Energy Present Qamar Zaman


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Fashion, apparel, textile, merchandising, garments

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Energy Present Qamar Zaman

  1. 1. Energy Conservation Potential in Textile Sector-Pakistan By Shafqat Ullah Programme Manager Programme for Industrial Sustainable Development (PISD) CPI & Royal Netherlands Embassy Initiative CPI Cleaner Production Institute
  2. 2. Key Areas of Concern <ul><li>Lack in knowledge (energy wastages and energy saving potential) </li></ul><ul><li>Untrained and uneducated human resources </li></ul><ul><li>Old, inefficient, discarded machines </li></ul><ul><li>Lack in monitoring aptitude </li></ul><ul><li>Inefficient in resource consumption (water, chemicals, energy) </li></ul><ul><li>Improper maintenance and upkeep </li></ul>
  3. 3. Resource Consumption Practices Resource Consumption (per Kg of Fabric Processed) Optimum Consumption Saving Potential % Water 100-400 liter 70-100 30-75 Electricity 0.5-2.0 kWh 0.5-1.0 Up to 50% Natural Gas 0.5-2.0 m 3 0.5-1.0 Up to 50% Steam 5-15 kg 5-8 Up to 47
  4. 4. Monitoring and Measurement <ul><li>Water consumption (Water flow meters) </li></ul><ul><li>Steam consumption (steam flow meters) </li></ul><ul><li>Gas consumption (already in practice) </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity consumption (already in practice) </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring of process control parameters (Temperature, pH, concent. etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Rs. 1.3/m 3 -C o (Rs. 7.0 million/year) </li></ul><ul><li>Process benchmarking </li></ul>
  5. 5. Monitoring and Measurement <ul><li>Water Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Product Quality Deterioration </li></ul><ul><li>More washes </li></ul><ul><li>More energy </li></ul><ul><li>More chemical consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Scale in the machine </li></ul><ul><li>More blow downs </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse Osmosis, Softeners, Filters </li></ul>
  6. 6. Electricity Vs Production Gas Vs Electricity Generation Graphical Presentation
  7. 7. Maintenance & Upkeep <ul><li>Placement/upkeep of steam traps (Savings-Rs. 40,000-50,000/year-trap) </li></ul><ul><li>Payback 3 months </li></ul><ul><li>Steam leakage control (Savings-Rs. 100,000/year-leak control) </li></ul><ul><li> Payback 2 months </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation of hot pipelines and surfaces (Savings-Rs. 4,000-5,000/year-m) </li></ul><ul><li> Payback 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of machines (optimum resource consumption, noise control) </li></ul><ul><li>Steam and air distribution system (pressure drops due to bends, long pipe lengths, slope of the lines, condensate removal, temperature and pressure gauges) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Process/Machines Modification <ul><li>Countercurrent washing sequence (bleaching, mercerization, dyeing etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>(Savings-Rs. 800,000-1,000,000/year-machine) </li></ul><ul><li>Payback 1 months </li></ul>
  9. 9. Process/Machines Modification <ul><li>Spring operated or automatic water shut off valves on water hoses or at machines inlets </li></ul><ul><li>Oversized steam boilers (1 ft 2 heating surface area = 3 kg steam/hr) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Recovery & Reuse <ul><li>Recovery of heat from hot wastewater (Heat exchanger) </li></ul><ul><li>(Savings-Rs. 900,000-1,000,000/year) </li></ul><ul><li> payback 6 months </li></ul><ul><li> Recovery of heat from exhaust gases of steam and therm oil boilers, generators-Boiler exhaust gases (Economizer) </li></ul><ul><li>(Savings-Rs. 1,800,000-2,000,000/year) </li></ul><ul><li> Payback 6 months </li></ul>
