Schiza. A,  Fatana. M,   Nerdin. M,  Leena. S 01/18/11
Overview <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Ice cores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are ice cores? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Introduction <ul><li>What is climate? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate is the weather in a specific location which is average...
Ice Cores <ul><li>What are Ice cores :   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long cylinders of ice extracted from large ice sheets </li>...
Ice cores:  Procedure/Drilling Technology <ul><li>Information required prior to procedure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The angle...
Ice coring  in  Antarctica:  Video <ul><li>Extracting the ice core from a large ice sheet in Antarctica. </li></ul>http://...
Ice cores: Testing <ul><li>Very fragile:  easily contaminated  </li></ul><ul><li>Core processing line </li></ul><ul><li>Ex...
This  ice  is  45000  years old, and  the gas bubbles  are plainly visible  01/18/11
Glaciers <ul><li>What’s a glacier: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow moving mass of ice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Movement occurs du...
<ul><li>What’s Dendrochronology? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study of climate changes and past events by comparing the annua...
Examining Trees <ul><li>Age of tree determined by number of rings </li></ul><ul><li>Dead trees  --->  cross sections exami...
Coral Reefs <ul><li>Growth patterns affected by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salinity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </l...
Coral Reefs <ul><li>Coral bleaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbiotic protozoa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zooxanthellae </li...
Palynology <ul><li>What is Palynology: </li></ul><ul><li>Science which studies fossils of pollen, pores in rock  </li></ul...
Palynology <ul><li>Past plant species </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of fossils: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size, shape, por...
Ocean Sediments <ul><li>What are sediments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid fragments of material that come from the weathering...
Ocean Sediments <ul><li>Types of sediment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrigenous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biogenic </li></ul...
Ocean Sediments <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Examination: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large cylindrical cores </li></ul></...
Ocean Sediments <ul><li>Transportation of sediment depends  </li></ul><ul><li>upon: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size  </li></ul>...
Caves: Stalactites and Stalagmites <ul><li>What is a Stalactite: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A cylinder of calcium carbonate  ha...
Caves :  Stalactites and Stalagmites <ul><li>Determine data such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record of precipitation </li></...
Quiz <ul><li>What is Paleoclimatology? </li></ul><ul><li>What gas is separately tested for in ice core testing? </li></ul>...
Conclusion <ul><li>Predicting past climates is not very easy. It requires a lot of knowledge and basic understandings. </l...
References <ul><li>Whitaker, Dick. &quot;Dick's Blog: Measuring Past Climates.&quot;  Dick's Blog . N.p., 12 July 2209. We...
References <ul><li>British Antarctic Survey. &quot;Oldest Antarctic Ice Core Reveals Climate History.&quot;  ScienceDaily ...
01/18/11
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Predicting past climates

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Predicting past climates

  1. 1. Schiza. A, Fatana. M, Nerdin. M, Leena. S 01/18/11
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Ice cores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are ice cores? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure/ Drilling Technology  Video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glaciers </li></ul><ul><li>Dendrochronology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examining Trees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coral Reefs </li></ul><ul><li>Palynology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examining pollen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ocean Sediments </li></ul><ul><li>Caves </li></ul><ul><li>Quiz </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>01/18/11
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>What is climate? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate is the weather in a specific location which is averaged over a long period of time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is Paleoclimatology? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The detailed study of climate of the past. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proxy records : Stores of information in ice cores, tree rings, coral reefs, ocean sediments, caves. </li></ul>01/18/11
  4. 4. Ice Cores <ul><li>What are Ice cores : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long cylinders of ice extracted from large ice sheets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development : Occurs overtime - --> snow falls ---> compact layers of ice form </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top layer ----> recent Inner layer ---> older </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minute bubbles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each layer represents different year/season </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dust particles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Locations found: Lake Vostok, Antarctica, Green land </li></ul>01/18/11
