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Qualitative research designs

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Qualitative research designs

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Qualitative research designs

  1. 1.  Naturalistic paradigm  Soft science  Focus: usually broad  Holistic  Subjective  Reasoning: dialectic, inductive  Basis of knowing: meaning, discovery  Shared interpretation  Communication and observation  Basic element of analysis: words  Individual interpretations  Uniqueness
  2. 2.  Based on holistic view & following beliefs: (1) There is no single reality – reality is based on perceptions – it is different for each person – changes over time (2) What we know has meaning only within a given situation or context The reasoning process in qualitative research involves: - perceptually putting pieces together to make wholes
  3. 3.  This concept is closely related to “wholism” and proposes that a particular phenomenon is organized into a cluster of linked ideas, “a gestalt”.  Disadvantage: - understand a phenomenon through the interpretation of a particular theory
  4. 4.  First to deconstruct your original sedimented views  Reconstruct another view  Focus on a different view point or looking at something differently (a different lens)  To increase openness
  5. 5.  Frameworks are not used the same as in quantitative  The goal is not theory testing  Each study should be guided by a particular philosophical stance  Philosophical Stance assists to: (a) directs the question(s) that are asked (b) the observations which are made (c) the interpretation of data
  6. 6.  Specify design before data collection  Adhere to the design after study started  Study design evolves over time  Researcher Decisions include: (a) How to obtain (b) From whom to collect (c) How to schedule (d) How long
  7. 7.  EMERGENT DESIGN  A design that emerges as the researcher makes ongoing decisions reflecting what has already been learned  Lincoln & Cuba (1985) – not researcher laziness or sloppiness – but rather desire to base inquiry on realities and viewpoints of those under study  Key: realities and viewpoints that are NOT KNOWN or UNDERSTOOD AT THE OUTSET
  8. 8.  Flexible, elastic, capable of adjusting  Merging together of various data collection strategies  Holistic, understand the whole  Research intensely involved  Research to become the research instrument  Requires ongoing analysis of data to formulate subsequent strategies and to determine when field work is done What is “Bricolage?”
  9. 9.  PHASES of a Qualitative Study: (1) Orientation an overview (2) Focused exploration (3) Confirmation and closure (Lincoln & Cuba, 1985)
  10. 10.  Control over the independent variable  Type of group comparisons  Number of data collection points  Occurrence of the independent & dependent variables
  11. 11.  Four traditions described by nurse researcher: (1) Ethnography (2) Phenomenology (3) Grounded Theory (4) Historical Research
  12. 12.  Research tradition in anthropology  Provides a framework for studying meanings, patterns, and experiences defined by a cultural group in a holistic fashion  Ethnoscience (Cognitive Anthropology): focuses on the cognitive world of a culture – semantic rules and shared meanings that shape behavoir
  13. 13.  Focus: the culture of a group of people  Assumption: every human group evolves a culture that guides members view of the world and the way they structure their experiences  At times referred to as “macroethnography: - able to study broadly defined cultures  At times referred to as “microethnography” – able to study cultures using a very narrow focus
  14. 14.  Aim: to learn from rather than study members of a cultural group  Two perspectives: (1) Emic – insider’s view, the way the members of a culture envision their world (2) Etic - outsiders’ interpretation of the experiences of that culture – strive to get at cultural experiences that members do not talk about or may not even be consciously aware
  15. 15.  Extensive field work  Typically labor intensive  Time consuming  Researcher as instrument - to study a culture it requires a certain level of intimacy – needs to be developed – become one within the culture
  16. 16.  Three types of information: (1) Cultural behavoir (2) Cultural artifacts (3) Cultural speech Sources of information – in-depth interviews, records, charts, observations and other types of physical evidence are used
  17. 17.  Products of this research includes: - rich and holistic descriptions - describe normative behavoir and social patterns - Information about health beliefs and health practices - Facilitates an understanding of behavoirs affecting health and illness - Leininger coined the phrase: “ethnonursing research” –the study and analysis of local or indigneous people’s viewpoints, beliefs and practices about nursing care behavoir and processes of designated cultures
  18. 18.  Phenomenology is both philosophy and a research method  Purpose of this research method is to describe experiences as they are lived – to capture the “lived experience”  Developed by Husserl & Heidegger – an approach to thinking about people’s life experiences.
  19. 19. Philosophical Orientation - view the person as integral with the environment - World is shaped by the self and also shapes the self - The person is a self within a body - Person is referred to as “embodied” – our bodies provide the possibility for the concrete actions of self in the world
