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  1. 1. ICT for Women Entrepreneurship in Asia-Pacific Expert Group Meeting on ICT Policy from a Gender Perspective Bangkok, December 18-19th, 2001 Bianca R. Tonetti Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology (APCTT)
  2. 2. Facts and figures <ul><li>Women entrepreneurs manage 35% of SMEs in the region, more than 1/3 of 95% of all enterprises in Asia Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>The online female population in ASIA in 2000 accounted for 22% of Internet users </li></ul><ul><li>By 2003 there will be 8 million women Internet users in CHINA and 2 million in INDIA </li></ul><ul><li>23% women Internet users in INDIA in 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>38.7% in CHINA in 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Only a small portion of the female population of Asian developing countries is digitally empowered </li></ul><ul><li>However, out of 15,000 members of IWAPI-Indonesia only 12% have e-mail accounts </li></ul>
  3. 3. Facts and figures Women’s Internet use in Asia-Pacific and USA Source: Hafkin & Taggart, Gender, IT and Development Countries , AED for USAID, 2001.
  4. 4. Impact of IT on women’s work <ul><li>Women concentrated at lower skilled employment levels </li></ul><ul><li>Automation in manufacturing/services </li></ul><ul><li>Relocation of production </li></ul><ul><li>New skill requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of new jobs in: </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMATION PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>BANKING </li></ul><ul><li>INSURANCE </li></ul><ul><li>PRINTING </li></ul><ul><li>PUBLISHING </li></ul><ul><li>Conducive policies in India and Malaysia have led to women occupying high-skilled and managerial positions </li></ul>
  5. 5. Information processing PROJECT SITA AND WOMEN’S e-COOPERATIVE MITRAMANDAL - INDIA <ul><li>Studies in Information Technology Applications (SITA) is a computer-skill training program for 450 women from a disadvantage background and with limited communication skills. It is sponsored by InfoDev - World Bank </li></ul><ul><li>Global Challenge Award 2000, finalist Stockholm Challenge Award 2000, selected as Most Promising Social Enterprise 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Poor response of the job market to the project trainees </li></ul><ul><li>Self-employment through the women’s cooperative MitraMandal </li></ul>
  6. 6. Information processing WOMEN’S e-COOPERATIVE MITRAMANDAL MitraMandal Professional Wing Training of trainers R&D marketing and publicity Learning Wing Implements the learning strategy Public/Private Organizations Providers of work Earning Wing Trainers and trainees use IT skills to generate income Source: SITA .
  7. 7. Information processing PROJECT SITA AND WOMEN’S e-COOPERATIVE MITRAMANDAL - INDIA SITA trainees SITA head trainer SITA senior instructor Source: SITA
  8. 8. Information processing SECTOR PROFILE IN ASIA <ul><li>CHINA, INDIA, SINGAPORE and VIETNAM are taking large shares of the outsourcing markets in data processing </li></ul><ul><li>The PHILIPPINES concentrates the largest number of women workers in remote data entry </li></ul><ul><li>Many new jobs are in call centres and satellite offices performing back office functions </li></ul>
  9. 9. Information processing OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN IN ASIA <ul><li>Women working in data entry in BANGLADESH would earn 88% more than in local jobs </li></ul><ul><li>One million jobs in call centres are expected to be created in INDIA </li></ul><ul><li>by 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s attempts to create self-employment are frustrated by their lack of business and marketing skills </li></ul><ul><li>In INDIA over 350,000 women are expected to be working in remote data processing by </li></ul><ul><li>2008 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Information processing CONDUCIVE POLICIES <ul><li>Good telecom infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>IT training in and out of school </li></ul><ul><li>Training in marketing and business development </li></ul>
  11. 11. Clothing and textile manufacturing RANLIYA GARMENT INDUSTRIES - SRI LANKA <ul><li>Established in 1978 by Ms. Hapuarachchi. Turnover of US$23 million, workforce of 6,000. 95% are women </li></ul><ul><li>The company utilizes CAD/CAM machines for garment design, computerized sewing and embroidery machine and has a production capacity of 700,000 pieces per month </li></ul><ul><li>Technology transfer was successful thanks to an easily trainable workforce due to Sri Lanka’s high literacy rate </li></ul><ul><li>The new technology enhances the productivity while meeting the requirements of international markets in terms of timeliness, pricing and quality standards </li></ul>
  12. 12. Clothing and textile manufacturing RANLIYA GARMENT INDUSTRIES - SRI LANKA CAD/CAM machine for garment design Computerized sewing machine
  13. 13. Clothing and textile manufacturing SECTOR PROFILE IN ASIA <ul><li>Asia’s share of total employment in the industry was 72% in 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>China is the major employer accounting for 20% of the global workforce </li></ul><ul><li>In 1995 Asia concentrated 80% of global women workers in the textile sector </li></ul><ul><li>Women take up 71% of the jobs in clothing in the region, with China the major employer (20%) followed by Indonesia and Thailand </li></ul>Source: ILO.
