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  1. 1. Body Image Going for the 3 Increases: Increase in Health, Increase in Happiness & Increase in Energy Strategies for Success in Weight Management By: James J. Messina, Ph.D.
  2. 2. Is your Body Image bothering you? <ul><li>Are you happy with your body? </li></ul><ul><li>Positive body image & healthy mental attitude are important for all people to achieve happiness & maintain wellness </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>&quot;To lose confidence in one's body is to lose confidence in one's self ” </li></ul><ul><li>Simone de Beauvoir </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;No one can make you feel inferior without your consent.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Eleanor Roosevelt. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Is your body-image healthy? <ul><li>For next 12 statements, rate degree to which it applies to you. Select only one number for each statement using following ranking: </li></ul><ul><li>0    =     Never </li></ul><ul><li>1    =     Sometimes </li></ul><ul><li>2    =     Often </li></ul><ul><li>3    =     Always </li></ul><ul><li>After rating all statements, total your points to get &quot;Body Image&quot; score </li></ul>
  5. 5. Is your body-image healthy? <ul><li>I don’t like looking at myself in mirrors </li></ul><ul><li>Shopping for clothes makes me weight-focused & is unpleasant </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t like to be looked at in public </li></ul><ul><li>I avoid participating in sports or outside exercise because of my appearance </li></ul>
  6. 6. Is your body-image healthy? <ul><li>I feel ashamed of my body in the presence of a special person </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t like my body </li></ul><ul><li>I feel that other people must think my body is ugly </li></ul><ul><li>I feel that friends and family are embarrassed to be seen with me </li></ul>
  7. 7. Is your body-image healthy? <ul><li>I compare my body to others to see if they are heavier than I am </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoying activities is difficult because I am self-conscious about my appearance </li></ul><ul><li>I am preoccupied with feeling guilty about my weight </li></ul><ul><li>I have negative & critical thoughts about my body & appearance </li></ul>
  8. 8. Is your body-image healthy? <ul><li>Your final score may suggest the following: </li></ul><ul><li>0 - 7               Great attitude/Keep it up ! </li></ul><ul><li>8 - 14             Slightly dissatisfied </li></ul><ul><li>15 - 21           Moderately dissatisfied </li></ul><ul><li>22 - 28           Very dissatisfied </li></ul><ul><li>29 - 36           Extremely dissatisfied </li></ul>
  9. 9. What is body image disturbance <ul><li>Many engage in disordered eating when experiencing body image dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Disordered eating behaviors can include skipping meals, crash dieting, fasting for short or long periods of time, bingeing & purging </li></ul><ul><li>The physical, mental & psychological effects of disordered eating vary depending upon the duration & severity of the negative eating pattern </li></ul>
  10. 10. Magnitude of Body Image Problems <ul><li>Body dissatisfaction is increasing at a faster rate than ever before among both men and women </li></ul><ul><li>89% of the 3,452 female respondents wanted to lose weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Garner (1997, January/February). The 1997 body image survey results. Psychology Today , pp. 31- 44, 75-84. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Magnitude of Body Image Problems <ul><li>Thinness has not only come to represent attractiveness, but also has come to symbolize success, self-control & higher socioeconomic status </li></ul><ul><li>Marketdata Enterprises, Inc. estimated the size of the weight loss industry for 1994 at $32,680 billion </li></ul>
  12. 12. Magnitude of Body Image Problems <ul><li>Body image dissatisfaction & eating disorders are more prevalent among females than males -which is apparent in that over 90% of patients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa are women </li></ul><ul><li>Anderson & DiDomenico (1992). Diet vs. shape content of popular male and female magazines: A dose-response relationship to the incidence of eating disorders? International Journal of Eating Disorders, 11 (3), 283-287. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Magnitude of Body Image Problems <ul><li>Dieting to deal with poor body image has been powerful contributor to dysphoria because of failure often associated - 95-98% of all dieters regain their weight </li></ul><ul><li>Heatherton & Polivy (1992)Chronic dieting and eating disorders: A spiral model. In Crowther, Tennenbaum, Hobfold, & Parris The etiology of bulimia nervosa: The individual and familial context. Washington, DC: Hemisphere. </li></ul>
  14. 14. People with body image problems at risk for disordered eating <ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>High-achievers </li></ul><ul><li>Have other compulsive behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Are in occupations, in living situations, or who participate in activities where there is a focus on appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Are depressed </li></ul>
  15. 15. People with body image problems at risk for disordered eating <ul><li>Have a relative with an eating disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Come from dysfunctional families </li></ul><ul><li>Are survivors of sexual abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Children of alcoholic parents </li></ul><ul><li>Survivors of sexual assault </li></ul><ul><li>Athletes </li></ul>
  16. 16. Are you a disordered eater? <ul><li>Does your bathroom scale set the tone for your whole day? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you avoid mirrors or any reflections of yourself? </li></ul><ul><li>Is your worth determined by your appearance? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you worry about gaining weight? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you avoid foods? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you feel guilty after eating? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Are you a disordered eater? <ul><li>Do you obsess about some particular body feature? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you wish that you can shape your body/looks in any way you want? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you exercise at a high intensity level over an hour a day? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you exercise to justify your eating? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you use laxatives or diuretics as a way to control your weight? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Sources of Body Image concerns <ul><li>400-600 advertisements bombard us everyday in magazines, on billboards, on tv, and in newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>One in eleven has a direct message about beauty, not even counting the indirect messages </li></ul><ul><li>These messages on beauty demean, objectify, demoralize, or sexualize images about women </li></ul>
  19. 19. Sources of Body Image concerns <ul><li>Parental messages about body image and teasing by others (e.g. peers and/or family) have been correlated with body image dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus parental and peer messages about one's body shape or weight seem to influence body image dissatisfaction (Thelen & Cormier, 1995). </li></ul>
  20. 20. Sources of Body Image concerns <ul><li>Mothers whose daughters were eating disordered were themselves more eating disordered & thought that their daughters should lose more weight than the mothers of the non-eating disordered girls. </li></ul><ul><li>Pike & Rodin (1991). Mothers, daughters, and disordered eating. Journal of Abnormal Psychology , 100 (2), 198-204. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Sources of Body Image concerns <ul><li>Mothers' and fathers' reported encouragement of their daughters to lose weight was positively correlated with the daughter's body weight, desire to be thinner, and dieting efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Thelen & Cormier (1995). Desire to be thinner and weight control among children and their parents. Behavior Therapy, 26 , 85-99. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Things you can do to change your Body Image <ul><li>Stop talking about your weight </li></ul><ul><li>Make a list of women you admire </li></ul><ul><li>Question the motives of the fashion industry </li></ul><ul><li>Stop weighing yourself so much! </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on things you do well </li></ul>
  23. 23. Things you can do to change your Body Image <ul><li>Do physical things for fun </li></ul><ul><li>Value your dollars & do not spend with poor image portrayers </li></ul><ul><li>Voice your opinion against poor body image messages </li></ul><ul><li>Be a role model of positive image </li></ul><ul><li>Break the barriers </li></ul>
  24. 24. Final tips to improve body image <ul><li>Get rid of clothes that don't fit. Don't buy clothing that you hope will fit you &quot;someday.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that you are made of a personality and a body. Remind yourself of your positive qualities, not your size. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to wean yourself off of your scale and a daily weigh-in. Weight doesn't have to dictate how you feel about yourself each day. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to be less critical of your weight. Look at your body non-judgmentally. </li></ul>