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    1. 1. Multimodal Teaching: The Importance of Using Multiple Models Linda Barclay November 13, 2006
    2. 2. Main Idea <ul><li>Both the direct teaching and situated learning models are useful and necessary for students to acquire useful knowledge of a skill. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Direct Teaching Model <ul><li>Traditional teaching of concepts as “basic units of knowledge to be accumulated, gradually refined, and combined to form ever richer cognitive structures” by the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>(Anna Sfard, 1998). </li></ul>
    4. 4. Direct Teaching Model <ul><li>Provides for efficient transmission of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Techniques used to perform domain tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helps student gain a “wire framework” domain overview </li></ul>
    5. 5. Direct Teaching Model Techniques <ul><li>Lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>Practice or drill </li></ul><ul><li>Written text materials </li></ul>
    6. 6. Direct Teaching Model Benefits <ul><li>Transmission of expert techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission of expert understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to more comprehensive “wire framework” domain overview </li></ul>
    7. 7. Direct Teaching Model Criticisms <ul><li>Difficult to apply abstract knowledge to everyday contexts (Choi & Hannafin, 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Highly decontextualized and simplified knowledge isolated from its context promotes rigid, incomplete, and naïve understanding. (Choi and Hannafin, 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning only occurs in social contexts in which the skill is used. (Lave and Wenger, 1991) </li></ul>
    8. 8. Summary <ul><li>Direct teaching is useful for quickly transmitting expert information to students and helping students get an overview of the domain, but students may have difficulty transferring this information to real life problems. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Situated Learning <ul><li>Learning is inextricable from the context in which it occurs. (Lave & Wenger) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is at least partially a dynamic by-product of individuals engaged within contexts in which knowledge is naturally embedded. (Choi & Hannafin, Lave & Wenger) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Situated Learning <ul><li>Students need to engage in similar cognitive activities as experts to develop the skills used by experts. (Lave & Wenger) </li></ul><ul><li>These activities should be coherent, meaningful, and purposeful tasks that represent the ordinary practices of the culture. (Choi & Hannafin, Lave & Wenger) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Situated Learning Benefits <ul><li>Concretizes abstract information </li></ul><ul><li>Applies knowledge to solve real world problems </li></ul><ul><li>Allows students to “fill in” their “wire framework” of the domain </li></ul><ul><li>May result in meaningful social interaction </li></ul>
    12. 12. Situated Learning Criticisms <ul><li>Taken to an extreme, results in an approach that does not allow for any formal modeling, formal schooling, or conscious thought. “Practice without reflection looks as bad as reflection without practice.” (Choi & Hannafin,1995,p. 33) </li></ul><ul><li>Very inefficient skill mastery, leading to student discouragement. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Situated Learning Criticisms <ul><li>Without systematic instruction in the more abstract principles underlying the skill, the student can fail to quickly develop a “wire framework” overview of the domain, leading to lack of understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Without an adequate abstract “wire framework” overview of the domain, problem solving ability and transfer are limited. </li></ul><ul><li>The student fails to become independent of the teacher. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Situated Learning Criticisms <ul><li>Example: Local high school sewing teacher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentic context: Make It With Wool Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many students worked with teacher in authentic context on authentic projects, and successfully competed in and won the competition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There was little formal, direct instruction of underlying concepts and principles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Her students came to me requesting advice on basic skills of which they should have had knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students were not able to become independent. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: Law School Civil Procedure Class </li></ul>
    15. 15. Instructional Design <ul><li>Objective: Provide students with opportunity to acquire sufficient useful knowledge to become independent of the teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis: Students can better become independent using instructional techniques derived from both models. </li></ul>
    16. 16. The Class <ul><li>Utah Valley State College Community Education </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning Sewing Level 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Seven- to eight- week noncredit course, meeting two hours each week in a sewing classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily females between 15 and 45 who have had little or no sewing experience, but want to learn </li></ul>
    17. 17. Instructional Design: Direct Teaching Aspects <ul><li>Printed manual - verbal and visual information </li></ul><ul><li>Formal in-class lectures </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul>
    18. 18. Instructional Design: Situated Learning Aspects <ul><li>Real-life examples </li></ul><ul><li>Individual help from instructor </li></ul><ul><li>Production of unique, student selected garments </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher-modeled problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate feedback from teacher and peers </li></ul><ul><li>Peer problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Peer assistance </li></ul>
    19. 19. Results <ul><li>Voluntary student evaluation of usefulness and effectiveness of all instruction in two Level 1 classes (Fall 2004, Fall 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>n = 36 </li></ul><ul><li>55% response rate </li></ul><ul><li>Most (75%) completed a usable, attractive garment (vest or elastic waist skirt or pants). </li></ul>
    20. 20. Student Responses <ul><li>Students’ stated objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read and use commercial patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a sewing machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform basic sewing skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All (100%) achieved their objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>All (100%) wanted to take additional sewing classes. </li></ul><ul><li>84% felt they could make a simple garment on their own by the end of the class. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Student Evaluations: Direct Learning Elements <ul><li>Mean Student Rankings (1-10): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrations: 9.3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice Samples: 9.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Projects: 8.9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual: 8.75 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lectures: 7.9 </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Student Evaluations: Situated Learning Elements <ul><li>Mean student rankings (1 to 10): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Garment Project: 9.7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual help from instructor: 9.5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: 8.75 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction with Other Students: 8.5 </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Conclusions <ul><li>Most students were able to become independent of the instructor as determined by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student production of a usable garment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student self-evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most of the students acquired some useful knowledge of the domain. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Conclusions <ul><li>Students found most of the direct teaching elements as useful as most of the situated learning elements of the instructional design. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the direct teaching and situated learning models were useful and necessary for beginning sewing students to acquire useful knowledge. </li></ul>