  20. 20.  A phenomenological researcher asks the question: “What is the essence of this phenomena as experienced by these people and what does it mean?” Assumption: there is an “essence” an essential variant structure  Investigates subjective phenomena  Belief that truths about reality are grounded in peoples’ lived experiences
  21. 21.  Four aspects of the lived experience: (1) SPATIALITY (2) CORPOREALITY (3) TEMPORALITY (4) RELATIONALITY
  22. 22.  Data sources:  In-depth conversations  Researcher helps the participant to describe lived experiences without leading the discussion  Two or more interviews/conversations are needed  Usually small number of participants (ie. 10 or less)  May use participation, observation and introspective reflection
  23. 23.  Is an inductive research technique developed for health- related topics by Glaser & Strauss (1967)  Emerged from the discipline of sociology  “Grounded” – means the theory developed from the research is grounded or has it roots in the data from which is was derived
  24. 24.  Philosophical Orientation:  Based on symbolic interaction theory  Explores how people define reality and how their beliefs are related to their actions  Meaning is expressed through – symbols – such as words, religious objects, and clothing  Symbolic meanings are different for each of us  In social life - meanings are shared by groups – socialization process  Group life is based on consensus and shared meanings
  25. 25.  Is an approach to study the social processes and social structures  Focus: is the evolution of a social experience – the social and psychological stages that characterize a particular event of process
  26. 26.  Methodology: - does not begin with a focused research question - the question emerges from the data - fundamental structure feature –  is the “data collection”  is the “data analysis”  Is the sampling of participants occurs simultaneously  This procedure is referred to as “constant comparison”
  27. 27.  Constant Comparison: is used to develop and refine theoretically relevant categories and to identify the basic problem  Categories that are elicited from the data are constantly compared with data obtained earlier so that “commonalities” and “variations” can be determined  Categories can be “condensed” and “collapsed”
  28. 28.  Data Sources: - in-depth interviews are most common - Observational methods - Existing documents - Usually a sample of 25 to 50 informants - Has contributed to the development of middle range nursing theories
  29. 29.  Historiography examines events of the past  Historians believe the greatest value of historical knowledge is an increased self-understanding  Philosophical Orientation:  A very old science  Primary question “Where have we come from, who are we, and where are we going?”  Myths, past, present and future are not distinguishable  Myths are a form of story telling
  30. 30.  History moves beyond the myth  Chronicling events, deeds, victories and stories about people and civilizations  Comparing histories, identifying patterns  Aim:  to discovery new knowledge  Seeking to answer questions concerning causes, effects and trends relating to past events  To shed light on present behaviors and practices
  31. 31.  Assumptions: (a) There is nothing new under the sun (a) One can learn from the past
  32. 32.  Usually small, non-random samples  Concern: measure attributes and relationships in a pop’n  Need a representative sample  Aim: to discover meaning, uncover multiple realities, therefore generalization is not a guiding criteria
  33. 33.  Types of sampling: (1) Convenience sampling (2) Snowball sampling (3) Theoretical sampling (4) Purposeful sampling – several strategies – maximum variation sampling, extreme/deviant case sampling, and typical case sampling (5) Simple random
  34. 34.  No firm establishment of criteria or rules  Should be determined on the basis of informational needs  Is largely a function of: (a) the purpose of the inquiry (b) the quality of the informants (c) The type of sampling strategy used
  35. 35.  Guiding Principle is that of,  DATA SATURATION: sampling to the point at which no new information is obtained and redundancy is achieved
  36. 36.  Evaluate the sample plan based on the following: (a) Terms of its adequacy (b) Terms of its appropriateness Adequacy means – Appropriateness means -
  37. 37.  Need to address validity and reliability  Do the measures used by the researcher yield data reflecting the truth?  Lincolon & Cuba (1985) – four criteria: (1) Credibility (2) Dependability (3) Confirmability (4) Transferability (criteria for establishing “trustworthiness”)
  38. 38.  Credibility – refers to confidence in the truth of the data  Prolonged engagement  Persistent observation  Triangulation  External checks – peer debriefing & member checks  Researcher credibility
  39. 39.  Dependability – refers to data stability over time and over conditions  Steps to approach: (a) Stepwise replication (b) Inquiry audit
  40. 40.  Confirmability –refers to the objectivity or neutrality of the data – what does that mean?  AUDIT TRAIL:  Transferability – refers to the extent to which the findings from the data can be transferred to other settings or groups = similar to the concept of generalizability  THICK DESCRIPTION:
  41. 41. Thank you

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