Mst326 9 Pl Rcd


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Mst326 9 Pl Rcd

  1. 1. Product Liability Safety Factors CE marking Recreational Craft Directive MATS231 lecture 7 MST326 lecture 9 20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  2. 2. Product Liability <ul><li>every manufacturer has a responsibility for damage and injuries that a product causes to people and property </li></ul><ul><li>this responsibility may be transferred to the importer </li></ul><ul><li>the liability may lead to payments for damages or other legal consequences </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  3. 3. Product Liability <ul><li>the product should be systematically and carefully scrutinised to determine what damage it may cause </li></ul><ul><li>documentation of product development in respect of safety is important </li></ul><ul><li>insurance companies will demand this documentation before covering the risk </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  4. 4. Product Liability <ul><li>before PLA: those affected had to prove that the damage had been caused by negligence on behalf of the manufacturer or distributor </li></ul><ul><li>now: the burden of proof is on the manufacturer to demonstrate product safety considerations were integrated into design and production </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  5. 5. Product Liability <ul><li>Three types of defects that incur liability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>design defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>exist before the product is manufactured </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manufacturing defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>occur during the construction or production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>defects in marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>improper instructions and failures to warn consumers of latent dangers in the product. </li></ul></ul></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  6. 6. Some URLs for Product Liability <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  7. 7. Safety factors <ul><li>BS British Standard Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>EN Europaische Norm </li></ul><ul><li>(European Standard) </li></ul><ul><li>ISO International Organization for Standardization </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  8. 8. Safety factors <ul><li>British Standard Specifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BS 1088:1966 (1988) untreated plywood for marine craft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BS EN 1095:1998 deck safety harnesses and safety lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BS 4079:1966 (1988) plywood for marine craft treated against attack by fungi or marine borers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BS 4532:1969 (1989) snorkels and face masks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BS 7209:1990 (1997) water vapour permeable apparel fabrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BS 7852:1997 code of practice for the design of canoes and kayaks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the above list only shows a few representative examples </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  9. 9. British Standard BS EN 12215:2002 <ul><li>Small craft – Hull construction and scantlings length up to 23 m </li></ul><ul><li>1 Materials: resins, reinforcement, laminate </li></ul><ul><li>2 Materials: sandwich cores </li></ul><ul><li>3 Materials: steel, aluminium, wood, other </li></ul><ul><li>4 Workshop/manufacturing conditions </li></ul><ul><li>5 Design pressures, stresses, scantlings </li></ul><ul><li>6 Structural arrangements and details </li></ul><ul><li>7 Scantling determination of multihulls </li></ul><ul><li>8 Rudders </li></ul><ul><li>9 Sailing boats: appendages and rig attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Parts 1-7 in Plymouth Campus Library </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  10. 10. Safety factors <ul><li>British Standard Specifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eg BS 4994:1987 Design and construction of vessels and tanks in reinforced plastics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be appropriate to lightweight air-tanks for diving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Section 9 defines allowable and design unit loadings </li></ul></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  11. 11. Safety factors <ul><li>BS 4994:1987 (FRP vessels and tanks) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>k 1 = factor relating to manufacture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>k 2 = factor relating to long term behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>k 3 = factor relating to temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>k 4 = factor relating to cyclic loading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>k 5 = factor relating to curing procedure </li></ul></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  12. 12. Safety factors <ul><li>BS 4994:1987 (FRP vessels and tanks) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The design factor = 3 x k 1 x k 2 x k 3 x k 4 x k 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The factor 3 is constant and allows for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>materials strength reduction due to long-term loading (even in air) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No vessel or tank shall have K < 8 </li></ul></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  13. 