The Eye 2014


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The Eye 2014

  1. 1. Part I: The Eye Part II: Sheep Eye Dissection
  2. 2. EYE The eye is an extension of the brain It helps us take in light information from our surroundings. This is how!
  3. 3. Eye brain proximity • Can you see : • the optic nerve bundle? • Spinal cord?
  4. 4. What are the parts of the eye? • Let’s use a diagram to help us get familiar with the parts and pronounce them correctly!
  5. 5. Cornea Cornea- transparent membrane that covers iris and pupil. Focuses light on the retina.
  6. 6. Pupil, Iris, Sclera Pupil- hole passes different amounts of light Iris- colored part of the eye that controls the size of the pupil Sclera- “whites” of the eye that forms outer covering
  7. 7. Aqueous Humor, Ciliary Muscle, Lens Aqueous Humor- nutritious fluid between the iris and the cornea. As we age, it breaks down and we begin to see “floaters” Ciliary Muscles- produces aqueous humor and controls lens shape Lens- Bends light rays to the back of the eye –retina. Elastic so change in shape allows for focus on objects close up or far away
  8. 8. Retina • Full of light receptors which are sensitive to: • Cones- Colour • Rods- Light levels • Massive blood supply is also neededThis is Ms. Vikingson’s retina!! Blind Spot- site of optic nerve connection
  9. 9. Vitreous Humor, Blind Spot, Optic Nerve, Vitreous Humor- transparent jelly-like fluid that fills the eye and refracts light Blind Spot- area where optic nerve attaches. No retina is located there so information cannot be picked up; “Blind” Optic Nerve- sends messages picked up by retina to the brain
  10. 10. Choroid Layer, Tapetum lucidum Choroid Layer- lies between the sclera and the retina it provides the blood supply to the eye. Tapetum lucidum- iridescent film under the retina that provides animals with “night vision”
  11. 11. Cross section You must know: 1. Lens 2. Cornea 3. Aqueous humor 4. Pupil 5. Iris 6. Ciliary Muscle 7. Sclera 8. Vitreous Humor 9. Retina 10. Blind Spot 11. Choroid Layer 12. Optic Nerve 13. Tapetum Lucidum Sclera Blind Spot Ciliary Choroid Layer Taptem lucidum
  12. 12. Eye Dissection • Before we go over the dissection, let’s review the parts of the eye and their function TIME TO BEGIN THE SHEEP EYE DISSECTION!!!
  13. 13. Cut away fat using scissors
  14. 14. Anterior External Eye Structure
  15. 15. Posterior External Eye Structures
  16. 16. • Select a place to make an incision of the sclera midway between the cornea and optic nerve. Use the point of a surgical scissors to make a small cut through the sclera. Fluid should ooze out of the eyeball when you have cut deeply enough.
  17. 17. • Arrange the two hemispheres of the eye as you see in the photograph. • Observe the semi-fluid vitreous humor that fills the central cavity of the eye. It is transparent in the living eye but might be cloudy in the preserved specimen
  18. 18. • The retina lines the the posterior cavity of the eye and extends forward to the ciliary body. Use your probe to lift and pull the retina back from the underlying choroid layer. • Notice that the retina is only firmly attached to the choroid at one place. This region is the optic disc or blind spot.
  19. 19. Internal Eye Structure – Posterior Section
  20. 20. Internal Eye Structures – Anterior Section
  21. 21. Remove the lens and place against newspaper to see that it is a magnifier!
  22. 22. • When the lens is removed, an opening, allowing light to enter the eye is seen. This opening, the pupil is located in the center of the iris. Note the oblong shape of the sheep pupil, in humans the pupil is circular. • The back side of the iris can be seen just above the pointer in the photograph.
  23. 23. Can you identify the parts? You will need to so you can get credit during the lab
  24. 24. 1. Cornea 2. Sclera 3. Optic Nerve 4. Iris 5. Pupil 6. Ora Serrata (you do not have to know this structure!) 7. Ciliary Body 8. Choroid 9. Tapetum Lucidum 10. Retina 11. Lens 12. Vitreous Humor
  25. 25. Clean up! • Once all eye parts have been located and signed off by your teacher, it is time to clean up! • Clean off all instruments on your paper towel and put them away • Wrap up eye and all eye parts inside your paper towel • Remove gloves around paper towel for easy disposal • Place items into garbage can
  26. 26. Review! Let’s take a peek at this interactive eye and see how many you can get correct!