2014 Final Exam Review Slides


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2014 Final Exam Review Slides

  1. 1. 2013- 2014 Final Exam Review
  2. 2. Define the following: 1. Adaptation 2. Alleles The adjustment or changes in behavior, shape and structure of an organism to become more suited to an environment. adjustment to environmental conditions An allele is one of two or more versions of a gene. An individual inherits two alleles for each gene, one from each parent. If the two alleles are the same, the individual is homozygous for that gene. If the alleles are different, the individual is heterozygous.
  3. 3. Define the following: 3. Asexual reproduction 18. Sexual reproduction requires only one parent. The offspring are less diverse (exact copies!) requires two parents and the offspring are more diverse.
  4. 4. Define the following: 4. Chromosome located in the nucleus of the cell, this thread like structure is made of DNA and contains all of an organism’s genetic information. Humans have 22 pairs of chromosomes plus the two sex chromosomes (XX in females and XY in males) so 23 pair which is a total of 46.
  5. 5. Define the following: 5. Dichotomous Key a key used to identify a plant or animal based on the selection of different characteristics until one organism is left as the choice
  6. 6. 6. DNA – Deoxyribonucleic Acid, the organic compound that makes up chromosomes and contains the genetic information of an organism
  7. 7. Define the following: 7. Dominant 16. Recessive a genetic trait that will be shown if present in the genotype. It will mask or cover up, a recessive trait if one is present. RR or Rr a genetic trait that requires another like it in the genotype to be shown physically. It will be masked by a dominant trait if one is present. rr
  8. 8. Define the following: 8. Gene Is a structure found on a chromosome, located in the nucleus, that carries the genetic code for that individual. It is the smallest unit of heredity that is passed from a parent to its offspring
  9. 9. Define the following: 9. Genetics Is the study of heredity or the process in which a parent passes certain genes onto their children.
  10. 10. Define the following: 10. Genotype 14. Phenotype the way a genetic trait is physically shown or seen in an organism EX. Blue eyes, brown hair the way a genetic trait is written using capital and lowercase letters to represent dominant and recessive alleles. EX. RR, Rr, rr
  11. 11. Define the following: 11. Heredity ** Mendel the passing down of traits from parent to offspring “father of genetics”, studied pea plants, discovered that traits are controlled by two alleles.
  12. 12. Define the following: 12. Heterozygous 13. Natural Selection also called hybrid, made up of a dominant and a recessive gene. EX. Rr A process in which organisms possessing certain traits that make them better adjusted to an environment so they tend to survive, reproduce, increase in number and are able to “pass on” their traits to their offspring
  13. 13. Define the following: in genetics, a type of grid that can indicate all the possible outcomes of a genetic cross 14. Punnett Square
  14. 14. Define the following: 17. Selective breeding is the process of breeding plants and animals for particular, desirable or selected genetic traits. Ex. – certain color dogs, faster horses, Aggie bluebonnets
  15. 15. Define the following: 19. True-Breeding homozygous parents (RR x RR or rr x rr ) have offspring with the same phenotype and genotype
  16. 16. 20. Give an example of an animal and plant adaptation. Adaptations animals living in the arctic would need for survival One of the most obvious adaptations for life in a cold environment is insulating feathers, fur or fat (blubber). Large size and short appendages are adaptations that reduce heat loss and resist cold They need a way to hide (camouflage) – so a white or light colored coat.
  17. 17. a hard, waxy coating on plant leaves prevents water loss in plants that grow in hot areas like the desert. 20. Give an example of an animal and plant adaptation. Adaptations plants living in the desert would need for survival
  18. 18. 21. Name and describe important events for an organism that allows them to continue their species. Natural Selection in 4 Steps: – Overproduction – more individuals are born than will survive to adulthood – Genetic variation – different traits that could give an organism a better chance of survival – Struggle to survive – competition between organisms that allow those with “strong” traits to survive – Successful reproduction – organisms with strong straits survive and then can reproduce and pass along those traits.
  19. 19. 22. What is the difference in the offspring of organisms that are the product of sexual reproduction versus asexual reproduction? The offspring of organisms with asexual reproduction, have the exact genetic code of their parents because DNA (traits) come from only one parent. Offspring are exact copies.
