this questionis, women should prepare to control theterms of the discourse of this reviewrather than leave it to be driven by theconservative and reactionary imperatives.The terms should be as follows:• The Women’s movement shouldoccupy the driver’s seat in channellingthe different anxieties aroundaffirmative action for women.Affirmative action needs to bestrengthened but on the termsfirmly defined and streamlined by thewomen’s movement.This includes acritical review on how to translatephysical presence of women intostrategic engagement.This cannotbe left to the women standing onaffirmative action seats to figure outas individuals.• Affirmative action should bemaintained and strengthened.Thepicture worldwide is that withoutquotas in the several countries,women’s representation would still bemeagre.• Term limits for women on affirmativeaction should not be entertainedas a point of debate as long asall other seats are not subjectedto this limit. Indeed why shouldwomen be subjected to differentstandards from men? Limiting termsof women legislators will only workto accentuate their secondarycitizenship status as that group whichneeds to be constantly correctedand tamed.This debate should alsobe preceded by a critical study of theattrition rate which in any case limitsthe accumulation of a critical massof seasoned female legislators andcouncillors.• Affirmative action for womenwithin political parties needs to beenforced. Major parties e.g. NRMand FDC have provisions for 40%women in leadership positionswhich have remained on paper.Thedeputising syndrome seems to betaking root as the norm. Enforcementof affirmative action for womenwithin party structures will createmore opportunities for their greaterpolitical influence.• Affirmative action should beexpanded to other critical areassuch as public service employmentand corporate governance. In veryspecific ways affirmative action isrequired in areas where policies areimplemented and monitored. Oncewomen’s strategic presence in suchareas is enhanced, the totality of thewomen’s efforts to change systemswill be felt and positive impactrealised. On corporate governance,lessons can be drawn from theScandinavian countries like Norwaywhere companies are required by lawto ensure that no sex occupies morethan 60%, a policy originally focusedat a minimum of 40% women.• There should be a deliberate effortto support women to contestmainstream seats, not only toexpand the opportunities for womengenerally, but also to get the votingpopulation to engage with theirown prejudices particularly thepreference male candidates. Evenwhen women do not win in greatnumbers, the very point of competingon the mainstream seats gets societyto engage, thereby pushing theboundaries for women’s politicalparticipation. Research especially bythe School of Women and GenderStudies at Makerere Universityindicate that prejudices againstwomen are slowly being dented.In 2006 the Monitor newspaper ofMarch 8, reported a 62% successrate for women who contestedmainstream seats.This particularelection indicated that there wasmore willingness to vote womencandidates especially on the basisthat they held a promise for morepro-poor development.This optimismneeds to be further nurtured ratherthan taken for granted.The quest fordiversifying mainstream seats shouldnot be allowed to be confused withthe idea of competing with men orbeing ‘as good as men’. Men cannotbe the yardstick of something theyhave monopolised simply on the basisof male privilege.The quest shouldrather be about the right for womento occupy that space that men havetended to monopolise.• Women need to move from thestatus of the exception to the normin the leadership arena.This requiresa process of continuously developinga critical mass of purposeful womenleaders. In the short term womenneed to be encouraged to joinleadership positions while in the longrun, young girls need to be nurturedto ensure that in the future they willbe willing to seek political office andother leadership roles.• The East African community shouldbe utilised as a space to streamlineand strengthen affirmative action andwomen’s presence in decision makingin the region. Connecting the nationalquestions to the regional level willimprove the quality of the dialogueand in turn may have the potentialto address the limitations within thenational contexts....continued from page 8Fowodenewsletter.indd 8 4/19/13 1:03 PM