  5. 5. Ice cores: Procedure/Drilling Technology <ul><li>Information required prior to procedure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The angle of the drill, depth, the power consumption of the machine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Machine consists of : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A specialized drill head, a core barrel, chip catcher, motor, instrument package, and anti-torque knives, 4000 meter long cable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steps included within the procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>The drill is lowered into a bore hole </li></ul><ul><li>A section of the core (2-6 meters long) is cut, broken off and pulled back to the surface </li></ul><ul><li>The ice core is then sent to a science trench </li></ul>01/18/11
  6. 6. Ice coring in Antarctica: Video <ul><li>Extracting the ice core from a large ice sheet in Antarctica. </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zoTXbXsC69k 01/18/11
  7. 7. Ice cores: Testing <ul><li>Very fragile: easily contaminated </li></ul><ul><li>Core processing line </li></ul><ul><li>Exterior vs. interior testing </li></ul><ul><li>Gas testing : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut into thin slices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air bubbles tested for certain gases such as: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separately tested for oxygen --> types --> light to heavy atom ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dust particles include information regarding precipitation and volcanic eruptions </li></ul>01/18/11
  8. 8. This ice is 45000 years old, and the gas bubbles are plainly visible 01/18/11
  9. 9. Glaciers <ul><li>What’s a glacier: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow moving mass of ice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Movement occurs due to gravitational pull </li></ul><ul><li>Carve U-shaped valleys ---> in the shape of rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glacial ice and surrounding debris </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glacial valleys with no ice, represents evidence of climate change </li></ul>01/18/11
  10. 10. <ul><li>What’s Dendrochronology? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study of climate changes and past events by comparing the annual growth rings of trees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One dark ring and one light ring (considered as one) are grown per year/season </li></ul><ul><li>Growing conditions (season) of the tree affect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Width of rings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color of rings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scars and burn marks </li></ul><ul><li>Lifespan of tree </li></ul><ul><li>Location of the tree </li></ul><ul><li>Dead trees could also be studied, but only if preserved </li></ul>Dendrochronology 01/18/11
  11. 11. Examining Trees <ul><li>Age of tree determined by number of rings </li></ul><ul><li>Dead trees ---> cross sections examined </li></ul><ul><li>Living trees ---> increment cores examined </li></ul><ul><li>Review of previous points: </li></ul><ul><li>Thickness: Width of ring </li></ul><ul><li>Shape: Evenly shaped/ or not </li></ul><ul><li>Scars: Left due to insects/ diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Burn marks: Represent natural/unnatural fires </li></ul>01/18/11
  12. 12. Coral Reefs <ul><li>Growth patterns affected by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salinity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acidity of sea water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Salinity changed due to precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Slightest change in temperature ---> growth pattern changes </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature data states past sea surface temperatures </li></ul>01/18/11
  13. 13. Coral Reefs <ul><li>Coral bleaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbiotic protozoa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zooxanthellae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expulsion of protozoa ---> temperature change/harmful chemicals present </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corals similar to trees ---> layers </li></ul><ul><li>Difference: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layers in trees ---> growth patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layers in coral ---> sea surface temperatures </li></ul></ul>01/18/11
  14. 14. Palynology <ul><li>What is Palynology: </li></ul><ul><li>Science which studies fossils of pollen, pores in rock </li></ul><ul><li>Palynomorphs </li></ul><ul><li>Found in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentary rock, sediments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trapped pollen---> during build up of sediments </li></ul></ul>01/18/11
  15. 15. Palynology <ul><li>Past plant species </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of fossils: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size, shape, pores, furrows, air sacs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processes used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet sieving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollen diagram </li></ul></ul>01/18/11
  16. 16. Ocean Sediments <ul><li>What are sediments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid fragments of material that come from the weathering of rock and are carried and deposited by wind, water, or ice. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sediment can originate from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biota </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eroded material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ashes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitates </li></ul></ul>01/18/11
