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How To Organize The Body Of An Essay


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How To Organize The Body Of An Essay

  1. 1. Just the plain facts! PRESENTATION SERIES How to organize the body of an essay © Nicholas G. Ashby 2004 Bethune Writing Centre
  2. 2. <ul><li>How to organize the body of an essay </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>So you have done the reading and research, </li></ul><ul><li>and you are now ready to start writing your </li></ul><ul><li>paper. But there are so many ideas and facts </li></ul><ul><li>you want to include that you are not sure how </li></ul><ul><li>to organize them in the body of the essay!! </li></ul><ul><li>Sound familiar?! If so, read on… </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a diagram of the structure of your </li></ul><ul><li>essay before writing can be useful. Diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>typically consist of key ideas, key </li></ul><ul><li>arguments, or key stages, arranged in the </li></ul><ul><li>order you want them to be discussed in the </li></ul><ul><li>essay. When you organize your key </li></ul><ul><li>components, the minor facts will fall into place. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Example of a simple diagram </li></ul>Environment Human health Long half-life Malaria control Saves millions of lives each year Similarities Differences Strengths Weaknesses Argument for a ban on DDT Argument against a ban on DDT Compare and contrast Evaluate arguments
  5. 5. <ul><li>Diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>The beauty of diagrams is that they allow you </li></ul><ul><li>to work out the organization of an essay </li></ul><ul><li>without the need to write a draft. </li></ul>But a drawback of diagrams is that they are of limited use if your problem is that of working out what the key components of the essay should be!
  6. 6. <ul><li>Key ideas, arguments and stages </li></ul><ul><li>If your problem is that of working out what the </li></ul><ul><li>key components of your essay should be, here </li></ul><ul><li>are some tips: </li></ul><ul><li>key ideas, key arguments, and key stages are ideas, arguments or stages that play a major role in the topic or issue you are writing about; minor ideas or minor stages support or describe key ideas or key stages </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Key ideas, arguments and stages – tips </li></ul><ul><li>A useful starting-point in working out the key components of your essay is to decide whether the topic you are writing about mostly involves key ideas, key arguments, or key stages in a process </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Key ideas, arguments and stages - tips </li></ul><ul><li>pay attention to headings and sub-headings in the material you will base your essay on; headings and sub-headings can provide clues about what the key ideas, arguments or stages are </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Key ideas, arguments and stages – tips </li></ul><ul><li>reflect on the themes and messages of the course – these can sometimes help you select key components for your essay; if your research material can be interpreted in different ways, choose the interpretation that best connects with issues emphasized in the course. The way you interpret your research material will influence your choice of key ideas </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Organizational patterns </li></ul><ul><li>If your problem is that of deciding how to </li></ul><ul><li>arrange key components in your essay, then it </li></ul><ul><li>is useful to think about which of the following </li></ul><ul><li>three organizational patterns is appropriate: </li></ul><ul><li>spatial </li></ul><ul><li>chronological </li></ul><ul><li>logical </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Spatial patterns </li></ul><ul><li>If your essay involves description or analysis of </li></ul><ul><li>an object or stretch of land, you can impose a </li></ul><ul><li>spatial pattern on your key ideas. Spatial </li></ul><ul><li>patterns are particularly useful for essays that </li></ul><ul><li>involve: </li></ul><ul><li>describing/evaluating visual art </li></ul><ul><li>describing/evaluating geographical features </li></ul><ul><li>environmental studies/analyses </li></ul><ul><li>describing/evaluating architecture. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Spatial patterns </li></ul><ul><li>For geographical descriptions and </li></ul><ul><li>environmental studies, you can impose a </li></ul><ul><li>North-South-East-West pattern on the land you </li></ul><ul><li>are writing about. Point out that you will begin </li></ul><ul><li>by discussing a particular area, the North, say, </li></ul><ul><li>followed by another area, the South, say, and </li></ul><ul><li>so on. In this way, your key ideas fall into </li></ul><ul><li>easily arranged groups (northern, southern, </li></ul><ul><li>eastern and western). </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Spatial patterns </li></ul><ul><li>For description and evaluation of visual art or </li></ul><ul><li>architecture, you can impose a top-to-bottom, </li></ul><ul><li>bottom-to-top, or side-to-side pattern on the </li></ul><ul><li>object or feature you’re writing about. Point out </li></ul><ul><li>that you will discuss a particular aspect, the </li></ul><ul><li>top, say, followed by another aspect, the </li></ul><ul><li>middle, say, and so on. In this way, your key </li></ul><ul><li>ideas fall into easily arranged groups (top, </li></ul><ul><li>middle, bottom, or left, right). </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Spatial patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Some geographical/environmental features </li></ul><ul><li>come with their own spatial patterns. If your </li></ul><ul><li>essay is about a river, you can order key ideas </li></ul><ul><li>according to upstream-downstream and </li></ul><ul><li>river-riverbank patterns. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Spatial patterns </li></ul><ul><li>If your essay is about a mountain, you can </li></ul><ul><li>order key ideas according to a </li></ul><ul><li>summit-middle-base pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are writing about a </li></ul><ul><li>forest, you can order key </li></ul><ul><li>ideas according to an upper-middle-lower- </li></ul><ul><li>canopy-forest-floor pattern! </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Spatial patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Visual art and architecture also often come with </li></ul><ul><li>their own spatial patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are writing about a </li></ul><ul><li>famous statue, you can </li></ul><ul><li>order key ideas according </li></ul><ul><li>to a head-torso-legs pattern. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Spatial patterns </li></ul>EASY! If you are writing about the architecture of a church, you can order key ideas according to a steeple-roof-walls pattern.