13. Safety factors <ul><li>BS 4994:1987 (FRP vessels and tanks) </li></ul><ul><li>k 1 (method of manufacture) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>k 1 = 1.5 for handwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>k 1 = 1.5 for machine controlled spray application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>k 1 = 3.0 for hand-held spray application </li></ul></ul><ul><li>for spray application, strands shall be >32 mm long </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  14. 14. Safety factors <ul><li>BS 4994:1987 (FRP vessels and tanks) </li></ul><ul><li>k 2 (chemical environment) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>k 2 = 1.2 with a thermoplastic liner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>k 2 = 1.2 to 2.0 without a thermoplastic liner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appendix E gives guidance on selection of k 2 </li></ul></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  15. 15. Safety factors <ul><li>BS 4994:1987 (FRP vessels and tanks) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>k 3 (temperature) from 1 to 1.25 (Fig.1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dependent on heat distortion temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>k 4 (cyclic loading) from Figure 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>k 5 (curing procedure) = 1.1 for post-cure to manufacturer spec n = 1.3 for operation up to 45ºC = 1.5 for operation over 45ºC </li></ul></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  16. 16. Safety factors <ul><li>BS 4994:1987 (FRP vessels and tanks) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>k 1 = 1.5 3.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>k 2 = 1.2 2.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>k 3 = 1.0 1.25 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>k 4 = 1.1 2.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>k 5 = 1.1 1.5 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>K = 6.534 67.5 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>defaults to 8 </li></ul></ul></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  17. 17. The CE mark <ul><li>The official marking required by the European Community for all Electric- and Electronic equipment that will be sold, or put into service for the first time, anywhere in the European community. </li></ul><ul><li>It proves to the buyer -or user- that this product fulfills all essential safety and environmental requirements as they are defined in the so-called European Directives. The CE markings directive (93/68/EEC) was adopted in 1993. It amends 12 other directives. </li></ul><ul><li>The CE-directive gives a detailed description of the initials CE and any other marks specific to a particular directive and the ways conformity may be acquired. </li></ul><ul><li>The CE-mark must be put on the equipment, it's size must be 5 mm (0.2&quot;) or larger. </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  18. 18. The CE mark <ul><li>In return for fulfilling the CE marking requirements, the manufacturer or its agent gets the opportunity to cover the entire European market using only one approval procedure for the topics covered in the miscellaneous directives. </li></ul><ul><li>The member states of the EC cannot refuse any electronic or electrical product that has been CE marked (unless fraud suspected). </li></ul><ul><li>For some products however, national regulations may exist, as long as the topics covered in these national regulations are not covered by a pan-European Directive. An example is Ergonomics in Germany for PC-related equipment. </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  19. 19. The CE mark <ul><li>The manufacturer needs however: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>be European, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or have an official department in the European Community, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or have an official agent or representative that is willing to take the liability for the CE-marking. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The CE mark is sufficient to allow exporting to all EC members </li></ul><ul><li>There are some restrictions left over for language variations in user documentation, notably safety instructions should be in the language of the country you are exporting to. </li></ul><ul><li>The attachment of the CE mark to your product MUST be founded on a Compliance statement of the manufacturer or importer. </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  20. 20. The CE mark <ul><li>90/385/EEC Active Implantable Medical Devices Directive </li></ul><ul><li>94/9/EC ATEX Directive (Electrical equipment for use in explosive atmospheres) </li></ul><ul><li>2000/9/EC Cableway Installations for Passengers Directive </li></ul><ul><li>93/68/EEC The CE Marking Directive </li></ul><ul><li>93/15/EEC Civil Uses of Explosives Directive </li></ul><ul><li>89/106/EEC Construction Products Directive </li></ul><ul><li>89/336/EEC Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive </li></ul><ul><li>96/57/EC Energy Efficiency Requirements: Household Refrigerators and Freezers </li></ul><ul><li>92/75/EEC Energy Labelling Directive </li></ul><ul><li>90/396/EEC Gas Appliances Directive </li></ul><ul><li>92/42/EEC Hot Water Boilers Energy Efficiency Directive </li></ul><ul><li>98/79/EC In-vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices </li></ul><ul><li>95/16/EC Lift Safety Directive </li></ul><ul><li>73/23/EEC Low Voltage Directive </li></ul><ul><li>Hot-links from </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  21. 