  9. 9. FOWODE E-NEWS, P.O. BOX 7176, Kampala Uganda | Plot 15Vubya Close, Ntinda Nakawa Rd.Email: fowode@fowode.org www.fowode.org. Facebook: http://facebook.com/FowodeUganda 9FOWODE enters newStrategic Period 2013-2017Focus areas ofFOWODE strategic PlanFOWODE will strengthen women’svoice and promote genderjustice.Build the leadership of youngpeople to advance women’s rights aswell as foster accountable institutions.Influence economic policy from awomen’s rights perspective.Solome Nakaweesi Kimbugwe the FOWODE Chairperson,WinnieByanyima a FOWODE Founder and Patricia Munabi the FOWODEExecutive Director at the launch of the FOWODE strategic plan.In March, FOWODE launched her new strategic plan 2013-2017.The five-year Plan was launched by Winnie Byanyimawho is also one of the founder members of FOWODE.The new Strategic Plan builds on the past successes and willfacilitate FOWODE to scale up and deepen her work ofensuring women’s voices are more audible and their capacityto access and control resources is enhanced. FOWODEwill move towards ensuring that there is increasedaccountability towards women centered economic andpolitical processes.Describing it as a blueprint for growth and improvement,Solome Nakaweesi Kimbugwe the FOWODE Chairperson,pointed out that although the previous strategic plan did alot to transform the lives of women in the public sphere,the new plan focuses on working with unthreatened mento support women in their private and public lives, workingwith communities and families to travel the gender equalityjourney and engaging on social accountability.The FOWODE Executive Director, Patricia Munabi statedthat with this new plan, FOWODE will focus on key areasof strengthening ‘women’s voice and participation in thepolitical, economic and social arenas; improving women’sknowledge of their rights and enhancing their capacities toseek gender accountability; supporting women to engageeffectively in economic processes as a foundation for theirparticipation and as well as enhancing FOWODE’s capacityto effectively deliver on the new strategy.Speaking to the audience, the Chief Guest Winnie Byanyimareiterated the need for fair representation and participationof Women in governance as a prerequisite of democracy.Stating that having a critical mass of women in leadership iscrucial for human development in all countries developedor not developed. She urged different actors to commit towork towards increasing numbers and impact of women indecision-making processes.She urged FOWODE to focus on some of the emergingtrends including volatility in the economy, scarcity and thegeopolitics which have critical implications for women’srights and gender equality.The FOWODE chair pledged to provide prudencegovernance, which will implore FOWODE to travel thisjourney of change. She called on members to partner withFOWODE in this new phase as partners, donors, and friendsand as people that want to see an organization that hascome of age move to another level.Present at the launch were FOWODE founder members,partners as well as FOWODE friends.FOWODE also celebrated Winnie Byanyima’s appointmentas the CEO of Oxfam International, making her the firstwoman and first African to occupy such a position she willher to provide strategic direction and coordination of theworld wide confederation of OXFAM affiliates.Fowodenewsletter.indd 9 4/19/13 1:03 PM
  10. 10. FOWODE E-NEWS, P.O. BOX 7176, Kampala Uganda | Plot 15Vubya Close, Ntinda Nakawa Rd.Email: fowode@fowode.org www.fowode.org. Facebook: http://facebook.com/FowodeUganda10Donor support to agriculture needs re-tweaking -CSBAG reportThe bulk of donor funds in agricultureare on-budget. For example, duringFY 2010/2011, the sector received$58million on budget and $16 millionoff budget.The study focused on donorfunds that are on-budget.The donor funding is aimed atcomplimenting Government efforts inareas such as: improving control andmitigation capacity of crop pests andlivestock diseases; deepening accessto markets; capacity for research andgenerating new technologies etcIn 2003 African Union (AU) MaputoDeclaration directed all AU membercountries to increase investment in theagriculture sector to at least 10 percent of the national budget by 2008.Todate just about 10 or so countries haveachieved that and Uganda is not amongthem.Government reliance on donorsupport to transform agriculture fromsubsistence to commercial farmingis not bearing enough ripe fruits asoriginally presumed.This is despitemillions of dollars being made availableto finance almost all the large scaleprojects meant to promote commercialagriculture.A report commissioned by theCivil Society Budget AdvocacyGroup (CSBAG) to examinethe country’s performance of theagricultural sector indicates that thedonor budget support in agriculture hasactually done more harm than good.The Financial year 2011/2012performance of the donor fundscontribution attests to the CSBAGstudy.In that financial year (2011/2012),about 74 per cent of the total donorfunds equivalent to $341million wasnot disbursed. This, according topolicy analysts sums up what has sincebecome the norm (the performanceof donor financing in agriculture) overthe years—slow disbursement ofdonor funds.