  18. 18. <ul><li>Chronological patterns </li></ul><ul><li>If your essay involves describing or analyzing </li></ul><ul><li>events or stages, you can impose a </li></ul><ul><li>chronological pattern on your key ideas or </li></ul><ul><li>arguments. Chronological patterns are </li></ul><ul><li>particularly useful for essays involving: </li></ul><ul><li>description/analysis of historical events </li></ul><ul><li>description/analysis of geological processes </li></ul><ul><li>description/analysis of chemical processes </li></ul><ul><li>description/analysis of biological processes. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Chronological patterns </li></ul><ul><li>For description and evaluation of historical </li></ul><ul><li>events, impose an earlier-later pattern on the </li></ul><ul><li>stages that lead up to or constitute the event. </li></ul><ul><li>Your key ideas then fall into easily ordered </li></ul><ul><li>earlier-later groups. Point out in your essay </li></ul><ul><li>that you will discuss the most important stages </li></ul><ul><li>leading up to or constituting the event. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Chronological patterns </li></ul><ul><li>For description and analysis of a geological, </li></ul><ul><li>chemical, or biological process, impose an </li></ul><ul><li>earlier-later pattern on the stages that </li></ul><ul><li>constitute the process. Your key ideas then fall </li></ul><ul><li>into easily ordered earlier-later groups. Indicate </li></ul><ul><li>the order of the stages discussed. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Logical patterns </li></ul><ul><li>If your essay involves explaining or analyzing a </li></ul><ul><li>concept, you can impose a logical pattern on </li></ul><ul><li>your key ideas and arguments. Logical patterns </li></ul><ul><li>are particularly useful for essays primarily </li></ul><ul><li>involving: </li></ul><ul><li>explanation of an idea </li></ul><ul><li>description and critique of an argument </li></ul><ul><li>explanation and critique of a social, literary, or philosophical topic </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Logical patterns </li></ul><ul><li>The explanation of an idea involves translating </li></ul><ul><li>it into other ideas that elucidate its meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Suppose that you had to write an essay on the </li></ul><ul><li>topic of global warming. The following slide </li></ul><ul><li>shows this idea translated into ideas that go to </li></ul><ul><li>make up the idea of global warming. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Logical patterns </li></ul>Global warming Greenhouse effect Increased carbon dioxide in atmosphere Kyoto protocol Alternatives to fossil fuel Caused by human activity? Caused naturally? Drought Flooding Spread of insect-carried diseases Climate change Rising sea-level
  24. 24. <ul><li>Logical patterns </li></ul><ul><li>A logical pattern has not yet been imposed on </li></ul><ul><li>the ideas that make up the idea of global </li></ul><ul><li>warming. First, ideas that are particularly </li></ul><ul><li>relevant to each other must be grouped </li></ul><ul><li>together. This has been done on the next slide. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Logical patterns </li></ul>Greenhouse effect. Increased carbon dioxide in atmosphere. Climate change. Rising sea-levels. Flooding. Drought. Spread of insect-carried diseases. Caused naturally? Caused by human activity? Kyoto protocol. Alternatives to fossil fuel.
  26. 26. <ul><li>Logical patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Next, the ideas within each group must be put </li></ul><ul><li>into a sequence that makes sense. It makes </li></ul><ul><li>better sense to discuss drought and flooding </li></ul><ul><li>after introducing climate change. It makes </li></ul><ul><li>better sense to discuss flooding after </li></ul><ul><li>discussing rising sea-levels. And it makes </li></ul><ul><li>better sense to discuss the spread of </li></ul><ul><li>insect-carried diseases after discussing climate </li></ul><ul><li>change. You will notice that the ideas in each </li></ul><ul><li>group have already been sequenced! </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Logical patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, the groups of sequenced ideas must </li></ul><ul><li>themselves be sequenced in a way that makes </li></ul><ul><li>the most sense. This has been done on the </li></ul><ul><li>next two slides. </li></ul>Easy!