21. The CE mark <ul><li>98/37/EC Machinery Safety Directive </li></ul><ul><li>93/42/EEC Medical Devices Directive </li></ul><ul><li>2000/14/EC Noise Emission of Outdoor Equipment Directive </li></ul><ul><li>90/384/EEC Non-automatic Weighing Equipment Directive </li></ul><ul><li>89/686/EEC Personal Protective Equipment Directive </li></ul><ul><li>97/23/EC Pressure Equipment Directive </li></ul><ul><li>1999/5/EC Radio and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive </li></ul><ul><li>94/25/EC Recreational Craft Directive </li></ul><ul><li>98/13/EC Satellite Earth Station Equipment Directive </li></ul><ul><li>87/404/EEC Simple Pressure Vessels Directive </li></ul><ul><li>98/13/EC Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive </li></ul><ul><li>88/378/EEC Toy Safety Directive </li></ul><ul><li>Hot-links from </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  22. 22. Some URLs for CE <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  23. 23. Recreational Craft Directive <ul><li>Image from </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  24. 24. Recreational Craft Directive <ul><li>The Recreational Craft Directive (94/25/EEC) Design and construction of boats from 2.5m to 24m hull length plus specified components. </li></ul><ul><li>Published in Official Journal L164 (30 June 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>In force 16 June 1996 (transition ends 15 June 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Implemented in the UK by the Recreational Craft Regulations 1996 (SI 1996:1353) </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  25. 25. Recreational Craft Directive <ul><li>The Directive does not apply to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>craft intended solely for racing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>canoes, kayaks, gondolas and pedalos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>surfboards and sailboards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>historical replicas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>submersibles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hovercraft and hydrofoils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>craft intended to be crewed and to carry passengers for commercial purposes (these are covered by another directive). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>craft built for use by the builder are also excluded provided they are not subsequently placed on the market for at least five years. </li></ul></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  26. 26. Recreational Craft Directive <ul><li>Particular items of equipment are also covered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ignition-protected equipment for inboard and stern drive engines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>start-in-gear protection devices for outboard engines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>steering wheels, steering mechanisms and cable assemblies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fuel tanks and fuel hoses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prefabricated hatches and portlights. </li></ul></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  27. 27. Recreational Craft Directive <ul><li>Administration requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the product be marked with the CE logo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the manufacturer compile a file of technical information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the case of complete craft or hulls, this file is to include test reports or calculations demonstrating that the craft has adequate stability in the anticipated sea conditions. The manufacturer also has to complete a Declaration of Conformity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>the Directive also lays down requirements for type testing by a notified body and/or quality control procedures </li></ul><ul><li>no special provision for used craft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as such it is impossible for second hand craft to comply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used craft cannot be CE marked and therefore cannot be legally imported into the EEA </li></ul></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  28. 28. RCD file of technical info. <ul><li>file of technical information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the case of complete craft or hulls, this file is to include test reports or calculations demonstrating that the craft has adequate stability in the anticipated sea conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the manufacturer also has to complete a Declaration of Conformity. </li></ul></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  29. 29. Directive 2003/44/EC amending Directive 94/25/EC <ul><li>extend RCD scope to personal watercraft such as jet skis. </li></ul><ul><li>limit values for exhaust (CO, hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxides and various pollutants) & sound emissions of petrol/diesel engines </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  30. 30. URLs for Recreational Craft Directive <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  31. 31. Classification society (UK) <ul><li>Lloyds Register of Shipping </li></ul><ul><li>Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Special Service Craft, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>for classification of monohull and multihull craft, yachts, high speed and light displacement craft constructed from steel, aluminium alloys and composites. </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  32. 32. Classification societies o/seas <ul><li>American Bureau of Shipping (USA) </li></ul><ul><li>Bureau Veritas (France) </li></ul><ul><li>Det Norske Veritas (Norway) </li></ul><ul><li>Registro Italiano Navale Group (RINA) </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt
  33. 33. URLs for classification societies <ul><li>Lloyds </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>ABS </li></ul><ul><li>BV </li></ul><ul><li>DNV </li></ul><ul><li>RINA </li></ul>20 February 2007 PLA-RCD.ppt