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Dr. Prapit Wongtiem. Rayong field crops research center

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FOODCROPS.VN. Dr. Prapit Wongtiem. Rayong field crops research center

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Dr. Prapit Wongtiem. Rayong field crops research center

  1. 1. Welcome to Rayong Field Crops Research Center
  2. 2. Dr. Prapit Wongtiem Breeding & Biotechnologist RYFCRC/FCRI/DOA Situation and Utilization of Cassava
  3. 3. Rayong Field Crops Research Center (RYFCRC) Rayong Field Crops Research Center (RYFCRC) Cassava Released Varieties In Thailand Cassava Released Varieties In Thailand Mission - Research and Development - Technology transfer - Services Mission - Research and Development - Technology transfer - Services Out line Utilization of cassavaUtilization of cassava Attractions in RayongAttractions in Rayong Situation of ThailandSituation of Thailand Situation of WorldSituation of World
  4. 4. Situation of World
  5. 5. Situation of cassava in the World The importance of cassava • Cassava is an important food crop in the world no. 5 • Cassava is an important food crop in tropical countries Specific countries; Africa and South America • In Asia, Indonesia and India are consuming a lot of cassava Food Animal feed Other benefits Production (percent) 60 27.5 12.5
  6. 6. Situation of cassava in the World Vietnam 3% Indonesia 6% Thailand 6% Congo 11%Angora 5% Other 30% Nigeria 19% Brazil 9% India 1% Mozambique 5% Ghana 5% Harvested area in each country (2011)
  7. 7. Situation of cassava in the World 1. Nigeria: 52.40 Million tons 2. Brazil: 25.44 Million tons 3. Indonesia : 24.01 Million tons 4. Thai: 21.91 Million tons 2011, Thailand is no.4 of the world: Production of cassava 21.91 million tons
  8. 8. Situation of cassava in the World Marketing of cassava in 2011 2011, Demand increased from a year ago due to  Producing countries in Asia have promotion policy about the cassava production for renewal energy  Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America have promotion policy use cassava starch instead cereal starch imports
  9. 9. Situation of cassava in the World Exports of cassava, 2011 Major exporting country is Thailand ; have 79.56% of all market Subordinate viz Vietnam and Indonesia have share of the market about 9.73% and 2.42% respectively
  10. 10. Situation of cassava in the World Cassava export country Quantity: tons
  11. 11. Situation of cassava Cassava export country Value (thousands of U.S. dollars) Thailand Vietnam Indonesia Brazil China Nigeria Other 1,800,000 1,600,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
  12. 12. Situation of Thailand
  13. 13. Situation of cassava in Thailand Thailand is a important producer of cassava in the world. Cassava of Thailand used to the export
  14. 14. Situation of cassava in Thailand Situation Marketing year 2013 Consumption and the demand for cassava. Year 2013 demand for domestic increase from a year ago because cassava can be used in a variety of industries including the production of ethanol. Expected to use cassava. As raw material in the production increase as well
  15. 15. Year 2013, exporting increase from a year ago, because cassava yield increased and the demands of the market in the form of cassava chips and cassava starch increased continuously The Exports Situation Marketing year 2013 Situation of cassava in Thailand
  16. 16. Situation Marketing year 2013 Factors affecting the export of cassava chips in Thailand Due to cassava chips exports of Thailand. Have been found to have a lot of dust So, Thailand should find solutions and prevention Situation of cassava in Thailand
  17. 17. Situation of cassava in Thailand Source: Office of Agricultural Economics In 2014, expected harvested area is decreased from a year ago, because the farmers turn to grown maize and sugarcane instead but the production increased from a year ago about 1.69% particular 2011 2012 2013 2014* Harvested area (million rai) Production (million tons) Yield (tons) 7.10 21.91 3.09 7.91 26.60 3.36 8.14 28.28 3.66 7.99 28.76 3.60 *estimat es
  18. 18. Year 2014. Expect exporting increase from a year ago about 8%, because, Chinese market has a high demand for cassava starch The Exports Situation Marketing year 2014 Situation of cassava in Thailand
  19. 19. Situation of cassava in Thailand Opportunities and Impacts of AEC towards Cassava in Thailand  The risks of competition in ASEAN market towards Thai cassava • Cassava yield per rai in Thailand is lower than Cambodia’s and Indonesia’s • Cost and profits of Thai cassava farmers • High fluctuation of the cassava root prices Source: TTTA  Opportunities of Thai cassava in ASEAN market • Areas and the production of cassava • The exports and the productions of cassava
  20. 20. Attractions in Rayong
  21. 21. Rayong is here
  22. 22. Attractions in Rayong Samet Islands Far from here about 40 km. and By boat for 40 minute
  23. 23. Attractions in Rayong Rayong Aquarium Far from here about 34 km. (near Ban-Phe Market)
  24. 24. Attractions in Rayong Mae-Pim Beach Far from here about 53.6 km.