  20. 20. 22. What is the difference in the offspring of organisms that are the product of sexual reproduction versus asexual reproduction? Organisms that are produced from sexual reproduction have a combination of their parents traits governed by the rules of heredity.
  21. 21. A. What is the most likely phenotype of the offspring? B. What are the most likely genotype of the offspring? C. Which is the dominant trait? D. Which is the recessive trait? E. What is the percent chance of having blue eyes? 22. Fill in the Punnett Square. Answer the following questions: BB x bb B = brown eyes b = blue eyes B B b Bb Bb b Bb Bb 100 % Bb 100% Brown eyes B = Brown eyes b = blue eyes 0%
  22. 22. 23. Describe and draw the physical make-up of DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid is an organism’s genetic information. It is a complex organic compound.
  23. 23. 24. Describe Mendel’s accomplishments in the field of genetics? He discovered that an organism’s characteristics are controlled by 2 (alleles) genes, one from each parent.
  24. 24. Any of a large number of organic compounds found in living cells that contain Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen, and join together to form proteins. Amino acids contain a basic amino group (NH2) and an acidic carboxyl group (COOH), both attached to the same carbon atom. Define the following: 25. Amino Acids Amino Acids are the building blocks of proteins!!
  25. 25. is the breakdown of food in the mouth, stomach and intestines through the use of acids and enzymes. These enzymes are responsible for the breakdown of complex molecules such as fats, proteins, and carbohydrates into smaller molecules. These smaller molecules can then be absorbed for use by cells. Define the following: 26. Chemical Digestion
  26. 26. Define the following: the system responsible for moving blood, nutrients and gasses throughout the body 27. Circulatory System
  27. 27. Define the following: 28. Digestive System the system responsible for moving blood, nutrients and gasses (O2 and CO2) throughout the body.
  28. 28. Define the following: the system that regulates the body through sending out chemicals called hormones. 29. Endocrine System
  29. 29. Define the following: 30. Homeostasis -- is the ability to maintain a constant internal environment in response to environmental changes.
  30. 30. Define the following: 31. Involuntary muscle 38. Voluntary muscle Muscles that are not under your direct control Ex. Heart Muscles that ARE under your direct control. Ex. Skeletal muscles such as biceps and triceps
  31. 31. Define the following: The system responsible for controlling all other systems through the sending and receiving signals . 32. Nervous System
  32. 32. 33. Organic Compounds- Define the following: are any chemicals that include Carbon and at least one Hydrogen atom. Organic compounds make up organic matter and can include other atoms like Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Sulfur. Mnemonic: CHONPS
  33. 33. Is the physical breaking down of food. Physical digestion changes food’s shape, texture, and size. Define the following: 34. Physical Digestion
  34. 34. List the structures of the digestive system where physical digestion takes place. Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine.
  35. 35. This system is responsible for oxygenating the entire body as well as the removal of carbon dioxide. Define the following: 35. Respiratory System
  36. 36. Define the following: 37. Stimulus 36. Response anything that affects the activity of an organism. reaction to a stimulus
  37. 37. 39. What is the function of digestive enzymes? List the organs that produce them Digestive enzymes assist with chemical digestion. They speed up the breaking down of food molecules. Mouth, Stomach, Pancreas, Liver, Small intestine,
  38. 38. 40. Which macromolecule is begins breaking down in the mouth? What is the result? Carbohydrates begin breaking down in the mouth Carbohydrates break down into glucose because of the enzyme found in saliva (amylase).
  39. 39. 41. Name and describe the body systems that move the human body. The skeletal system and the muscular system move the body.
  40. 40. 42. Label the Skeleton. (Bone Chillin’ Webquest) A - Cranium B - Vertebrae B - Vertebrae C - Sternum D - Ribs E - Pelvis Innominate J - Clavicle K - Humerus L - Ulna M - Radius N - Carpals O - Metacarpals P - Phalanges Q - Femur R - Patella S - Tibia T - Fibula U - Tarsals V - Metatarsals P - Phalanges
  41. 41. 43. Which two body systems work together to produce a response to stimulus? How? The nervous system and the muscular system work together to produce a response to a stimulus. The nervous system receives the stimulus and sends the information to the brain which then sends signals to the muscles to respond.
