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Skeletal and Muscular System


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Skeletal and Muscular System

  1. 1. 03/25/14 1 The Skeletal and Muscular Systems
  2. 2. Today’s Warm-Up Skeletal facts… 1. How many bones are in the average adult human body? 2. How many bones does a baby have? 3. What/where is the longest bone on the body? 4. What/where is the smallest bone in the body? 206 The “femur” or thighbone 3 bones in the middle ear- stirrup, anvil & hammer
  3. 3. Structure and Function The skeletal system includes bones and tissues that are important for supporting, protecting, and moving your body.
  4. 4. Parts of the skeletal system • Bones (skeleton) • Cartilage • Joints: hold bones together & mobility • Ligaments & Tendons
  5. 5. Your skeletal system is made up of the appendicular and axial skeletons.
  6. 6. • The appendicular skeleton includes legs, arms, feet and hands. – allows for movement – includes bones called girdles that connect limbs to body
  7. 7. • The axial skeleton includes the skull, rib cage, and spinal column. skull rib breastbone vertebra – supports body and protects tissues – allows for limited movement
  8. 8. – cushions bones – allows for smooth movement (damaged cartilage leads to joint pain) – connects two bones – As you age much of your cartilage is gradually broken down & replaced by bone • Cartilage is connective tissue between bones.
  9. 9. Bones connect to form joints. • Joints are places where two bones meet. • There are three types of joints. – Immoveable or fibrous, which does not allow for movement fibrous joint
  10. 10. Bones connect to form joints. • Joints are places were two bones meet. • There are three types of joints. cartillage – Semi-moveable or cartilaginous, which allows partial movement
  11. 11. Bones connect to form joints. – Moveable or synovial, which allows for greater movement – Mostly found on the appendicular skeleton • Joints are places were two bones meet. • There are three types of joints. X-ray of a normal knee
  12. 12. Types of Synovial Joints
  13. 13. • Ligaments are long bands of tissue that connect bones across a joint. ligament Ligaments
  14. 14. Bones are living tissue. • Bone is made of compact bone tissue and spongy bone tissue. Compact bone Spongy bone
  15. 15. • Compact bone is hard and dense. – Osteocytes (bone cells) maintain compact bone rings. – Haversian canals allow blood vessels in the bone. osteocytes blood vessel Haversian canals
  16. 16. • Spongy bone protects red or yellow bone marrow. – Red bone marrow produces blood cells. – Yellow bone marrow is mostly fat. Periosteum A layer of connective tissue that covers bone Red bone marrow
  17. 17. The Muscular System
  18. 18. Structure and Function Muscles are tissues that can contract, enabling movement.
  19. 19. • They provide movement and force. • There are 3 types of muscle tissue: - skeletal, - smooth, - cardiac • Muscle tissue is made up of muscle fibers • Most muscles work in pairs Muscles make up the bulk of the body and account for 1/3 of its weight.
  20. 20. What are muscles made of? • Thousands, or even tens of thousands, of small fibers make up each muscle.
  21. 21. What do muscles do? • The muscular system moves substances throughout the body. – bones of the skeletal system – food through digestive system – blood through circulatory system – fluids through excretory system
  22. 22. – skeletal muscle • There are three types of muscle tissue. SKELETAL MUSCLE CARDIAC MUSCLESMOOTH MUSCLE – smooth muscle – cardiac muscle
  23. 23. Skeletal Muscles • Skeletal muscles attach to bones by tendons (connective tissue) and enable movement. • Skeletal muscles are mostly voluntary
  24. 24. Skeletal Muscles • Skeletal muscles attach to bones by tendons (connective tissue) and enable movement. Feel the back of your ankle to find your Achilles tendon - the largest tendon in your body.
  25. 25. – move food through digestive organs – empty liquid from the bladder – control width of blood vessels • Smooth muscle lines organs and is involuntary. Smooth muscle around this artery allows the artery to regulate blood flowby shrinking and expanding. SMOOTH MUSCLE
  26. 26. – pumps blood throughout body – contains more mitochondria than skeletal muscle cells • Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart. CARDIAC MUSCLE
  27. 27. How the Heart is Different • How is the heart different from other muscles? – It is part of both the Muscular System and the Circulatory System. – It is responsible for circulating blood throughout the body. – It has its own pacemaker for rhythmic beating.
  28. 28. muscle fiber Muscles contract when the nervous systems causes muscle filaments to move. • Muscle fibers are cells of the muscular system. muscle
  29. 29. Muscle pairs: Muscles are grouped together in pairs on your skeleton Relaxed or contracted: When one muscle of a pair contracts, the other relaxes Pulling muscles: Skeletal muscles only pull in one direction. For this reason they always come in pairs. When one muscle in a pair contracts, to bend a joint for example, its partner then contracts and pulls in the opposite direction to straighten the joint out again.
  30. 30. Today’s Warm-up • Muscle Trivia… • How many muscles are in the average adult human body? • What is the strongest muscle in the body? • What is the largest muscle in the body? Approximately 650 Debatable, but many say the masseter (jaw). The gluteus maximus in your rear end (buttocks).
  31. 31. Today’s Close • Here’s one flexible guy and strong dude… • In control of both his skeletal and muscular systems… Robot Dancing Amazing Strength Break-Dancing