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Human Body Systems Test Review


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Human Body Systems Test Review

  1. 1. Human Body Systems Test Review Structure and Function of Living Systems
  2. 2. 1. List the parts of the Integumentary System. The integumentary system consists of the largest organ in the body, the skin. It also includes the hair and nails.
  3. 3. 2. List the parts of the Respiratory System. The Human Respiratory System consists of the mouth, nares/nose, nasal (sinus) cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and diaphragm Lungs –of course! Mouth nasal (sinus) cavity bronchioles
  4. 4. 3. List the functions and structures of the following systems: Mnemonic: Circulatory Function: Structures (major organs): MICE R NERDS heart - veins - arteries - capillaries this system is responsible for the movement of blood, nutrients, and gases throughout every cell in the body.
  5. 5. Muscular Function: Structures (major organs): working with the bones and joints, this system provides movement for the body and maintains the body’s vertical posture. - skeletal muscles (like biceps) -cardiac muscle (the heart) - smooth muscles (like stomach)
  6. 6. Skeletal Function: Structures (major organs): 1) Provides a frame and support for your body 1) enables you to move 2) protects your internal organs 3) stores minerals until your body needs them your bones (skeleton), cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints (minor)
  7. 7. Digestive Function: Structures (major organs): this system breaks down consumed food into nutrients and absorbs moisture needed by the body . -mouth- -esophagus - stomach- -small intestine -large intestine -– rectum – anus Accessory Organs: - salivary glands- tongue - liver- pancreas - gall bladder
  8. 8. Endocrine Function: Structures (major organs): this system is a series of glands that excrete chemicals called hormones that regulate cell activity or organs -pituitary gland (regulates growth) -thyroid gland (regulates metabolism) -adrenal gland (regulates stress hormones) - testes and ovaries
  9. 9. Respiratory Function: Structures (major organs): this system is responsible for oxygenating the entire body as well as the removal of carbon dioxide. Nose – nasal cavity Mouth – Pharynx Trachea (wind pipe) – Bronchi- Bronchioles – Alveoli – Lungs – Diaphragm
  10. 10. Nervous System Function: Structures (major organs): system responsible for controlling all other systems through the sending and receiving of electrical signals. Receives info from inside and outside the body, directs the way your body responds to that info, and helps maintain homeostasis. - Brain (part of CNS) - Spinal Cord (part of CNS) - Nerves
  11. 11. Integumentary System Function: Structures (major organs): this system includes the hair, skin, and nails and is the bodies first line of defense against harmful micro-organisms and trauma 1) Covers body and prevents water loss 2) Protects body from injury and infection 3) Regulates Body Temperature 4) Eliminates waste 5) Gathers info about the environment 6) Produces Vitamin D - Skin - Hair - Nails
  12. 12. 4. Explain how the Circulatory and Excretory system work together. Blood that circulates through the body passes through one of the two kidneys. Waste like urea, uric acid, and water are removed from the blood and most of the water is put back into the system. The circulatory brings cellular waste from the body to the excretory system so it can be removed from the body.
  13. 13. 5. Explain how the Respiratory and Circulatory system work together. The respiratory system takes in oxygen. Oxygen goes through the walls of the aveoli (air sacs) and into the capillaries. Oxygen is then transported throughout the body. GAS EXCHANGE!!!! When you breathe, the circulatory system carries oxygen to your cells and carries dissolved carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
  14. 14. 6. Name the largest organ in the body. It is part of what system? The skin is the largest organ in the body: 12-15% of body weight, with a surface area of 1-2 meters. It is part of the Integumentary system.
  15. 15. 7. Name the 3 basic kinds of joints in the body and give an example of each. Ball and socket-shoulder-allows the arm to move freely
  16. 16. 7. Name the 3 basic kinds of joints in the body and give an example of each. Hinge-knee -allows movement forward and back( like a door) Sliding-hand
  17. 17. 8. Name the largest bone in the body. 9. Where are the smallest bones in the body located? the femur The three smallest bones are the ear ossicles, three bones found in the middle ear. They are the stapes (stirrup), incus (anvil) and malleus (hammer).
  18. 18. 10. Name the 3 types of muscle tissue found in the body and tell where each is found. Smooth muscles are found in your digestive tract and blood vessels Cardiac muscles are found in the walls of the heart Skeletal muscles are found in muscles which are attached to the skeleton
  19. 19. 11.Put the following in order from smallest to largest: organs, tissues, organism, cells, organ system Cells Tissues Organs Organ System Organism
  20. 20. Define the following: red blood cell white blood cell carries oxygen and nutrients through the body and is made in the marrow One of the cells the body makes to help fight infections. an important part of the body's defense system.