  11. 11. Recovery & Reuse <ul><li>Reuse of steam condensate as boiler feed water </li></ul><ul><li>(Savings-Rs. 500,000-600,000/year) </li></ul><ul><li>Payback 8 months </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse of cooling water (compressor, pumps, therm oil boilers, chillers, jets) </li></ul><ul><li>(Savings-Rs. 50,000-100,000/year) </li></ul><ul><li> Payback 6 to 12 months </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse of RO rejected water for washing of floors and containers </li></ul><ul><li>Resource conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse of inter process washes (Desizing, scouring, bleaching, mercerization) </li></ul><ul><li> Resource conservation (Energy and water) </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse of waste streams (mercerization waste stream for scouring bath) </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution reduction/resource conservation (Rs. 1,000,000/year) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Compressed Air System <ul><li>5% of electrical energy is converted into compressed air energy </li></ul><ul><li>Screw type compressors are more energy efficient than piston type </li></ul><ul><li>Air quality (Moisture and Temperature) </li></ul><ul><li> Cooler air intake (2.7 o C drop in intake air temp, reduces 1% energy) </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution system (Pressure Drop), air leakages </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning points (Large diameter pipelines, air guns) – Instead of 8.5 mm dia, use 6 mm dia hose </li></ul>
  13. 13. Electrical Consumption Estimated Load Distribution Department Designed Load (kW) % Share Blow Room 275 5.7 Carding 385 8.0 Comber 70 1.5 Lap Former 25 0.5 Drawing 110 2.3 Simplex 115 2.5 Ring Frames 2050 42.8 Auto Cone & Comp. 375 7.8 Doubling 195 4.0 Air Conditioning 955 20.0 Power House 175 3.7 Lighting 55 1.2 Total 4,785 100
  14. 14. Process/Machines Modification Effective Utilization of Peak and Off Peak Hours Electricity Schedule WAPDA TOD Schedule Season Peak (Avg. Rs.4.61/kWh Off Peak (Avg. Rs. 3.62/kWh) Dec to Feb 5:00 pm to 9:00 pm Remaining 20 hours March to May 6:00 pm to 10:00 pm Remaining 20 hours June to August 7:00 pm to 11:00 pm Remaining 20 hours Sep to Nov 6:00 pm to 10:00 pm Remaining 20 hours
  15. 15. Process/Machines Modification Effective Utilization of Peak and Off Peak Hours Electricity Schedule Cleaning and Overhauling of Machines at Peak Hours Electricity consumption (kWh/month) 189,037 Peak hours charges (Rs/month) 871,460 Off peak hours charges (Rs/month) 684,314 Saving per month 187,146
  16. 16. Process/Machines Modification <ul><li>When main units are stopped, auxiliary units like filters and air conditioning units should also be stopped </li></ul><ul><li> One set of machines are stopped but auxiliary units designed for full capacity remain in operation </li></ul><ul><li> Machines run at partial loads </li></ul><ul><li>Machines must produce for the 75% of the total time </li></ul>
  17. 17. Process/Machines Modification Oversized Motors/Efficient Motors <ul><li>Efficiency of oversized motors is not good – It needs frequent monitoring of load (volt, ampere, power factor) </li></ul><ul><li> Oversized motors should be replaced with appropriate sized motors (Improved efficiency-Energy saving) </li></ul><ul><li> Use of efficiency Class 1, Class 2 and Class 3 motors </li></ul>
  18. 18. Process/Machines Modification (Air Conditioning) <ul><li>Air requirement is not known (velocity by anemometer , duct area) </li></ul><ul><li>Fan power α (Air Flow 3 ) i.e. By reducing air flow half, reduces fan power one eight </li></ul><ul><li> Inverters can be placed on fans to change air flow </li></ul><ul><li> FRP (Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic) are more energy efficient </li></ul>
  19. 19. Process/Machines Modification (Heating) <ul><li> Gas heating is cheaper than electric heating </li></ul><ul><li> Hot exhaust gases of generators and compressors can be used </li></ul><ul><li> Generator cooling water can be used </li></ul><ul><li> Steam can be used </li></ul><ul><li>Infrared lamps can be used </li></ul>