  17. 17. Ocean Sediments <ul><li>Types of sediment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrigenous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biogenic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanogenic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogenous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data retrieved such as : humidity variations, wind directions, wind speeds, dry/wet period </li></ul>01/18/11
  18. 18. Ocean Sediments <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Examination: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large cylindrical cores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refrigeration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical, chemical, biological make-up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trapped entities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossils of animals/plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ashes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pollen </li></ul></ul>01/18/11
  19. 19. Ocean Sediments <ul><li>Transportation of sediment depends </li></ul><ul><li>upon: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Original location </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transportation: (mainly of terrigenous material) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind ---> glacial periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water (rivers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth quakes </li></ul></ul>01/18/11
  20. 20. Caves: Stalactites and Stalagmites <ul><li>What is a Stalactite: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A cylinder of calcium carbonate hanging from the roof of a limestone cave </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is a Stalagmite: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A cylinder of calcium carbonate projecting upward from the floor of a limestone cave </li></ul></ul>01/18/11
  21. 21. Caves : Stalactites and Stalagmites <ul><li>Determine data such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record of precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen atom ratio </li></ul></ul>01/18/11
  22. 22. Quiz <ul><li>What is Paleoclimatology? </li></ul><ul><li>What gas is separately tested for in ice core testing? </li></ul><ul><li>What two things are analyzed in glaciers? </li></ul><ul><li>Dead trees cannot be studied when studying Dendrochronology. True or False. </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the difference between coral reefs and trees? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Palynology? </li></ul>01/18/11
  23. 23. Conclusion <ul><li>Predicting past climates is not very easy. It requires a lot of knowledge and basic understandings. </li></ul><ul><li>Some ways of predicting past climate are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ice cores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glaciers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tree rings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palynology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ocean sediments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coral reefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>caves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It helps scientists prepare for the future and know what climatic changes occurred in the past. </li></ul>01/18/11
  24. 24. References <ul><li>Whitaker, Dick. &quot;Dick's Blog: Measuring Past Climates.&quot; Dick's Blog . N.p., 12 July 2209. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://passingparade-2009.blogspot.com/2009/08/measuring-past-climates.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>Tyson, Peter. &quot;Stories in the Ice.&quot; Warning from the ice . Online producer, NOVA, n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/warnings/stories/>. </li></ul><ul><li>Bruckner, Monica. &quot;Paleoclimatology: Climate Proxies.&quot; Microbial Life Educational Resources . Montana State University, n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2011. <http://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/topics/proxies/paleoclimate.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>Gardiner, Lisa. &quot;How Do We Investigate Climates of the Past?.&quot; Windows to the Universe . National Earth Science Teachers Association, 15 June 2009. Web. 15 Jan. 2011. <http://WWW.windows2universe.org/earth/climate/CDcourses_investigate_climate. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Climate Change - Studying Climate Change - Tree Rings.&quot; PRIweb.org: Redirecting... . Paleontological Research Institution, n.d. Web. 9 Jan. 2011. <http://www.priweb.org/globalchange/climatechange/studyingcc/scc_01.html>. </li></ul>01/18/11
  25. 25. References <ul><li>British Antarctic Survey. &quot;Oldest Antarctic Ice Core Reveals Climate History.&quot; ScienceDaily 11 June 2004. 15 January 2011 <http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2004/06/040611080100.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>National Science Foundation. &quot;Researchers drill through mile and a half of Greenland ice sheet in search of climate change insights.&quot; ScienceDaily 4 August 2010. 15 January 2011 <http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2010/08/100804133448.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;esource-stu.&quot; Nelson Education - Home Page . N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Jan. 2011. <http://www.nelson.com/school/secondary/science/scienceperspectives/10/weblinks/esource-stu.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>Christine, Adam-Carr, Gabber Martin, Hayhoe Christy, Hayhoe Douglas, and Hayhoe Katharine. Science Perspectives 10 . Toronto, Ontario: Nelson Education Ltd, 2010. 358-360. Print. </li></ul>01/18/11
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