  21. 21. Define the following: Tendon Cartilage Ligament connects muscle to bone soft, connective tissue used for protection found in joints ,and between bones. connects bone to bone
  22. 22. Define the following: Homeostasis Oxygenate process which helps the body maintain a stable internal condition To combine or mix with oxygen. Blood is oxygenated in the lungs.
  23. 23. Define the following: Respiration The act or process of inhaling and exhaling; breathing. Taking in oxygen – releasing carbon dioxide. In air-breathing vertebrates, respiration takes place in the lungs. In fish and many invertebrates, respiration takes place through the gills. Respiration in green plants occurs during photosynthesis. Not Cellular Respiration
  24. 24. Define the following: Gas Exchange the passage of oxygen and carbon dioxide in opposite directions across the alveoli (alveolar membrane)
  25. 25. Define the following: Artery Vein Capillary a blood vessel that conveys blood from the heart to any part of the body (AWAY) A blood vessel that carries blood that is low in oxygen content from the body back to the heart. (INTO) are the smallest blood vessels in the body, connecting the smallest arteries (arterioles) to the smallest veins (venules)
  26. 26. Define the following: Involuntary (autonomic) Voluntary (somatic) muscles that you do not have control over. Example –heart, digestive muscle you have control over. Example-would be skeletal
  27. 27. 14. Name and define the 2 ways food is broken down by the digestive system. • Mechanical digestion breaks food down physically. • Chemical digestion uses enzymes (digestive juices) to breaks food down.
  28. 28. 15. What is the main function of the digestive system? • The main function of the digestive system is to breaks food down into nutrients the body can use.
  29. 29. 16. What elements are found in organic compounds? • Mnemonic --- CHONPS • Carbon • Hydrogen • Oxygen • Nitrogen • Phosphorous • Sulfur
  30. 30. 17. List the forms of energy. • Radiant (light) energy • Chemical energy • Thermal (heat) energy • Mechanical energy • Kinetic energy • Potential energy
  31. 31. 18. Name the type of energy conversion occurring in each of the following: • Energy from the sun used in photosynthesis: • Energy from food turned into fat: • energy from food used by an organism to keep warm: radiant (light) to chemical chemical to chemical chemical to thermal
  32. 32. 19. The body breaks down carbohydrates into what substance? • Carbohydrates are broken down by saliva (amylase) in the mouth into starches and sugar.
  33. 33. 20. The body breaks down proteins into what substance? • proteins are broken down into amino acids.
  34. 34. a. Interaction of food with bile b. Movement of food during peristalsis c. Chewing food d. Chewing food and mixing of food with saliva (amylase) e. Reaction of food with stomach acids f. Reaction of food with hydrochloric acid g. Absorption of nutrients by villi in the small intestine h. Compacting of waste materials in the large intestine 21. State whether the following is a chemical change, physical change or both. Chemical Physical Physical Both Chemical Chemical Both Physical
  35. 35. 22. What is homeostasis? 23. How does your body maintain a stable internal temperature? • Homeostasis is the process used by the body to maintain a stable internal environment. • Your body maintains a stable internal temperature through the process of Homeostasis.
  36. 36. 24. Why do you get a fever when you get sick? • Most pathogens (germs & viruses) cannot survive if their environment (your body) gets too hot.
  37. 37. 25. What are your 5 senses? What body system do your senses belong to? • Your 5 senses belong to the nervous system • hearing, seeing, tasting, touching, smelling
  38. 38. 26. What is the name of the nerve that carries impulses from your eye to your brain? • nerve that carries impulses from your eye to your brain is the optic nerve
  39. 39. 27. Draw an eye and label the… • Cornea • Lens • Retina • Sclera • Optic Nerve
  40. 40. 28. What does the retina do? • The retina receives the image seen through your eye, only in reverse up to down. It transmits this image through the optical nerve and your brain returns the inverted image to its correct right side up.
  41. 41. 29. What does the pupil do? • The pupil is the opening in the middle of the iris that light passes through. It expands and contracts to control the amount. • Brighter light – it contracts. • Less light – it expands.
  42. 42. 30. List the entire pathway that food takes during digestion. Begin with the mouth. • mouth • esophagus • stomach • small intestine • large intestine • rectum • anus