  25. 25. Attractions in Rayong Ban Phe Market Far from here about 40 km.
  26. 26. Rayong Field Crops Research Center (RYFCRC)
  27. 27. Rayong Field Crops Research Center RYFCRC is here DOA and FCRI Rayong Field Crops Research Center (RYFCRC) • area 600 rai • In Rayong Province, eastern of Thailand • Research on cassava • Under control of Field Crops Research Institute, Department of Agriculture
  28. 28. Research and Development
  29. 29. Tissue Culture Germ plasm
  30. 30. Characterization Tissue Culture
  31. 31. Somatic embryogenesis Tissue Culture
  32. 32. Breeding & Agronomy F1 seeds F1 seedling Fertilization.
  33. 33. Breeding & Agronomy Evaluate F1 yield trait Selection F1 cassava: Good shape and high yield Seedling field
  34. 34. Soil conserve & improve green manure Soil erosion
  35. 35. Plant protection Pests and Diseases • Pests and diseases begin to cause severe problems espectialy • mealy bug (Phenacoccus manihoti ) • cassava bacterial blight (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis) They can cause total loss of young cassava plants.
  36. 36. Plant protection Diseases Cassava anthracnose disease (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. manihotis) Cassava bacterial blight (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis)
  37. 37. Brown leaf spot (Cercospora henningsii) Root rots (Phytophthora drechsleri, Pythium spp., Sclerotium sp.) Plant protection
  38. 38.  These diseases can be controlled in various ways • Planting resistant or tolerant varieties • Selecting healthy and diseases free planting materials • Removing and burning any infected plants if present Plant protection
  39. 39. Plant protection Insect pests of cassava in Thailand
  40. 40. Plant protection mouth part body part - size 100-400 micron - body part - body separate 2 part - 4 pair of legs - mouth part - sucking type mouth part Life cycle of spider mite Life cycle of spider miteegg Lavar Nymph 1 Nymph 2 Adult maleAdult female
  41. 41. Plant protection Life cycle of whitefly Life cycle of whitefly
  42. 42. Plant protection StripedStriped Mealy bugMealy bug Jack BeardsleyJack Beardsley Mealy bugMealy bug MadeiraMadeira PinkPink
  43. 43. Plant protection bunchy topbunchy topbunchy topbunchy top die backdie backdie backdie back stem is densestem is densestem is densestem is dense SymptSympt om ofom of damagdamag eses low Yieldlow Yieldlow Yieldlow Yield
  44. 44. Plant protection The common insect pests are - red mite (Oligonychus biharensis) - red spider mite (Tetranychus truncates, Ehara) - striped mealybug (Firrisia virgata, Cockerell) - whitefly (Dialeurodes spp.) - black scale (Saissetia miranda) Most of them infest plants during the dry season or during periods of prolonged drought and cause severe damage to the young plants of susceptible v arieties
  45. 45. Parasite Predators Anagyrus sp. Natural enemies
  46. 46. MaleMale AnagyrusAnagyrus lopezilopezi FemaleFemale Natural enemies
  47. 47. Postharvest
  48. 48. Technology transfer
  49. 49. Services - Soil analysis - Plant analysis - Distribution of predators for insects control
  50. 50. Cassava Released Varieties In Thailand 14 Released Varieties
  51. 51. Rayong 1 Year Released 1975 Avg. fresh roots yield from 161 trails 22 t/ha Avg. fresh roots yield (Farmers’ field) 13.6 t/ha Starch content 18-24 %
  52. 52. Rayong 2 Year Released 1984 Sweet type for human consumption Moderately high yield 19 t/ha Low starch content 14 %
  53. 53. Rayong 3 Year Released 1984 Avg. fresh roots yield from 120 trials 19.9 t/ha Avg. fresh roots yield (Farmers’ field) 11.8 t/ha Starch content 23-28 %
  54. 54. Rayong 60 Year Released 1987 Avg. fresh roots yield from 120 trials 26.5 t/ha Avg. fresh rots yield (Farmers’ field) 14.7 t/ha Starch content 18-25 %
  55. 55. Rayong 90 Year Released 1991 Avg. fresh roots yield from 161 trials 24.8 t/ha Avg. fresh roots yield (Farmers’ field) 14.7 t/ha Starch content 24-29 %
  56. 56. Rayong 5 Year Released 1994 Avg. fresh roots yield from 161 trails 25.6 t/ha Avg. fresh roots yield (Farmers’ field) 18.1 t/ha Starch content 22-27 %
  57. 57. Rayong 72 Year released 2000 Avg. fresh roots yield from 108 trails 31.6 t/ha Avg. fresh roots yield (Farmers’ field) 25.0 t/ha Starch content 20-25 %
