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Jean watson ppt


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Jean watson ppt

  2. 2. Nursing theory of jean watson Theory of human caring
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION: In the realms of the present times, improvements in health care system have intensified nurse’s workload and responsibilities sad but true, nurses in the present times often forget their caring attitudes when they are faced with stressful and difficult situations.
  4. 4. Despite of this, we nurses must learn how to deal with the complexities arising in every patient situation and must find ways of preserving their caring practice. One nursing theory has seemed indispensable for this goal- jean Watson’s theory of human caring.
  5. 5.  Born: West Virginia in 1940 July 21 st. Educated: BSN (1964), MS (1966), PhD (1973) from University of Colorado.  Dr. Watson has earned undergraduate and graduate degrees in nursing and psychiatric-mental health nursing and PhD in educational psychology and counseling.  Distinguished Professor of Nursing at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center.  She was also the Dean of Nursing at the University Health Sciences Center and President of the National League for Nursing
  6. 6.  The foundation of Jean Watson’s theory of nursing was published in 1979 in nursing: “The philosophy and science of caring”  In 1988, her theory was published in “nursing: human science and human care”.  In 2002 she published the book ‘’Assessing and measuring caring in nursing and health sciences
  7. 7. The ten carative factors, transpersonal caring relationship and the caring occasion constitute the elements of jean Watson’s theory of human caring. Her ten carative factors are viewed as the guide of a nurse in honoring the human dimensions of nursing which potentiates the therapeutic healing process. The ten carative factors are:
  8. 8. ALTRUISTIC SYSTEM OF VALUES •Begins developmentally at an early age with values shared with the parents. •Mediated through one’s own life experiences, the learning one gains and exposure to the humanities. •Is perceived as necessary to the nurse’s own maturation which then
  9. 9. FAITH-HOPE •Is essential to both the carative and the curative processes. •When modern science has nothing further to offer the person, the nurse can continue to use faith-hope to provide a sense of well-being through beliefs which are meaningful to the individual.
  10. 10. SELF AND TO OTHERS •Development of one’s own feeling is needed to interact genuinely and sensitively with others. •Striving to become sensitive, makes the nurse more authentic, which encourages self-growth and self-actualization, in both the nurse and those with whom the nurse interacts. •The nurses promote health and higher level functioning only when they form
  11. 11. RELATIONSHIP •Strongest tool is the mode of communication, which establishes rapport and caring. •She has defined the characteristics needed to in the helping-trust relationship. These are: Congruence Empathy Warmth •Communication includes verbal, nonverbal and listening in a manner which
  12. 12. THE EXPRESSION OF FEELINGS, BOTH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE •“feelings alter thoughts and behavior, and they need to be considered and allowed for in a caring relationship”. •Awareness of the feelings helps to understand the behavior it engenders.
  13. 13. DECISION MAKING •According to Watson, the scientific problem- solving method is the only method that allows for control and prediction, and that permits self- correction. •She also values the relative nature of nursing and supports the need to examine and develop the other methods of knowing to provide an holistic perspective.
  14. 14. PROMOTION OF INTERPERSONAL TEACHING-LEARNING •The caring nurse must focus on the learning process as much as the teaching process. •Understanding the person’s perception of the situation assist the nurse to prepare a cognitive plan.
  15. 15. AND /OR CORRECTIVE MENTAL, PHYSICAL, SOCIO-CULTURAL AND SPIRITUAL ENVIRONMENT •Watson divides these into eternal and internal variables, which the nurse manipulates in order to provide support and protection for the person’s mental and physical well-being. •Watson suggests that the nurse also must provide comfort, privacy and safety as a part of this carative factor.
  16. 16. ASSISTANCE WITH THE GRATIFICATION OF HUMAN NEEDS •She has created a hierarchy which she believes is relevant to the science of caring in nursing. •According to her each need is equally important for quality nursing care and the promotion of optimal health.
  17. 17. WATSON’S ORDERING OF NEEDS (Intrapersonal- interpersonal need) self-actualization (Psychosocial needs) Need for achievement, affiliation (Psychophysical needs) The need for activity-inactivity, sexuality (Biophysical needs) The need for food and fluid, elimination, ventilation
  18. 18. ALLOWANCE FOR EXISTENTIAL- PHENOMENOLOGICAL FORCES •Phenomenology is a way of understanding people from the way things appear to them, from their frame of reference. •Existential psychology is the study of human existence using phenomenological analysis. •This factor helps the nurse to reconcile and mediate the incongruity of viewing the person holistically while at the same time attending to the hierarchical ordering of needs. Thus the nurse assists the person to find the strength or courage to confront life or death.
  19. 19.  A special kind of human care that depends on:  Nurse’s moral commitment in protecting & enhancing human dignity as well as deeper self.  The nurse’s connection & having the potential to heal since experience, perception & intentional connection are taking place.  Describes how the nurse’s goes beyond the objective assessment to show concern towards the person’s subjective/deeper meaning of their health care situation.  Involves mutuality between the two individuals involved. TRANSPERSONAL CARING RELATIONSHIP
  20. 20. FOUR MAJOR CONCEPTS 1. HUMAN BEING •She adopts a view of the human being as: “….. a valued person in and of him or herself to be cared for, respected, nurtured, understood and assisted; in general a philosophical view of a person as a fully functional integrated self. He, human is viewed as greater than and
  21. 21. HEALTH •Watson believes that there are other factors that are needed to be included in the WHO definition of health. She adds the following three elements: •A high level of overall physical, mental and social functioning •A general adaptive-maintenance level of daily functioning •The absence of illness (or the presence of efforts that leads its absence)
  22. 22. ENVIRONMENT/SOCIETY •According to Watson caring (and nursing) has existed in every society. A caring attitude is not transmitted from generation to generation. It is transmitted by the culture of the profession as a unique way of coping with its environment.
  23. 23. •According to Watson “ nursing is concerned with promoting health, preventing illness, caring for the sick and restoring health”. •It focuses on health promotion and treatment of disease. She believes that holistic health care is central to the practice of caring in nursing. •She defines nursing as….. “A human science of persons and human health-illness experiences that are mediated by professional, personal,
  24. 24. The conceptual framework guides us through the nursing process. We help the patient and family adapt to their state of health and we do so with the unique human-to-human interaction consistent with nursing. The conceptual framework provides the structure to achieve the vision of securing the legacy, quality, innovation and market growth. This will ensure CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK-
  25. 25. •Watson points out that nursing process contains the same steps as the scientific research process. They both try to solve a problem. Both provide a framework for decision making. Watson elaborates the two processes as: 1. ASSESSMENT •Involves observation, identification and review of the problem; use of applicable knowledge in literature. •Also includes conceptual knowledge for the formulation and conceptualization of framework. •Includes the formulation of hypothesis; defining
  26. 26. •It helps to determine how variables would be examined or measured; includes a conceptual approach or design for problem solving. It determines what data would be collected and how on whom.
  27. 27. 3. INTERVENTION •It is the direct action and implementation of the plan. •It includes the collection of the data.
  28. 28. •Analysis of the data as well as the examination of the effects of interventions based on the data. •Includes the interpretation of the results, the degree to which positive outcome has occurred and whether the result can be generalized. •It may also generate additional hypothesis or may even lead to the generation of a nursing theory.
  29. 29. Thank you