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Basic research terminology

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Basic research terminology

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Basic research terminology

  1. 1. Basic Research Terminology BY:- firoz qureshi Dept. psychiatric nursning
  2. 2. HOW TO DEFINE ???  Concept: "A general idea referring to a behavior or characteristic of an individual, group, or nation". For example, pain, patient care, coping, happiness, cleanliness, dignity…etc.
  3. 3. HOW TO DEFINE ??? Construct: "A concept specified in such a way that it is observable in the real world, in order to facilitate testing of the idea". For example, position, in real world has many different meanings in gynecology, in surgery and in management.
  4. 4. Example of the relationship between "concept" and "construct":  Weight a concept.  Weight By electronic scale. In the morning. Before breakfast. Without clothes. a construct
  5. 5. HOW TO DEFINE ??? Variable: "A concept that is observable, measurable, and has a dimension that can vary". For example, temperature is a variable that is observable, measurable, and varies from high to low.
  6. 6. dependent variable 0 The "effect"; a response or behavior that is influenced by the independent variable; sometimes called the criterion variable.
  7. 7. independent variable 0 The "cause" or the variable that is thought to influence the dependent variable; in experimental research it is the variable that is manipulated by the researcher.
  8. 8. HOW TO DEFINE ??? Conceptual definition: "The definition or description of the study variables that is drawn from the theoretical or conceptual framework".
  9. 9. HOW TO DEFINE ??? Operational definition: "The definition or description of a study variable that specifies how it will be observed and measured in the study."
  10. 10. HOW TO DEFINE ???  Assumption: "A statement of principles whose correctness has not been proven, but is taken for granted on the basis of logical reasoning". "health is a priority for all people"
  11. 11. HOW TO DEFINE ???  Hypothesis: "A statement of predicted or expected relationships between the variables of the research (dep. & indep. variables)". Hypothesis lead to empirical studies that are seeking to confirm or disconfirm these predictions.
  12. 12.  null hypothesis (Ho) A statistical hypothesis that predicts there is no relationship between variables; the hypothesis that is subjected to statistical analysis.  research hypothesis (H1) An alternative hypothesis to the statistical null hypothesis; predicts the researcher's actual expectations about the outcome of a study; also called scientific, substantive, and theoretical
  13. 13. HOW TO DEFINE ??? Data: "Pieces of information that are collected as they pertain to the study".
  14. 14. HOW TO DEFINE ??? Limitations: "Weaknesses in a research“ Uncontrolled extraneous variables, that limit the generalizability of the findings.
  15. 15. HOW TO DEFINE ??? Pilot study: "A small scale trial done in preparation of a major research".
  16. 16. HOW TO DEFINE ??? Validity: “Degree or extent to which the tool or instrument measures what it is supposed to measure". For example, a ruler measures the height not the weight, while the scale measures the weight not the height.
  17. 17. HOW TO DEFINE ??? Reliability: “Degree or extent of consistency or dependability with which a study tool measures the variable over time, by different persons".
  18. 18. HOW TO DEFINE ??? Population: “Group of people who are going to be studied, and to whom should the study result apply". For example, bed-side nurses are the population in a research studying the factors affecting the nurse's workload.
  19. 19. HOW TO DEFINE ??? Sample: "Are those persons – in the population- from whom data will be actually collected, and from whom generalizations about the population will be made".
  20. 20. accessible population 0 The group of people or objects that is available to the researcher for a particular study.
  21. 21. research design 0 The overall plan for gathering data in a research study.
  22. 22. Target population 0 The entire group of people or objects to which the researcher wishes to generalize the findings of a study.
  23. 23. Abstract 0 (research abstracts). Brief summaries of research studies; generally contain the purpose, methods, and major findings of the study.
  24. 24. Any Questions ???
  25. 25. Types of Variables 1. Dichotomous variables. 2. Attribute variable . 3. Active variables. 4. Dependent and independent variables . 5. Extraneous variable
  26. 26. Types of Variables 1. Dichotomous variables. Variables that vary in only two values. For example: Male Vs female. Alive Vs dead. Day Vs night.
  27. 27. Types of Variables 2. Attribute variable: A pre-existing characteristic or attribute such as age, sex …etc. which the researcher simply observes and measures.
  28. 28. Types of Variables 3. Active variables Variables that do not pre-exist, so, the researcher has to create them. For example: If the researcher is testing the effectiveness of 4 drugs on blood pressure, here, all the four drugs are considered a variable that varies among individuals. Where different ones are taking different drugs: a, b, c or d.
  29. 29. Types of Variables 4. Dependent and independent variables  Independent variable: “Variable that is believed to cause or influence the dependent variable".  Dependent variable: “Variable that is influenced by the independent variable".
  30. 30. Example of Dependent/Independent Variables Does Smoking Cause Lung cancer ? Does Nursing care Cause Rapid recovery ? Does Drug (a) Cause Improvement ? Cause Effect Independent variable Dependent variable
  31. 31. Types of Variables 5. Extraneous variable Variable that confound the relationship between the dependent and independent variables, thus it needs to be controlled. E.g., "air pollution" is an extraneous variable interferes with studying the relationship between smoking "independent variable" and lung cancer "dependent variable".

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