  28. 28. <ul><li>Logical patterns </li></ul><ul><li>It makes little sense to discuss climate change without first setting it within the context of the greenhouse effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Unless the possible effects are explained first, the </li></ul><ul><li>reader cannot know the importance of whether the greenhouse effect is caused by human activity. </li></ul><ul><li>If the possible causes of the greenhouse effect are </li></ul><ul><li>not explained first, how can the reader know why </li></ul><ul><li>alternatives to fossil fuels are important? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Greenhouse effect. Increased carbon dioxide in atmosphere. Climate change. Rising sea-levels. Flooding. Drought. Spread of insect-carried diseases. Caused naturally? Caused by human activity? Kyoto protocol. Alternatives to fossil fuel.
  30. 30. <ul><li>Logical patterns </li></ul><ul><li>The description and critique of an argument </li></ul><ul><li>involves explaining and evaluating ideas, and </li></ul><ul><li>explaining and evaluating the inferential </li></ul><ul><li>connections between them. Argument structure </li></ul><ul><li>provides a logical pattern you can follow during </li></ul><ul><li>your description and critique of an argument. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Logical patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Basic argument structures: </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Serial Linked </li></ul><ul><li>Reason Reason Reason + Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion Reason Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Logical patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Basic argument structures: </li></ul><ul><li>Convergent Divergent </li></ul><ul><li>Reason Reason Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion Conclusion Conclusion </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Logical patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Many argument structures are combinations of </li></ul><ul><li>basic patterns: </li></ul><ul><li>Reason + Reason + Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Reason Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Logical patterns </li></ul><ul><li>An argument consists of a conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>and of reasons (evidence) that are supposed </li></ul><ul><li>to support the conclusion. Your key ideas will </li></ul><ul><li>be your descriptions and evaluation of these </li></ul><ul><li>reasons, together with your evaluation of their </li></ul><ul><li>inferential connections with each other and </li></ul><ul><li>with the conclusion. Hence, the organization of </li></ul><ul><li>your essay can mirror the structure of the </li></ul><ul><li>argument you are writing about. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Logical patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation and critique of a social, literary or </li></ul><ul><li>philosophical topic will combine explanation of </li></ul><ul><li>ideas and evaluation of arguments. Hence, the </li></ul><ul><li>body of the essay is organized by sequencing </li></ul><ul><li>key ideas according to relevance and clarity (as </li></ul><ul><li>we did with global warming), and by mirroring </li></ul><ul><li>the structure of arguments at places where </li></ul><ul><li>you discuss concepts, reasons, conclusions, </li></ul><ul><li>and their inferential connections. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Combined organizational patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Often, the body of an essay is best organized </li></ul><ul><li>by using a combination of organizational </li></ul><ul><li>patterns. If you are required to write a critical </li></ul><ul><li>essay on the effects of urban development </li></ul><ul><li>close to the Oak Ridges Moraine, you may use </li></ul><ul><li>a combination of spatial patterns (to describe </li></ul><ul><li>key features of the area), chronological </li></ul><ul><li>patterns (to describe chemical and biological </li></ul><ul><li>processes), and logical patterns (to explain key </li></ul><ul><li>ideas and evaluate arguments). </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Impact! </li></ul><ul><li>Organize your groups of key ideas to create the </li></ul><ul><li>greatest impact on the reader. Suppose you have to </li></ul><ul><li>write an essay on urban development near the </li></ul><ul><li>Oak Ridges Moraine, and that you have </li></ul><ul><li>discovered three negative chemical/biological </li></ul><ul><li>effects, one minor, the other not so minor, and </li></ul><ul><li>the last one devastating! You have organized your key </li></ul><ul><li>ideas concerning each of these effects according to a </li></ul><ul><li>chronological pattern. But you still have a choice </li></ul><ul><li>about which effect to discuss first, second, and so on. </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Impact! </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>SEQUENCED </li></ul><ul><li>FOR </li></ul><ul><li>IMPACT </li></ul>MINOR EFFECT Key ideas organized chronologically LESS MINOR EFFECT Key ideas organized chronologically DEVASTATING EFFECT Key ideas organized chronologically