  14. 14. Clothing and textile manufacturing OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN IN ASIA <ul><li>Computer technology offers opportunities for small and medium women-owned clothing manufacturing units </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralization allowed by </li></ul><ul><li>fragmentation of production particularly in garment manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>In Italy women subcontractors use IT applications for the instant fashion market </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of small-scale sector instrumental for the development of the sector </li></ul>
  15. 15. Clothing and textile manufacturing <ul><li>Promotion of small-scale sector </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship development training </li></ul><ul><li>Dissemination of technology information </li></ul><ul><li>Government to initiate, coordinate and share the cost of R&D and training schemes </li></ul>CONDUCIVE POLICIES
  16. 16. Software programming VIJAY SOFTWARE DEVELOPERS (VSD) - INDIA <ul><li>Shefali Kapoor established an education and career guidance centre in 1990, a computer academy in 1991 and VSD in 1992. Turnover of US$222,000 and workforce of 6 software developers </li></ul><ul><li>Technology transfer was successful thanks to her post graduation in computer sciences. She entered the business when computer started to be used for back-office support, pay-roll management, inventory control etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages she found in her business are </li></ul><ul><li>- availability of personnel possessing technical know-how - know-how could be updated on the job, and </li></ul><ul><li>- tremendous scope of IT-enabled services </li></ul>
  17. 17. Software programming VIJAY SOFTWARE DEVELOPERS (VSD) - INDIA Shefali Kapoor Software developers at work
  18. 18. Software programming SECTOR PROFILE IN ASIA <ul><li>Customized software services are potentially attractive to small and medium sized women enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>Software sector in INDIA has grown by 50% in the 1990s creating exports, domestic jobs and technical talents </li></ul><ul><li>The number of women programmers, designers, inventors and fixers of computers is limited in the developing world </li></ul><ul><li>However in MALAYSIA women are 30% of IT professionals and in INDIA comprise 20% of professional jobs in the software industry </li></ul>
  19. 19. Software programming OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN IN ASIA <ul><li>Network administration and maintenance are services strongly needed by private sector and government institutions </li></ul><ul><li>The greatest potential for job opportunities is in the core IT sector </li></ul><ul><li>In INDIA and CHINA opportunities are available for women in the software industry </li></ul><ul><li>IT education and training is an area particularly suitable for women </li></ul>
  20. 20. Software programming CONDUCIVE POLICIES <ul><li>Less expensive courses on IT </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of IT at early stages of formal education </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the number of girls and women studying IT-related subjects in formal schooling </li></ul><ul><li>IT training out of school </li></ul><ul><li>IT info dissemination for girls and women (career fairs) </li></ul><ul><li>State-private sector cooperation for HRD development </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship development training </li></ul>
  21. 21. Conclusions POLICIES FOR WOMEN’S DIGITAL EMPOWERMENT <ul><li>Rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of hardware, software, service </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative sources of software </li></ul><ul><li>Cyberkiosks and telecenters </li></ul><ul><li>Impact assessment of legislation on working women </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes and subsidies for investment promotion in strategic sectors </li></ul><ul><li>HRD at al levels </li></ul><ul><li>Scholarships and reservations </li></ul><ul><li>Business development programmes for self-employment </li></ul>Infrastructure Regulatory environment Education and training
  22. 22. Web References <ul><li>http://learnlink.aed.org/Publications/Gender_Book/pdf/Gender_Book_NoPhotos.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.totheweb.com/Digital_Divide_White_Paper.PDF </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.sitaa.org </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.undp.org.my/partnership/UNDP.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmlfi00/tmlfi-r.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu37we/uu37we00.htm#Contents </li></ul>