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- 1. Science in Our World Measurement
- 2. Fact: an observation that has been repeatedly confirmed and is accepted as true. Theory – explanation for hypothesis and observations that have been supported by testing, it explains and predicts Law – summary of many experimental results and observations, tells you how things work Vocabulary
- 3. Scientific Models A model is a substitute or stand-in for what you are actually studying or trying to predict. They are convenient. Models are similar to what they represent even if they are not exact: • can be larger or smaller • can be different colors • may not act the same • they do have limitations! .
- 4. Types of Models Physical Models- look like the objects they are modeling. Ex. A globe is a physical model of the earth. Mathematical Models– made up of mathematical equations and data. Ex. Newton’s Law in Physics.
- 5. Types of Models Conceptual Models – system of ideas, groupings, or classification. Ex. Kingdoms and Domains.
- 6. Measurement International System of Units (SI System) • Metric System • Used all over the World • Improves communication between scientists KHD_M_DCM model Mnemonic! King Henry Dances Merrily Down Central Main Lazily Gracefully
- 7. K H D_M_D C M model Mnemonic! King Henry Dances Merrily Down Central Main Lazily Gracefully The others are prefixes K = Kilo = x1000 H = Hecto = x100 D = Deka = x10 d = deci = x .10 c = centi = x .100 m = milli = x .1000 Base Units Change M = meters L = liters G = grams
- 8. Measurement Length SI Unit - meter Area How much surface an object has Area = Length x Width = square units = cm2 , m2 , km2 L W
- 9. Measurement L W H Volume Amount of space something occupies or amount of space something takes up Volume of a rectangular prism Volume = Length x Width x Height = cubic units = cm3 , m3 , km3 Volume of irregular shaped objects?
- 10. Measurement Volume of irregular shaped objects Amount of space something occupies or amount of space something takes up Volume = Amount of water the object displaces = cubic units = mL3 , L3 Ex. A graduated cylinder has a water level of 200 mL. A rock is dropped into the graduated cylinder and displaces the water up to 300 mL. What is the volume of the rock? 300 mL – 200 mL = 100 ml3
- 11. Measurement Mass Amount of matter in an object. Usually measured in kilograms (large items) or grams (small items) Which has more mass, a kilogram of feathers or a kilogram of bricks?
- 12. Measurement Weight The pull of gravity on an object or how heavy something is. Usually measured in kilograms (large items) or grams (small items) Where do you weigh more, Earth or the moon?
- 13. Measurement Density A physical property that describes the mass per unit volume of a substance. Mnemonic – Density is a “broken heart”. D = ---------- or Density = --------------D = ---------- or Density = --------------Mass Volume
- 14. Measurement Temperature Measure of how hot or cold an object is Expressed as degrees Fahrenheit, degrees Celsius, or Kelvin (SI) • Water boils at 212° F and 100° C • Water freezes at 32° F and 0° C • Body temperature is about 98.6° F

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