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Systems of the Human Body


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Systems of the Human Body

  1. 1. 1 Systems of the Human Body
  2. 2. 2 Cells work together to form tissues Tissues work together to form organs Organs work together to form organ systems Levels of Organization
  3. 3. 3 There are 10 organ systems in the Human Body: – Circulatory – Respiratory – Skeletal – Muscular – Digestive – Excretory – Reproductive – Integumentary – Nervous – Endocrine These organ systems are woven together such that one cannot work without the other. Mnemonic :
  4. 4. 4 Circulatory and Respiratory Systems Circulatory System – contains the heart and all the blood vessels – Responsible for movement of blood, nutrients, and gases – Heart pumps blood to lungs to receive oxygen and then to the rest of the body Respiratory System – Responsible for bringing in oxygen and ridding our bodies of carbon dioxide – Lungs, diaphragm, and windpipe – Oxygenates our entire body
  5. 5. 5 Skeletal System • The skeletal system is the internal support and movement system Includes bones, cartilage, teeth, joints and ligaments. • About 206 bones in the Human Body
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. 7 Skeletal System • 5 major functions: – Protection – protects vital organs – Storage – stores minerals (Calcium) and fat – Movement – muscles pull bones to move - Limbs act as rigid levers against which muscles can work – Blood Cell Formation – make blood cells – Support – shape and form – supports the body against gravity
  8. 8. 8 Skeletal System
  9. 9. 9 Skeletal System Types of joints • Sliding joint – bones glide over each other (Example: hand)
  10. 10. 10 Skeletal System Types of joints • Ball and socket joint – like a joystick in a computer game (Example: shoulder)
  11. 11. 11 Skeletal System Types of joints • Hinge joint – like a door hinge, flex and extend (Example: knee)
  12. 12. 12 Sliding Joint 3 types of joints Ball and socket joint like a joystick in a computer game (Example: shoulder) Sliding joint bones glide over each other (Example: hand) Hinge joint like a door hinge, flex and extend (Example: knee)
  13. 13. 13 Muscular System The muscular system works with the skeletal system to provide movement. • Voluntary – muscles move under your control – Example: skeletal muscles, bicep, quadriceps • Involuntary – muscles that move without you controlling them – Example: smooth and cardiac, and sometimes skeletal (eyes blinking)
  14. 14. 14 Tendons – connect muscles to bones
  15. 15. 15 Ligaments – connect bone to bone
  16. 16. 16 Muscle Types Location in the body: Location in the body: Location in the body: Smooth Cardiac Skeletal only in digestive tract & blood vessel walls only in the heart muscle attached to the bones
  17. 17. 17 Integumentary System • Includes your hair, nails, and skin • Largest organ system in your body • Your body’s first line of defense
  18. 18. 18 Integumentary System • Skin – keeps fluids in your body and foreign particles out – nerves are in your skin to help you feel – Regulates your body temperature with the help of sweat glands – Melanin – absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun • Epidermis – top layer of skin, most cells are dead, about as thin as 2 sheets of notebook paper • Dermis – under epidermis, allows skin to bend without tearing
  19. 19. • Hair and Nails - Hair gets its color from the melanin - Hair roots and nail beds have new cells, but your hair hanging off your head and your nails are all dead cells, 19 Integumentary System YUCK!
  20. 20. 20 And the rest of them… • Excretory System - release of wastes and regulates bodily fluids • Reproductive System – Male: produces and delivers sperm – Female: produces eggs and shelters unborn baby • Nervous System – receives and sends electrical messages throughout the body • Digestive System – breaks down the food you eat into nutrients for your body • Endocrine System – regulate body functions by sending chemical messages
  21. 21. 21 Forces with our body • Motion and Forces are acting all around us. They are also acting in us. – Example: When the heart pumps it exerts a force which pushed blood throughout the body – Example: Blood Pressure is measured by the force exerted on the walls of blood vessels by blood pushing on them