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Hardware

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Hardware

  1. 1. Hardware Bus- und Anschlusssysteme
  2. 2. <ul><li>Schnittstelle zwischen Zentraleinheit und Peripherie </li></ul><ul><li>= </li></ul><ul><li>Bus- und Anschlusssysteme </li></ul>
  3. 3. Modem Monitor Maus Tastatur RAM Speichermedien CPU Steckplätze (Slots) BUS
  4. 4. Bussystem <ul><li>Die wichtigste Aufgabe des Bussystems ist der Transport der Daten und Programmbefehle vom Arbeitsspeicher zum Prozessor. </li></ul><ul><li>Das Bussystem besteht aus Leiterbahnen auf der Hauptplatine, über die alle Bestandteile der Zentraleinheit miteinander verbunden sind. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Arten von Bussystemen <ul><li>ISA-Bus </li></ul><ul><li>EISA-Bus </li></ul><ul><li>Vesa-Local-Bus </li></ul><ul><li>PCI-Bus </li></ul>
  6. 6. Busbreite <ul><li>Die Busbreite beschreibt die Anzahl der in einem Bussystem vorhandenen parallelen Datenleitungen. Je mehr Leitungen zur Verfügung stehen, desto mehr Daten können pro Sekunde übertragen werden. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Busstruktur Steuerbus   Adressbus   Datenbus
  8. 8. Steuerbus <ul><li>Durch Anlegen von Signalen am Steuerbus werden der Peripherie oder dem Arbeitsspeicher Anweisungen gegeben, um Daten zu senden oder anzunehmen (Zugriffssteuerung). </li></ul><ul><li>Folgende Signale werden an dem Steuerbus angelegt: </li></ul><ul><li>Lesen und Schreiben des RAM </li></ul><ul><li>Ein- und Ausgabe von peripheren Geräten </li></ul><ul><li>Interrupt-Signale </li></ul>
  9. 9. Adressbus <ul><li>Ein Adressbus überträgt nur Speicheradressen. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Datenbus <ul><li>Auf den Leitungen vom Datenbus werden binäre 1en und 0en übertragen. Diese anliegenden Signale dienen dem Datenaustausch zwischen CPU und RAM bzw. peripheren Geräten. </li></ul><ul><li>Wie viele Leitungen ein Datenbus hat, hängt vom Hauptprozessor selbst ab. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Datenübertragung <ul><li>Serielle Datenübertragung </li></ul><ul><li>= die einzelnen Bits werden nacheinander transportiert (Modem, ISDN,..) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Datenübertragung <ul><li>Parallele Datenübertragung </li></ul><ul><li>= die einzelnen Bits werden auf mehreren nebeneinander liegenden Leitungen gleichzeitig übertragen (Drucker, Scanner,..) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Kartenschnittstellen
  14. 14. Kartenschnittstellen <ul><li>ISA: Der ISA-Anschluss (Industry Standard Architecture) wird auf aktuellen Mainboards nicht mehr eingebaut. Im Vergleich zu heutigen Schnittstellen war er sehr viel langsamer. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Kartenschnittstellen <ul><li>PCI: Der PCI-Anschluss (Peripheral Component Interface) ist der Standard-Kartenanschluss für PC. Hier kann so ziemlich alles angeschlossen werden was man an leistungsfähigen Karten für den PC braucht (Grafik, Audio, Video, Modem, ISDN, Netzwerk,..). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Kartenschnittstellen <ul><li>AGP: Der AGP-Anschluss (Accelerated Graphics Port) ist ein spezieller Anschluss für Grafikkarten. </li></ul><ul><li>USB (Universal Serial Bus): ist ein serielles, plug&play-fähiges Bussystem zum Anschluss von Druckern, Scannern, Mäusen und externen Laufwerken; es ist ein eher langsamerer Bus, macht jedoch den PC flexibel. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Laufwerksanschlüsse <ul><li>Für Festplatten, CD-ROM-Laufwerke und andere Massenspeicher gibt es zwei Arten von Anschlüssen: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EIDE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SCSI </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. EIDE (Enhanced Intgrated Device Electronics) <ul><li>EIDE-Anschluss ist auf den meisten Mainboards integriert. (für Festplatten und CD/DVD-Laufwerke) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vorteil : günstiger als SCSI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nachteil : Anschluss elektrisch instabil, max. Kabellänge nur 60 cm; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wird in Zukunft durch ATA-Anschluss ersetzt (technisch kompatibler) </li></ul>