“Of concern, however is the slowdisbursement of donor funds inthe sector which has led to slowimplementation of donor fundedprojects,” reads part of the civilsociety commissioned report.Slow disbursement coupled with theminimal allocation of the nationalbudget, currently at less than five percent, partly explains why agricultureseems to be retarding as servicesector progresses.According to thereport, some of the justifications forthe poor performance in agriculturestems from the f slow disbursementand the fact that most funds aredisbursed as small discrete projects.This affects slow implementationof donor projects.The reportobserved that the Farm IncomeEnhancement Project- IrrigationComponent (FIEFCO) was badlyimplemented because of slowed fundsdisbursement.Though the project was intended toend in 2010, the Project was laterextended to end in 2012.An ADB supervision missionconducted in 2011 found that nowork had been done by Ministry ofAgriculture and it recommendedcancellation of the project if trendsof slow implementation were notrectified.“In financial year2011/2012, about 74per cent of the totaldonor funds equiva-lent to $341millionwas not disbursed”.Project Period 2008 - 2012, supportedby IFAD loan, BIDCO, Government ofUganda Project cost USD 156 MillionThe Project implemented in Kalangaladistrict achieved a sizeable number ofits targets, despite the delayed startto implementation which affecteddisbursement, and led to escalatedproject costs from the originalUSD 60 million to USD 156million.Although the project was approved in1997 implementation commenced in2005. Project was extended 4 times.Expenditure was at 88% reflecting afairly good absorption capacity.Women beneficiaries constituted 31%though many tended to get involvedas small scale beneficiaries and helpersto their husbands.Widows hardlyparticipated as they lacked land.Lessons and recommendations1) Implementation modalities:Delays in implementing projectscan have gross cost implicationsand organizational problems thatnegatively impact on projectimplementation. For large complexprojects/PPPs, sufficient time shouldbe allocated to the planning processbefore project approval and all thekey stakeholders should be adequatelysensitized and involved in the projectdesign and planning processes.2) Funds absorption: TheVODPexhibited a fairly good absorptioncapacity of the earmarked funds,indicative of proper budgeting andidentification of priority expenditureitems, functional financial managementsystems and adequate capacity buildingwithin the implementing agencies.3) Mainstreaming gender:although gender issues wereintegrated in theVODP, not muchattention was paid to this aspect asimplementation progressed. Genderplanning should be part and parcelof the project design, planning,implementation and monitoringprocess.Vegetable OilDevelopmentProjectFowodenewsletter.indd 10 4/19/13 1:03 PM
  11. 11. FOWODE E-NEWS, P.O. BOX 7176, Kampala Uganda | Plot 15Vubya Close, Ntinda Nakawa Rd.Email: fowode@fowode.org www.fowode.org. Facebook: http://facebook.com/FowodeUganda 11This FIEFOC case illustrates thatsome donor-funded projects failbecause of poor implementation andinstitutional capacity of the governmentdepartments involved in co-managingthe external funded schemes.“…Although funds absorption for this(FIEFOC irrigation project) was high, itwas for the wrong reasons, with 87 percent of the resources being spent ongeneral operating expenses without anytangible outcome,” reads the report inpart.The reportalso cites thecreation of theTrypanesomiasisand Tsetse Areasas the otherproject whosefruits did notmeasure up tothe requiredstandard. Theobjective ofthis project was to control tsetse fliesinfestation and trypanesomiasis, buta year before completion, the projectwas behind in addressing the key.