• Journalism is gathering, processing and
dissemination of news and information related to
the news to an audience. The word applies to
both the method of inquiring for news and the
literary style which is used to disseminate it.
• The media through which journalism is
conducted vary diversely to include content
published via newspapers and magazines (print),
television and radio, and their digital versions
published through digital media- news websites
• In modern society, the news media is the chief
purveyor of information and opinion about
public affairs. Journalism, however, is not
always confined to the news media or to news
itself, as journalistic communication may find
its way into broader forms of expression,
including literature and cinema.
• In a democratic society, however, access to
free information plays a central role in
creating a system of checks and balance, and
in distributing power equally amongst
governments, businesses individuals and
other media sources, which adhere to
journalistic standards, can also be service to
ordinary citizens, by empowering them with
• The role and status of journalism, along with
that of the mass media, has undergone
profound changes over the last two decades
with the advance digital technology and
publication of news on the internet.
Journalism is the activity of gathering,
assessing, creating, and presenting news and
• The purpose of journalism is that to
provide citizens with the information they
need to make the best possible decisions
about their lives, their communities, their
societies, and their governments.
PRINCIPLES OF JOURNALISM:
The following core principles of
1. Journalism’s first obligation is to the truth:
Democracy depends on citizens having reliable,
accurate facts put in a meaningful context.
Journalism does not pursue truth in an absolute
or philosophical sense, but it can and must
pursue it is a practical sense. This ‘journalistic
truth’ is a process that begins with the
professional discipline of assembling and
verifying facts. Then Journalists try to convey a
fair and reliable account of their meaning, valid
for now, subject to further investigation.
2. Its first loyalty is to citizens:
• While news organizations answer to many
constituencies, including advertisers and
shareholders, the Journalists in those
organizations must maintain allegiance to
citizens and the larger public interest above
any other if they are to provide the news
without fear or favor.
3. Its essence is a discipline of verification:
• Journalists rely on a professional discipline for
verifying information. When the concept of
objectivity originally evolved, it did not imply that
Journalists are free of bias. It called, rather, for a
consistent method of testing information- a
transparent approach to evidence- precisely so
that personal and cultural biases would not
undermine the accuracy of their work.
4. Its practitioners must maintain an
independence from those they cover:
• Independence is an underlying requirement
journalism, a cornerstone of its reliability.
Independence of spirit and mind, rather than
neutrality, is the principle journalists must
keep in focus.
5. It must serve as an independent monitor of
• Journalism has an unusual capacity to serve as
watchdog over those whose power and
position most affect citizens.
6. It must provide a forum for public criticism
• The news media are the common carriers of
public discussion, and this responsibility forms
a basis for our special privileges. This
discussion serves society best when it is
informed by facts rather than prejudice and
7. It must strive to make the significant
interesting and relevant:
• It should do more than gather an audience or
catalogue the important.it must strive to make
the significant interesting and
relevant.journalist must continually ask what
information has most value to citizens and in
8. It must keep the news comprehensive and
• Keeping news in proportion and not leaving
important things out are also cornerstones of
truthfulness.journalism is a form of
cartography: it creats a map for citizens to
• Mass media is a term used to denote a section of
the media specially envisioned and designed to
reach a very large audience such as the
population of a nation state.
• It was coined in the 1920s with the advent of
nationwide radio networks, mass circulation
newspapers and magazines.
• Although mass media ( like books and
manuscripts) were present centuries before the
term became common.
PURPOSES OF MEDIA
• Mass media can be used for various purposes;
• Advocacy, both for business and social concerns.
This can include advertising, marketing,
propaganda,public relations and political
• Enrichment and education.
• Entertainment, traditionally through
performances of acting, music, and sports, along
with light reading; since the late 20^th century
also through video and computer games.
• Public service announcements.
FUNCTIONS OF MASS MEDIA
• To inform
• To educate
• To entertain
• Using the media
NEGATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF
• An ability to transmit implicit or hidden
• The manipulation of large groups of people
through media outlets, for the benefit of a
particular interest party and/or group of
• Bias, political or otherwise, towards favoring a
certain individual, outcome or resolution of an
• Folk media is a genuine means of communication and a
true carrier culture amongst various people.
• It inspires people to perceive the message or
information more effectively
• Traditional folk forms in India can be effectively utilized
for social developmental communication.
• It is also called traditional media or basic media or
• It is face to face communication process and very
effective as audience have direct interaction with
medium or communicator.