  58. 58. Rayong 7 Year released 2005 Good for late rainy season Avg. fresh roots yield 39.0 t/ha Starch content 23-28 %
  59. 59. Rayong 9 Year released 2006 High ethanol yield 180 l/ton of fresh root Avg. fresh roots yield 30.6 t/ha Starch content 24-30 %
  60. 60. Rayong 11 Year released 2010 High starch content Avg. fresh roots yield 27.7 t/ha Starch content 26-32 %
  61. 61. Kasetsart 50 Year released 1992 High starch content Avg. fresh roots yield 26.6 t/ha Starch content 22-28 %
  62. 62. Hauy Bong 60 Year released 2003 High starch content Avg. fresh roots yield 30 t/ha Starch content 25-30 %
  63. 63. Hauy Bong 80 Year released 2010 High starch content Avg. fresh roots yield 31.25 t/ha Starch content 27.3%
  64. 64. Rayong 86-13 Year released 2013 High starch content Avg. fresh roots yield 45.13 t/ha Starch content 26.3 %
  65. 65. Hanatee Low starch content The variety for eat Should not harvest age 10 exceed month
  66. 66. Utilization of cassava
  67. 67. Industrial application of cassava product
  68. 68. • The direct consumption • Cassava chip industry • Cassava pellet industry • Cassava starch Utilization of Cassava
  69. 69. • Used as a direct human food • Used as fodder The direct consumption
  70. 70. • Fresh roots - Used as food in the household such as steamed, grilled or processed into flour and used to make various types of foods as well as leading to slice a thin sheet (Chip) and fry • Leaves Used as a direct human food
  71. 71. Human foods
  72. 72. • Fresh roots - Used as fodder both the fresh root, residue of the flour and the bark of roots • Leaves - Used in fresh leaves by drying and ground into a powder and then mixed with animal feed • Stems Used as fodder
  73. 73. Fodder
  74. 74. • By cutting the fresh roots into small pieces and then drying • Use as raw materials in animal food industry or cassava pellet industry • Ethanol industry Cassava chip Cassava chip and cassava pellet industry
  75. 75. Cassava chip and cassava pellet used as fodder
  76. 76. Ethanol products
  77. 77. Alcohol products
  78. 78. • Textile industry • Plywood industry • Paper industry • Industrial adhesives • Food and Drink • Materials decompose naturally • Sweeteners industry • Citric acid industry • MSG industry • Medicines Divided into: Cassava starch industry
  79. 79. • Used as a lubricant between the movement of the yarn looms outside the procedures of this fabric • Flour to help make printed regularly Textile industry
  80. 80. Textile industry
  81. 81. • The flour used as an ingredient in making plywood glued, it have property to make a thick, strong and durable • Starch mixed make glue is cheap Plywood industry
  82. 82. • The paper making requires a surface with the glue of flour to make smooth paper and also into the pores of the fiber paper to makes the paper does not absorb ink when writing with ink or printing • Moreover, the glue of flour to make sticky paper even more Paper industry
  83. 83. • Because the flour when heated or chemicals are sticky and stable, so used in industrial adhesives Industrial adhesives
  84. 84. Glue products from cassava
  85. 85. • Because, the cassava flour have a high carbohydrates, when use to make the foods it to help the thicker, stabilizer, binder and filler Food and Drink
  86. 86. • Plastic made from cassava flour​​ when filled with biodegradable natural polymer. It can be used to make materials to replace plastics Materials decompose naturally
  87. 87. • Cassava starch were used to make - glucose - fructose - lactose - salbital - and instead of sucrose in canned fruit, jams and more Sweeteners industry
  88. 88. Sweeteners products from cassava flour
  89. 89. • Cassava starch were produced to citric acid, which a raw material used in the beverage industry, including sparkling water, fruit juices, energy drink and used in the pharmaceutical industry Citric acid industry
  90. 90. • Cassava starch is an important raw material in the production of MSG. Which is commonly consumed Monosodium glutamate MSG industry
  91. 91. • Cassava starch were used as a diluent in drug capsules and tablets Medicines
  92. 92. Thank you all for listening and attention
  93. 93. wongtiem_prapit@yahoo.co m https://www.facebook.com/ Tissue Culture r more informatio

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