  19. 19. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) <ul><li>Diese Schnittstelle ist viel teurer, dafür aber belastbarer als EIDE. Sie ist daher für Hochleistungsmaschinen und Server geeignet. </li></ul><ul><li>SCSI ist schwierig einzurichten und fehleranfällig. </li></ul>
  20. 20. USB und FireWire <ul><li>Alle modernen Rechner sind mit neuartigen seriellen Schnittstellen für externe Geräte ausgestattet. Sie haben den Vorteil, dass sie völlig ohne Konfigurationsaufwand benutzt werden können. </li></ul>
  21. 21. USB <ul><li>An USB-Anschlüsse eines Rechners können insgesamt 127 Geräte angeschlossen werden (mit USB-Hubs). </li></ul><ul><li>USB wird nicht nur für Drucker, Modems, Scanner, Digitalkameras und externe Festplatten oder CD-Brenner eingesetzt, sondern auch für Tastatur und Maus. </li></ul>
  22. 22. FireWire <ul><li>FireWire ist wie USB ein plug&play-fähiges, serielles Bussystem mit maximal 400 MBit/s. Es ist primär für den Anschluss von externen Massenspeichern und digitalen Videokameras oder Fotokameras ausgelegt. Videos können schnell auf einen Rechner übertragen, bearbeitet und wieder über FireWire ausgegeben werden. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Hot Plugging <ul><li>Beide Schnittstellen (USB und FireWire) unterstützen das so genannte Hot-Plugging-Verfahren : Geräte können im laufenden Betrieb ein- und ausgesteckt werden. Dazu lädt das Betriebssystem automatisch die passenden Treiber und entfernt sie nach Gebrauch wieder. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Drahtlose Schnittstellen <ul><li>Infrarotanschluss : Diese Schnittstelle benötigt Sichtkontakt zwischen Gerät und Empfangsstation (Fernseh-Fernbedienung); arbeitet eher langsam; für Tastatur und Maus geeignet; </li></ul><ul><li>Funkanschluss : ist oft Störungen ausgesetzt; </li></ul>
  25. 25. Infrarotanschluss <ul><li>Diese Schnittstelle benötigt Sichtkontakt zwischen Gerät und Empfangsstation (Fernseh-Fernbedienung); arbeitet eher langsam; für Tastatur und Maus geeignet; </li></ul>
  26. 26. Funkanschluss <ul><li>Funkanschlüsse arbeiten fast immer mit Mikrowellen. </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth-Technologie : einheitlicher Datenfunkstandard für den Anschluss von Peripheriegeräten wie z. B. Tastaturen, Mäuse, Modems, Mobiltelefone,.. </li></ul><ul><li>Infrarot- oder Bluetooth-Anschlüsse sind inzwischen günstig als PCI-Erweiterungskarten oder USB-Stecker erhältlich. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Kommunikation <ul><li>Zur Regelung der Kommunikation zwischen Prozessor, Arbeitsspeicher und Peripheriegeräten werden verschiedene Kommunikationsressourcen verwendet: </li></ul><ul><li>Kanäle für Hardware-Interrupts </li></ul><ul><li>Speicheradressen </li></ul><ul><li>DMA-Kanäle </li></ul>
  28. 28. IRQs <ul><li>Jedes Gerät, das kommunizieren möchte, verwendet ein eindeutiges und einmaliges Signal. </li></ul><ul><li>Beispiele: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systemtaktgeber 0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tastatur 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Echtzeituhr 8 </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. I/O-Basisadresse <ul><li>Diese Speicheradresse markiert den Beginn eines Adressblocks, der für den Austausch von Konfigurations- und Steuerungsinformationen zwischen dem Prozessor und dem jeweiligen Gerät verwendet wird. </li></ul>
  30. 30. DMA-Kanäle (Direct Memory Access) <ul><li>DMA ist ein Verfahren für die direkte Übertragung von Gerätedaten in den Arbeitsspeicher und umgekehrt. (Datenbyts müssen nicht mehr erst den Prozessor passieren) </li></ul><ul><li>DMA-Kanäle werden für Soundkarten und Diskettenlaufwerke verwendet. </li></ul><ul><li>Die DMA-Steuerung der meisten Geräte erfolgt heute über Bus Mastering (=verbessertes Verfahren) </li></ul>

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