TYPES OF FOLK MEDIA
• Rammlila and rashlila
• it is a commercial theatre like, widely popular
in Maharastra and inn other part of western
India. Female performer carries on the
programme of singing ‘on demand’ as
proposed by the patrons among the
audiences. Such programme does not convey
any message on religion or morals of life or
social values. Only ‘Dholki- baris’, is a refined
form of ‘Tamasha’, delivers such effective
• it is a kind of monodrama, in which whole
presentation is operated or performed by single
actor. Such a single actor enter into topic, by
acting different character lying in it. Here one
actor performs various roles simultaneously, at a
time to tell the stories of all character. The
uniqueness of keertana is that a single person
carries the entire programme by holding charm
of the programas well. Such harikeertana is
widely popular in many state in india like
• it is widely popular in Karnataka. It is
constituted basically on bhagabata, but
presented in addition with local flavor,as to
produce extra charm into it. Here, narrator
sings and explains then the theme to the
audiences.it is a mass medium for educating
as well as entertaining the people as well.
• NAUTAKIN- it is most popular folk drama form,
can be seen in north india widely. It starts
with the presence of a ‘sutradhar’ who is
narrator of the story,that taken from ancient
epic or historical events. A small group or unit,
take part in such drama’nautakin’,as to
perform other roles pertaining to the story
chosen for this purpose. It renders messages
through its presentation is, both educative
and entertaining as well.
• a popular folk drama that widely celebrated in east
and north-east india like,west Bengal,Orissa,Tripura
and assam. It is an organized teamwork and well set
up groups or units, who are professionally engaged for
better presentation to the audiences, as to move
forward this social and cultural form of folk media. In
an well set up stage outfit, equipped by light and
sound system, the whole programme creats an
environment of charming and attractive moods for the
audiences. It goes through a choosen story, taken from
history, ancient epic, social or political matter, which is
well written by script writer.jatra is really aducative as
well as an entertain form of rural folk media.
• a stylized medieval dramatic form, bhavai is
extensively adored in gujrat. Basically it is
being operated initially, by Ranglo’ and Naik
followed by other characters. Ranglo is
consider to be a ‘stock charater’ and jester at
the samerime.naik, is a sutradher who delivers
the dialogoes abundantly in attractive style.
• The program start with devotional song which
is dedicated to’amba’. The total programme
carries a lot of varieties like
dialosongs,music,songs, dances and
acrobatics, that can not signify its excellence
or improved quality rather than individual
• THERUKOOTHU- it is the most popular
traditional media of Tamilnadu.therukoothu
includes a combination of different puppetry
like, puravi attam, nizhal attam,kazhai koothu.
It is a charming street theatre, composed in
accordance with the music, drama and dance
of classical flavoured.
RAMMLILA AND RASHLILA-
• both of the programs, are widely adored and accepted
in rural society in India. Ramlila specifically, celebrated
in northern India. It presents, a series of stories on lord
Rama. It includes the stories, starting from the birth of
prince Rama, childhood of Rama,sworn in as the king
of Ayoddhya, marriage with Sita and so on, a long
lasted dramatic play, that can attract and entertain so
many viewers easily. Raslila, on the other hand, is also,
could be seen to be celebrated widely in northern state
of India, Maharastra, Kerala and in other places in our
country. Rashlila is an enchanting play that presents
the stories all about the relative matters between lord
Krishna and Radha.
• PUPPERTY- it is one of the most popular as
well as adored folk media that can attract the
children and adults equally. In India, puppetry
can be seen in four types .it is widely seen in
Orissa, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and west
Bengal. There are 4 types of
puppetry.Sutradharika, Rod puppetry, Shadow
puppetry and Hand puppetry.
ROLE OF FOLK MEDIA
• folk media play very important role on rural
citizen. The rural people are mostly illiterate,
simple and ignorant as well, and this is why ‘folk
media ‘have come to be very suitable to them all.
As the messages all, delivered by the folk media,
are easy and understandable as well, so, the
villager can enjoy and understand programme
.folk media carry a diverse messages of
education, political, social and healthcare and
agricultural innovation as to inform rural citizen.
• As the major messages in folk media, are
delivered in the form of entertainment ,to the
audiences, who have no experience or any tastes
for ither type of entertainment at all like other
urban citizen,tend come to closer with such easily
available rural media of interest and themselves
stick to its presented programmes all with greater
emphasis of rural people ,has been mostly
utilized by the folk media ,through their
presentation of varied program,that contribute to
the development of rural sector.
ROLE OF FOLK MEDIA IN SOCIAL
• In bringing change to the rural society, folk
media perform what, is conceded significantly.
It can act as the mover of ‘rural education and
culture’ in one hand, and act as the
‘surveillant’ of the rural society on the other
hand. The folk media possess wider flexibility
that determines the viability of this medium
for rural communication..
• As have wider flexibility, the folk medium, can
include any facts or event for delivering the same
through their presentation, to the audience
immediately. The other medium of mass
communication, have no such opportunity or way
to execute the same. Such interactive part done
satisfactorily, can command a successful
communication which may lead in developing the
rural society with the utilization of rendered ideas
and thoughts as available from it.