“APhysical verification by the BudgetMonitoring and Accountability Unitin 2012 indicated that there was nophysical presence of this project in anyother district to be targeted other thanKalangala district.” Reads the report.quite quantified because of the mixedresult it generated was the improvedrice production funded by the Japaneseand Ugandan government.Accordingto the report, the project was meantto improve rice varieties but its resultsturned out to be quite disappointing.“The Government of Japan and FAOtook lead in the implementation of theAgriculture improved Rice Productionproject which led to distribution ofpoor quality inputs with the bulkof funds being used in recurrent(unproductive) expenditures,” reads oneof the reports findings.In response to the report, theAgriculture Ministry PrincipalInformation Scientist, ConsolataAcayo, argued that unlike what thestudy unearthed, all is well betweenthe donors financing agriculture andthe Ministry. In an interview, she said:“Civil society is entitled to theirviews, but as far as we are concerned,there are so many donor fundedprojects that have done so well.”She mentions the Mobuku irrigationproject which she stressed is duefor commissioning, adding that theAgoro irrigation project and anotherin Tororo are all underway. This isin addition to whatshe described as thesuccess of the bananawilt project and theInfluenza project thatsaw constructions oflaboratories to diagonisediseases for bothhumans and animals.However, she did concurthat most delays in suchhuge projects emanatefrom laborious and bureaucraticprocedures that must be followed.She said: “It takes time to carefullyexamine what is contained in thisproject and that explains most of thedelays that are being talked about.”According to the study, agriculturesector attracts less than 10 percent of the donor assistance. In FY2011/2012 alone the sector attracted8 per cent of the donor assistancewhile external assistance flows toUganda have averaged about $760million annually over the years.The funds are normally channeled tothe development budget and anothersubstantial part of the externalsupport goes to the sector in form of“Technical Assistance and institutionaldevelopment” yet the agricultureMinistry continues to lack sufficientimplementation competence.Save forVegetable Oil DevelopmentProject (VODP), the report seemsProject Period: 2008 – 2010,implemented by MAAIF in collaborationwith the Food and AgricultureOrganization (FAO) and with fundingfrom the Government of Japan.This was a successor to a previousproject known as “Disseminationof NERICA and Improved Riceproduction Systems to ReducePoverty and Food Deficit in Uganda”implemented in Amolotar,Amuru,Apac, Dokolo, Gulu, Kitgum, Lira,Oyam and Pader during 2006 to2008 and was estimated to cost US$1,239,983.The project benefited 72farmer groups with a total of 2,150farmers, majority of whom werewomen.This project met its set objectivesof increasing rice production andincome within Northern Uganda.All the donor funds were absorbedby the end of the project. However,some of the inputs that wereprovided to the farmers were poorquality and inappropriate.A yearafter the end of the project, riceproduction had ceased for some ofthe groups that had been targetedindicating low sustainability of theintervention.Lessons for AgriculturalImproved Rice Production1) Planning and implementationmodalities:The approach of the donors takinglead in planning and implementationled to less involvement and followup by Government entities includingMinistry of Agriculture. Insufficientinputs were delivered and thesustenance of the project and itsimpacts was low. It is critical thatdonor funded projects use theapproach of Government taking thelead in planning and implementationto enhance supervision of theinterventions and long term impacts.AgriculturalImproved RiceProductionDonor support to agricultureneeds re-tweaking - CSBAGreport cont’dFowodenewsletter.indd 11 4/19/13 1:03 PM
  12. 12. FOWODE E-NEWS, P.O. BOX 7176, Kampala Uganda | Plot 15Vubya Close, Ntinda Nakawa Rd.Email: fowode@fowode.org www.fowode.org. Facebook: http://facebook.com/FowodeUganda12to further emphasize that all otherdonor funded project in agriculturehave largely been let down.And thisis because the donor takes lead inplanning and project design which leadsto low ownership of interventionsby the beneficiaries, explaining whythe impact of the projects in severalinstances is almost negligible.For that the reports recommends thatbudget allocation to the agriculturalsector should be stepped up to at least10 per cent of the national budgetaryresources while at the same timecalling for a review of donor funded toenhance reach, impact and sustainability.Rather than soliciting for small discreteprojects