  42. 42. 44. List the levels of organization starting with the smallest: organ, organ system, cell, organism, tissue, atom Atoms Molecule Cells Tissue Organ Organ system - organism
  43. 43. 45. Describe the body’s responses to the following in order to achieve homeostasis: a. Upset Stomach b. Excessive Cardio Activity c. Infection Many times an upset stomach results in vomiting which is the body’s way of getting rid of something that is causing the upset. Results in increased respiration and heart rate as the body attempts to bring in extra oxygen to get to the muscle and tissues. Often results in a fever, where the bodies increased temperature creates an environment that many infection causing bacteria can not survive.
  44. 44. 46. Explain why glucose (C6H12O6) is an organic compound. : Glucose is an organic compound because it contains large amounts of Carbon and Hydrogen as well as other elements, like Oxygen, Nitrogen and Phosphorous. Think CHONPS!! .
  45. 45. • Erosion the movement of already weathered sediment from place to place.
  46. 46. • Succession -- The gradual growth of lichens, mosses and grasses in new soil. The gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the gradual replacement of one community by another until a stable climax community is established.
  47. 47. • Primary Succession • Secondary Succession always begins from a new land formation of inorganic material, such as rock or volcanic rock. It is the process of change for a given area that is devoid has no life into one that does. Secondary succession involves the process of change for a remaining area of vegetation recovering from either whole or partial destruction, such as volcanic eruptions or glacier recessions, or some disturbance, such as fire, flooding or a windstorm.
  48. 48. • Multicellular • Unicellular -- made up of more than one cell -- made up of a single cell
  49. 49. 10. Explain the difference between a compound and an element. An element is what is found on the periodic table. It is written with a Capital letter or a capital and a lowercase letter. An element is the smallest unit of a substance that has the characteristics of that substance. A compound is made up of 2 or more elements chemically combined
  50. 50. Define the following: process by which green plants make food • Photosynthesis
  51. 51. Define the following: • Mitosis • Meiosis the division of genetic material in a cell that produces two identical cells type of cell division that results in sperm and eggs cells used in reproduction.
  52. 52. Define the following: • Abiotic- • Biotic- all nonliving factors in the environment all living factors in the environment
  53. 53. Define the following: • Ecosystem- a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment
  54. 54. Define the following: • Digestion- • Chemical digestion- • Physical digestion a process which breaks down large molecules in food to small ones that the body can use and absorb breaking apart chemical bonds of nutrients by enzymes -changing the size, shape
  55. 55. 3. What is the function of the cell wall? The cell wall gives the plant its rigid structure.
  56. 56. 4. List the phases of mitosis in the correct order. Summarize what happens at each stage Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, telophase.
  57. 57. 5. How are dominant traits written? Recessive traits? Dominant traits are written with capitals. Ex. RR Recessive traits are written with lower case. EX. rr
  58. 58. 6. What is the function of mitochondria? Mitochondria produces energy, ATP and releases CO2.
  59. 59. 9. Compare and contrast abiotic and biotic Abiotic is all of the nonliving factors in the environment. water temperature air rocks sand Biotic is all of the living factors in the environment. birds bees
  60. 60. 10. Write the formula for photosynthesis. Explain the formula in words.
  61. 61. 14. Explain what type of digestion occurs in the mouth. The mouth breaks down food both chemically and physically. Chewing using the teeth, jaw , tongue and lips breaks it down physically. Saliva in the mouth begins the breakdown of carbohydrates and starch.
  62. 62. 15. What nutrients are broken down chemically in the mouth? Saliva in the mouth begins the breakdown of carbohydrates and starches. 16. What enzyme is found in the mouth? Salivary amylase is the enzyme found in the mouth and begins the breakdown of carbohydrates and starches.
  63. 63. atom molecule organelle cell tissue organ organ system organism population community. 17. Put the following in order from smallest to largest: