Physical Changes• Physical changes are about energy and states of matter.• When you step on a can and crush it, you have forced a physical change. The shape of the object has changed. It wasnt a change in the state of matter, but something changed.• When you melt an ice cube you have also forced a physical change (adding energy). That example caused a change in the state of matter. You can cause physical changes with forces like motion, temperature, and pressure. • Melting a sugar cube is a physical change because the substance is still sugar.
Chemical Changes• Chemical changes happen on a molecular level.• Chemical changes happen on a much smaller scale. While some experiments show obvious chemical changes such as a color change, most chemical changes happen between molecules and are unseen. • When iron (Fe) rusts you can see it happen over a long period of time. The actual molecules have changed their structure (the iron oxidized). • Burning a sugar cube is a chemical change. The energy of the fire has broken down the chemical bonds.
States of Matter• States are also known as a phase.• Elements and compounds can move from one phase toanother phase when special physical forces are present.• One example of those forces is temperature. The phase orstate of matter can change when the temperature changes.• Generally, as the temperature rises, matter moves to amore active state.
Solids• Solids are usually hard because their molecules have been packedtogether. The closer the molecules are, the harder the substance.• Solids also can hold their own shape. A rock will always look like arock unless something happens to it. The same goes for a diamond.Even when you grind up a solid into a powder, you will see little tinypieces of that solid under a microscope. Liquids will move and fill up anycontainer. Solids keep their shape.• In the same way that a solid holds its shape, the atoms inside of asolid are not allowed to move around too much. This is one of thephysical characteristics of solids. • Atoms and molecules in liquids and gases are bouncing and floating around, free to move where they want. The molecules in a solid are stuck. The atoms still spin and the electrons fly around, but the entire atom will not change position.
Liquids• Liquids are an in-between state of matter. They can be found inbetween the solid and gas states.• One characteristic of a liquid is that it takes the shape of the container.• Another trait of liquids is that they are difficult to compress. When youcompress something, you take a certain amount of substance and forceit into a smaller space.• Liquids already have their atoms close together, so they are hard tocompress. Many shock absorbers in cars compress liquids• Liquids have cohesive (sticky) forces at work that hold the moleculestogether.
Gases• Gases are spread out and the atoms and molecules are full of energy.They are bouncing around constantly.• Gases can fill a container of any size or shape.• Gases hold huge amounts of energy, and their molecules are spreadout as much as possible.• These molecules can be compressed. Combinations of pressure anddecreasing temperature force gases into tubes that we use every day.You might see compressed air in a spray bottle or feel the CO2 rush outof a can of soda. Those are both examples of gas forced into a spacesmaller than it would want, and the gas escapes the first chance it gets
Plasma• Plasmas are a lot like gases, but the atoms are different because they aremade up of free electrons and ions of the element.• Fluorescent light bulbs are not like regular light bulbs. Inside the long tubeis a gas. Electricity flows through the tube when the light is turned on.• The electricity acts as that special energy and charges upthe gas. This charging and exciting of the atoms createsglowing plasma inside the bulb.• You dont find plasmas too often when you walk around.They arent things that happen regularly on Earth. If youhave ever heard of the Northern Lights or ball lightning, youmight know that those are types of plasmas.
Plasma• You also see plasma when you look at stars. Stars are big balls ofgases at really high temperatures. The high temperatures charge up theatoms and create plasma.• Stars are another good example of how the temperature of plasmascan be very different. Fluorescent lights are cold compared to really hotstars. They are still both forms of plasma, even with different physicalcharacteristics
Bose-Einstein Condensate• Predicted in 1924 by Albert Einstein, who built on the work ofSatyendra Nath Bose, the condensation occurs when individual atomsmeld into a "superatom" behaving as a single entity at just a fewhundred billionths of a degree above absolute zero.• The atoms within the condensate obey the laws of quantum physicsand are as close to absolute zero—minus 273.15 Celsius or minus459.67 degrees Fahrenheit—as the laws of physics will allow. Thephysicists likened it to an ice crystal forming in cold water. The graphic shows three- dimensional successive snap shots in time in which the atoms condensed from less dense red, yellow and green areas into very dense blue to white areas.
Bose-Einstein Condensate• The team led by Cornell and Wieman used laser and magnetic traps tocreate the BEC, a tiny ball of rubidium atoms that are as stationary asthe laws of quantum mechanics permit. The condensate was formedinside a carrot-sized glass cell. Made visible by a video camera, thecondensate looks like the pit in a cherry except that it measures onlyabout 20 microns in diameter or about one-fifth the thickness of a sheetof paper. Twelve-vortex array in a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate.
Bose-Einstein Condensate• Wiemans technique cooled the atoms to about 10 millionths of adegree above absolute zero, still far too hot to produce Bose-Einsteincondensation. About 10 million of these cold atoms were captured in thelight trap. Once the atoms were trapped, the researchers turned off thelaser and kept the atoms in place by a magnetic field. Most atoms actlike tiny magnets because they contain spinning charged particles likeelectrons. The atoms can be trapped, or held in place, if a magnetic fieldis properly arranged around them. Emergence of vortex structure in a rotating Bose- Einstein condensate.