that have limited impact, thereport recommends that Governmentshould focus on encouraging donorfunded projects that are larger andimpactful with wide geographical reach.There should also be some level offlexibility and minimal conditionsimposed by donors for projects as thegovernment improves its procurementand accountability systems to win thedonors trust.The Government should takelead in the planning, designing andimplementation of donor fundedprojects to allow ownership.And while doing so it should bear inmind gender equity that should gobeyond just seeking involvement ofwomen and other marginalized groupsto confronting issues related to equalaccess of agricultural services. This isbecause women are the most ardentplayers in the sector, yet there areoften not funded or considered apriority.The District and Sub-countyofficials of the respective LocalGovernments that are to be involvedin implementation of a donor fundedproject should be involved earlyin the project design, planning andexecution of the project.In an interview with Mr. JuliusMukunda, Senior Program Director,Forum for Women in Democracy(FOWODE) and Coordinator forCSBAG, it became apparent that themajor challenge lies with the Ministryof Agriculture rather than the donors.He said:“Donor funding to agriculturehas been reducing because the parentministry is dysfunctional (it lacks aclear vision of what it wants to do),explaining why up to now they havefailed to show the results of theirwork.”He continued:“Government stillneeds donor funding for agriculturebecause donors have been supportingmost of the development budget foragriculture and with their reducedfunding it will affect agriculturalgrowth significantly.”He further argues that donorfunds should be directly invested inboosting production of agriculturalinputs, among them, fertilizers,and easily accessible hybrids, andimportantly perhaps, the funds shouldbe investing in agricultural research.2) Funds utilization anddisbursement modalities:Donor funds were budgeted for anddisbursed to beneficiaries from thedonor offices. Ministry of Agriculturewas not involved in guidingexpenditure and ensuring efficiencyand effectiveness of the project.Thedonor records indicated the bulkof funds were used for recurrentexpenses which is indicative of poorallocative efficiency. Future projectsshould allow for the Governmentagency to have a more active rolein budgeting and utilization of thefunds.3) Project design:Providing a small input package toa few farmers in every geographicallocality does not generate meaningfulimpacts in terms of enhancingagricultural production andhousehold incomes. Future projectsshould be designed to cover largerproject area, target a significantnumber of farmers and provideadequate inputs for economicviability and sustainable impactAgriculturalImproved RiceProduction cont’dFowodenewsletter.indd 12 4/19/13 1:03 PM
  13. 13. FOWODE E-NEWS, P.O. BOX 7176, Kampala Uganda | Plot 15Vubya Close, Ntinda Nakawa Rd.Email: fowode@fowode.org www.fowode.org. Facebook: http://facebook.com/FowodeUganda 13Creation of Tsetse &Trypanosomiasis FreeAreas (STATFA)._________________________Implementation period was indicated as April 2006 to2011, however project is still ongoing. Funded by the AfricanDevelopment Fund (ADF) and GoU.Farm IncomeEnhancement Project –Irrigation Component_________________________Implementation period was indicated as April 2006 toImplementation period was 2005-2010. However, a mid-term review in April 2009 recommended an extension toDecember 2012 to complete unfinished activities. Funded bythe African Development Fund (ADF) and GoU.The total loan amount is UA 6,550,000 and GrantAmount UA 240,000. Project is being implemented inMasaka, Rakai, Lyanyonde, Kalangala, Mpigi, Sembabule,Wakso, Kampala, Mukono, Kayunga, Kaliro, Jinja, Mayuge,Iganga, Bugiri,Tororo, Butaleja, and Pallisa.Only 15% of the total project funds had been disbursedover the four year period.About 85% of the fundsremained undisbursed, one year to the originallyscheduled project closure date and most objectives ofthe project had not been achieved. Hence the projectwas given an extension of additional five years tocomplete the pending activities and is still ongoing.Lessons and recommendations from the Creation ofTsetse & Trypanosomiasis Free Areas project:________________________________________1. Prior conditions and bureaucracies: theADB loans had stringent prior conditions and lengthybureaucratic procedures that affected the pace ofproject implementation. It is critical that the