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Dioxinand PCBs in four
commercially important
pelagic fish stocks in the
North EastAtlantic
April 2003
A project financed ...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
1 Executive summary...................................................................
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
1 Executive summary
Fishmeal and fish oil of European origin have been especially c...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
2 Introduction
In November 2001, the European Commission (EC) published the Directi...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
3 Background
3.1 Dioxin and PCBs
The scope of this study covers the polychlorinated...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Table 1: WHO toxic equivalency factors (TEF´s) for humans/mammals of
dioxin (PCDD a...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
3.2 Fishmeal and oil production in Iceland and the Faroes
During the years 2000 to ...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
4 Methods and materials
The commercially important pelagic fish species of the nort...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
This meant that sampling of the fishmeal and fish oil would not have been
represent...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
at one hour intervals while it was certain that the oil was still from the catch un...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
damage nor contaminate the fish in this process of measurement. Immediately after
t...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
involving carbon-on-glassfibre. The measurement was then made by means of high-
res...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
5 Results
The results of these analyses are summarised in table 5 (capelin), table ...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Figure 3: A map of the NE Atlantic showing the approximate position of the
catches....
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Table 5: Capelin. Summary of dioxin and WHO-PCB expressed on a lipid
basis. Upperbo...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Table 6: Blue Whiting. Summary of dioxin and WHO-PCB expressed on a lipid
basis. Up...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Table 7: Iceland Herring. Summary of dioxin and WHO-PCB expressed on a
lipid basis....
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Table 8: Atlanto-Scandian Herring. Summary of dioxin and WHO-PCB
expressed on a lip...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Table 9: Capelin. Summary of dioxin and WHO-PCB expressed on a sample
basis assumin...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Table 10: Blue Whiting. Summary of dioxin and WHO-PCB expressed on a
sample basis a...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Table 11: Iceland Herring. Summary of dioxin and WHO-PCB expressed on a
sample basi...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Table 13: Two sets of age division. Summary of dioxin and WHO-PCB expressed
on a li...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
It is not the intention of this report to analyse all of these results statisticall...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
maximum of 15 – 16% fat in October / November (section marked “B” on figures 4
and ...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
compared to the maximum permissible levels for dioxin in fishmeal and fish oil as
s...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Figure 7: Concentration of dioxin in all blue whiting samples, expressed on a
lipid...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
On average, the level of WHO-PCB in the lipid phase of blue whiting is 265% higher
...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
have an influence on dioxin and WHO-PCB levels. (figure 10 dioxin and figure 11
WHO...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
On average, the level of WHO-PCB in the lipid phase of Icelandic herring is 100%
hi...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Figure 13: Concentration of dioxin in all Atlanto-Scandian herring samples,
express...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
compared to the maximum permissible levels for dioxin in fishmeal and fish oil as
s...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
5.5 Age division of Blue Whiting
Fish samples from two of the landings of blue whit...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Fish length (figure 18, dioxin and figure 19, WHO-PCB) and fish weight (figure 20,
...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Figure 20: Regression of dioxin concentration in the lipid, against fish weight
R
2...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
5.6 Ratio of WHO-PCB : dioxin
The following table shows the average levels of dioxi...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
6 Discussion
According to the EU Directive 2002/32 (12), after 1.August 2003 it wil...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
the other fish species in this study, it would appear that this tendency is not app...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
7 Acknowledgements
The steering committee should like to thank the Award Committee ...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
8 References
1. Council Directive 2001/102/EC of 27.November 2001 on "the undesirab...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
9 Appendix 1
The congener results are presented on pages 40 – 50. The figures in br...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Sample code RM/IS-1 FM/IS-1 FO/IS-1 RM/IS-2 FM/IS-2 FO/IS-2 RM/IS-3 FM/IS-3 FO/IS-3...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Sample code RM/IS-4 FM/IS-4 FO/IS-4 RM/IS-5 FM/IS-5 FO/IS-5 RM/IS-6 FM/IS-6 FO/IS-6...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Sample code RM/IS-7 FM/IS-7 FO/IS-7 RM/IS-8 FM/IS-8 FO/IS-8 RM/IS-9 FM/IS-9 FO/IS-9...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Sample code RM/IS-10 FM/IS-10 FO/IS-10 RM/IS-11 FM/IS-11 FO/IS-11 RM/IS-12 RM/IS-13...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Samplecode FO/IS-13 RM/IS-14 FM/IS-14 RM/IS-15 RM/IS-16 RM/IS-17 FM/IS-17 FO/IS-17 ...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Samplecode FM/IS-18 FO/IS-18 RM/IS-19 FM/IS-19 FO/IS-19 RM/IS-20 FM/IS-20 FO/IS-20 ...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Samplecode FM/IS-21 FO/IS-21 RM/IS-22 FM/IS-22 FO/IS-22 RM/IS-23 FM/IS-23 FO/IS-23 ...
Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks
Samplecode FM/IS-24 FO/IS-24 RM/IS-25 RM/IS-26 RM/IS-27 FM/IS-27 FO/IS-27 RM/IS-28 ...
Lokaskýrsla NORA
Lokaskýrsla NORA
Lokaskýrsla NORA
Lokaskýrsla NORA
Lokaskýrsla NORA
Lokaskýrsla NORA
Lokaskýrsla NORA
Lokaskýrsla NORA
Lokaskýrsla NORA
Lokaskýrsla NORA
Lokaskýrsla NORA
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Lokaskýrsla NORA

  1. 1. Dioxinand PCBs in four commercially important pelagic fish stocks in the North EastAtlantic April 2003 A project financed by Nordisk Atlantsamarbejde (NORA) together with the Icelandic Association of Fishmeal Manufacturers and p/f Havsbrún Faroe Islands.