  39. 39. <ul><li>Impact! </li></ul><ul><li>If you began by discussing the devastating </li></ul><ul><li>effect and finished with a discussion of the </li></ul><ul><li>minor effect, the body of your essay would end </li></ul><ul><li>on an anticlimax. This must be avoided. Always </li></ul><ul><li>sequence components so that they give the </li></ul><ul><li>impression of a build up to a climax. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Impact! </li></ul><ul><li>Key ideas and arguments can be sequenced </li></ul><ul><li>for impact using these scales: </li></ul><ul><li>Least important Most important </li></ul><ul><li>Less recent More recent </li></ul><ul><li>Least persuasive Most persuasive </li></ul><ul><li>Simplest Most complex </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Impact! </li></ul><ul><li>It is not always easy to see how components </li></ul><ul><li>can be arranged to have an impact. If no key </li></ul><ul><li>idea or argument seems to be more </li></ul><ul><li>important, recent, persuasive, or simpler than </li></ul><ul><li>any other, then… </li></ul><ul><li>pretend otherwise, for the </li></ul><ul><li>sake of rhetorical effect!! </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Frequently asked questions </li></ul><ul><li>1. It seems like a jumble of unrelated </li></ul><ul><li>facts – help! </li></ul><ul><li>You may be trying to sequence facts before </li></ul><ul><li>having sorted them into groups. Think about </li></ul><ul><li>what the main ideas are first. Next, try to </li></ul><ul><li>group the minor facts according to the main </li></ul><ul><li>ideas they belong to. Now you can think about </li></ul><ul><li>sequencing the minor facts within each group. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, you can sequence the main ideas </li></ul><ul><li>themselves. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Frequently asked questions </li></ul><ul><li>2. All the facts seem like main ideas to </li></ul><ul><li>me – help! </li></ul><ul><li>You may need to impose an organizational pattern </li></ul><ul><li>(see earlier slides) on the topic you are writing about, </li></ul><ul><li>in order to create groups of related facts. Once you </li></ul><ul><li>have worked out groups of related facts, you should </li></ul><ul><li>find it easier to identify main ideas. You should also </li></ul><ul><li>note any headings, sub-headings, pictures or </li></ul><ul><li>diagrams in your reading material, as these may give </li></ul><ul><li>clues about main ideas that you can use to group the </li></ul><ul><li>minor facts. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Frequently asked questions </li></ul><ul><li>3. I’ve worked out the main ideas, but I </li></ul><ul><li>am not sure how to organize them </li></ul><ul><li>Well done for accomplishing the hard part! </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing your main ideas is not difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Simply organize them according to spatial, </li></ul><ul><li>chronological, or logical patterns (see earlier </li></ul><ul><li>slides), or use combinations of these patterns. </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Frequently asked questions </li></ul><ul><li>4. I have to write about an argument – </li></ul><ul><li>where do I start?! </li></ul><ul><li>Any argument has a structure (see earlier </li></ul><ul><li>slides) that you can exploit in order to </li></ul><ul><li>organize your key ideas. Begin by discussing </li></ul><ul><li>the conclusion, and work your way up through </li></ul><ul><li>the reasons. Or start with the reasons and </li></ul><ul><li>work your way down to the conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple! For more on arguments, see the BWC </li></ul><ul><li>presentation on how to argue for a thesis. </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Frequently asked questions </li></ul><ul><li>5. Should I compare and contrast two </li></ul><ul><li>things in the same paragraph or in </li></ul><ul><li>different paragraphs? </li></ul><ul><li>There is really no advantage to doing it one </li></ul><ul><li>way or the other. But if the two things being </li></ul><ul><li>compared are easy to deal with, it makes </li></ul><ul><li>sense to compare and contrast them in the </li></ul><ul><li>same paragraph. If the two things being </li></ul><ul><li>compared are complex, then it might be </li></ul><ul><li>easier to give them separate paragraphs. </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Other sources and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Make an appointment for the Bethune Writing Centre </li></ul><ul><li>(go to Master’s office at 205 Bethune to book a slot </li></ul><ul><li>or call 416 736 2100 ext. 22035) </li></ul><ul><li>Visit York Centre for Academic Writing online resources at: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The following books may be useful: </li></ul><ul><li>Stewart, K. L., Kowler, M. E., & Bullock, C. (1985). Essay </li></ul><ul><li>Writing For Canadian Students (2 nd ed.). Scarborough, Ont.: </li></ul><ul><li>Prentice-Hall. Call number: LB 2369 S74 </li></ul><ul><li>Troyka, Lynn Quitman (2002). Simon & Schuster handbook </li></ul><ul><li>for writers (3 rd ed.). Scarborough, Ont.: Prentice-Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Call number: PE 1408 T697 </li></ul>