priorconditions in future donor funded projects are wellnegotiated at planning stage to ensure that theyare flexible and implementable by the Government.Delays in project implementation can be avoidedif the donors trust and use the Governmentprocurement systems rather than imposing theirown systems or allowing for parallel procurementchannels.2. Low counterpart funding: the unavailabilityof sufficient counterpart funding from GoU grosslyaffected the pace of project.The Governmentshould only accept projects for which it has assuredcounterpart funding; this should be disbursed in atimely manner in adequate amounts for triggeringproject implementation.3. Limited outreach and projectsustainability: this project distributedlimited traps to 3 parishes in Kalangala district.The beneficiaries had no skills and materials forreplacing the traps implying low reach sustainabilityof the project. Future projects should provideadequate equipment and inputs that cover a largergeographical area and also train the beneficiaries inreplacing worn out equipment to ensure reasonableproject impact and sustainability.The total project cost for the five-year period (2005-2010)is estimated at US51.15m funded by ADB/ADF and GoU.In 2009, the project was restructured to focus on fourirrigation schemes.The overall objective of the project is toinduce a commercially sustainable agriculture for improvedincome level for the community and help in povertyalleviation.Lessons and recommendations:1. Institutional and Implementation capacity: Ministry of Agriculture lacked sufficient capacity tosupervise construction and implementation of irrigationschemes.The abrupt change in project design withoutanalyzing the capacity of the ministry to implement4 large irrigation schemes was a major constraint.Ministry of Agriculture had only one resident Engineerat project start who could not supervise such a largeproject single handedly. Other Engineers were co-optedfrom other ministries but they were still inadequate.Future projects that are largely of a civil works naturerequire recruitment of adequate engineers and otherrequisite skills before project start to ensure smoothimplementation.2. Allocative efficiency: For the period when theproject was under Ministry of Agriculture, it exhibitedpoor allocative efficiency as over 80% of the fundswere being spent on operational expenses without anytangible output.Absorption was high but for less criticalexpenditures. For future projects, entities should onlybe allowed to spend after establishing that they haveadequate capacity to manage and spend funds efficientlyand effectively.Value for money should be promoted indonor funded projects3. Decentralised planning and execution: Therelevant district officials (District Engineer, DistrictWater Officer and District Community DevelopmentOfficer) were brought late in the implementationprocess and yet they were expected constantlysupervise the project.The Local Governments shouldbe brought on board at project inception stage tohelp in implementation and setting up management toensure project sustainability. Decentralized planning andexecution should be encouraged as the districts arethe final beneficiaries of the project; they should own itright from planning and execution phase.Fowodenewsletter.indd 13 4/19/13 1:03 PM
  14. 14. FOWODE E-NEWS, P.O. BOX 7176, Kampala Uganda | Plot 15Vubya Close, Ntinda Nakawa Rd.Email: fowode@fowode.org www.fowode.org. Facebook: http://facebook.com/FowodeUganda14NEWS BRIEFSForming University Governance and Leadership ClubsTo increase advocacy on the integration of the Women’s Agenda in Government plans and budgets, FOWODEformed Gender and Leadership Clubs in Makerere, Kyambogo, Nkumba, Nkozi and Uganda Christian Universi-tiesThe clubs which comprise of 125 female students are a platform for students to interrogate, dialogue and debatekey pertinent issues with duty bearers. Each club has its own leadership committee and they have specific ac-tion plans which will guide their advocacy on critical issues as outlined in the Uganda Women’s Agenda by 2016.Training Young Leaders in transformative and leadership buildingEnhancing Women councilors’ capacitiesIn March 2013, FOWODE trained 30 young women16 of whom were Karamajong and 1 PWD in Alterna-tive and Transformative leadership. This camp pro-vided special slots for Karamoja young girls who areoften times less likely to benefit from such trainings.Many signed up to join a cadre of young leaders un-der the Fowode Young Leaders’ Alumni Associationto continue engaging on leadership and governanceissues.As Akello below shares her personal opinions on thecamp, many girls perceived it as a very enlighteningtraining that challenged them to get to the forefront oftransforming their own communities.“ through the camp, I now know that development inmy community is dependent on me and thus I mustpromote women empowerment so as to contributeto the development of our region, Karamoja- AkelloCaroline, Abim districtThe young leaders developed action plans that willbe funded to support them put into action some of thenew knowledge and skill gained in this training. Anadditional 30 girls will be selected to benefit from thesame training this year.Lyantonde, Wakiso, Masindi and Busia were trainedto enhance their capacities in effective legislative en-gagement. The women formed sub county caucusesin each and developed action plans to strengthentheir voice for gender equality and women specificissue.The training which has benefited more than 1,000women councilors at both district and sub countylevel since their election in 2011, aims at makingwomen more effective in council and improves theirlobbying and advocacy for women specific issues.In the districts where women councilors have previ-ously been trained, FOWODE has started realizingchange and to attest to it even other leaders work-ing with women councilors are attesting to it. TheChief Administrative Officer, Wakiso in a recent in-terview acknowledged the increased levels of confi-dence and quality of issues articulated by the trainedwomen.“There is a difference in the way women councilorsraise issues… in their argument… in the way theyarticulate issues. They quote some laws somethingthe used not to do before. They lobby for consid-eration of gender specific issues during budget pro-cesses and they also follow up on implementation”,stated the CAO wakisoOne of the most significant change stories comesfrom Amuru district when Hon. Atim Josephine aDistrict Woman Councilor LC V representing AtiakSub-county requested the Speaker to suspend thepassing of the Amuru District budget for financialyear 2012/13 until the report of the District Public Ac-count Committees enquiry was released. This wouldhave been the second time that the District passedthe budget without declaring the District PAC report.The passing of the District budget was brought to ahalt by the speaker and a later date was proposed toallow the PAC report to be released.Fowodenewsletter.indd 14 4/19/13 1:03 PM
  15. 15. FOWODE E-NEWS, P.O. BOX 7176, Kampala Uganda | Plot 15Vubya Close, Ntinda Nakawa Rd.Email: fowode@fowode.org www.fowode.org. Facebook: http://facebook.com/FowodeUganda 15Forum for Women in Democracy (FOWODE)is a non-partisan national women’s organization.Vision:A just and fair society where women and men equallyparticipate in and benefit from decision-making processes.Mission:To promote gender equality in all areas ofdecision-making through capacity development,community empowerment, policy engagementand strategic partnershipsFowodenewsletter.indd 15 4/19/13 1:03 PM
  16. 16. VISIT THE FOWODE RESOURCE CENTERLatest PublicationsThe FOWODE resource center is a ONE STOPCENTER, where you can access over 1000 infor-mation materials relevant to the FOWODE The-matic areas of Gender, Governance, Democracy,and Human rights.You can also access internet,photocopying and printing services. Please visit theFOWODE website,www.fowode.org or the FOWODE resourcecenter at our offices in Ntinda.The Civil Society Budget Advocacy Group (CSBAG) chairedby FOWODE in 2012 commissioned a study using casestudies of four donor funded projects -theVegetable OilDevelopment Project,Agricultural Improved Rice, Produc-tion Creation of Tsetse and Trypanomiasis Free Areas, FarmIncome Enhancement Project – Irrigation Component.Thestudy provides an in-depth assessment of how agriculturalloans have been applied in Uganda to improve agriculturalperformance. It further analyzes the spending patterns andservice delivery within agriculture and brings out the salientissues for action.Forum for Women in Democracy in 2012 commissioned astudy in Gulu and Luwero districts to measure citizens’ satis-faction with Family Planning (FP) services using a Citizens’Report Card (CRC).This report card has provided valuablefeedback to improve Family Planning services and providesimportant information to guide policy makers and other keystakeholder to consider when addressing the key challenges:Fowodenewsletter.indd 16 4/19/13 1:03 PM

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