  2. 2. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks 1 Executive summary............................................................................2 2 Introduction ........................................................................................3 3 Background.........................................................................................4 3.1 Dioxin and PCBs .......................................................................4 3.2 Fishmeal and oil production in Iceland and the Faroes.............6 4 Methods and materials ......................................................................7 4.1 Sampling procedures .................................................................8 4.2 Sample handling ........................................................................9 4.3 Chemical analyses ...................................................................10 5 Results................................................................................................12 5.1 Capelin.....................................................................................22 5.2 Blue Whiting............................................................................24 5.3 Iceland Herring........................................................................26 5.4 Atlanto-Scandian Herring........................................................28 5.5 Age division of Blue Whiting..................................................31 5.6 Ratio of WHO-PCB : dioxin ..................................................34 6 Discussion..........................................................................................35 7 Acknowledgements...........................................................................37 8 References .........................................................................................38 9 Appendix 1 ........................................................................................39 10 Appendix 2........................................................................................51 11 Appendix 3........................................................................................53 1
  3. 3. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks 1 Executive summary Fishmeal and fish oil of European origin have been especially criticised in a report of the EU Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition (SCAN) published in November 2000. Quote “Fishmeal and fish oil are the most heavily contaminated feed materials” with respect to dioxins. The report indicated “the greatest concerns arise from the use of fishmeals and fish oils of European origin”. The EU Directive 2001/102/EC dated November 2001, on undesirable substances and products in animal nutrition, specifies maximum limits for dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. These compounds are commonly called dioxin. This Directive established a maximum permissible level for dioxin of 1,25 ng WHO- TEQ per kilogram fishmeal , and 6.00 ng WHO-TEQ per kilogram fish oil. These limits entered into force on 1.July 2002. The fishmeal and fish oil producers of Iceland and the Faroe Islands applied for a grant from the Nordisk Atlantsamarbejde (NORA) in March 2000 for the finance of an assignment with the objective to systematically collect information on dioxin as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), in samples of landed pelagic catches and the fishmeal and fish oil produced from each catch. This report presents the results of the sampling that commenced in January 2001 and was completed in December 2002. In total, 96 samples were analysed for dioxin and PCB content, from four important fish stocks of the N.E Atlantic; capelin, blue whiting, Icelandic summer spawning herring and Atlanto-Scandian spring spawning herring. The results demonstrate that most of the raw material is suitable for production of fishmeal and fish oil showing dioxin levels well below the EU limits. All of the fishmeal produced from these 4 fish stocks is within the given maximum limit for dioxin of 1,25ng WHO-TEQ per kg fishmeal. Based on the production figures of the past 3 years in Iceland and the Faroes, it is estimated that more than 85% of the fish oil production in these countries would have been below the permissible maximum level for dioxin of 6 ng WHO-TEQ per kg fishoil. 2
  4. 4. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks 2 Introduction In November 2001, the European Commission (EC) published the Directive 2001/102/EC (1) amending Directive 1999/29/EC (2) on undesirable substances and products in animal nutrition where maximum limits on dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran were stipulated for feedingstuffs. These maximum limits entered into force on 1 July 2002. The aim is to provide protective measures at the feed level with a view to protecting public health from the possible accumulative effects of dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran. Parallel measures were also taken to set maximum levels for dioxin in foodstuffs in Regulation 2375/2001 (3). The Directive was the culmination of a scientific and political debate that had taken place since the Belgium Incident in 1999. The opinion of the Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition published in November 2000 concluded that “fishmeal and fish oil are the most heavily contaminated feed materials” with respect to dioxins. The report indicated, “the greatest concerns arise from the use of fishmeals and fish oils of European origin”. It also pointed out that “limited data were available on the contamination of feed materials by WHO-PCB’s”, and suggested “scientific cooperation should be promoted in order to collect and collate information available in the different Member States at the EU level”(4). As a result of this discussion, the fishmeal and fish oil producers of Iceland and the Faroe Islands applied for a grant from the Nordisk Atlantsamarbejde (NORA) in March 2000 for the finance of an assignment with the objective to systematically collect information on dioxin and PCB’s in samples of landed pelagic catches and the fishmeal and fish oil produced from each catch. This report presents the results of the sampling that commenced in January 2001 and was completed in December 2002. The steering committee comprised: Derek Mundell, SR-mjöl hf. Reykjavík, Iceland (project leader) Magnus Pauli Magnussen, Food and Environmental Agency, Tórshavn, Faroe Islands Jón Reynir Magnusson, Association of Icelandic Fishmeal Producers, Reykjavík, Gudny Vang, pf Havsbrún, Fuglafjörður, Faroe Islands 3
  5. 5. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks 3 Background 3.1 Dioxin and PCBs The scope of this study covers the polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) commonly known as dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) commonly known as furan, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). In order to simplify, this report will use the term “dioxin” to refer to both dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran. There are 75 possible PCDD congeners and 135 possible PCDF congeners giving a total of 210 congeners. Of these, 17 have been shown to be toxic, 7 PCDDs and 10 PCDFs. There are 209 possible PCB congeners of which 12 have been shown to have dioxin-like toxicity. In order to simplify, this report will use the term “WHO-PCB” to refer to these 12 PCBs with dioxin-like toxicity. Therefore altogether 29 congeners have dioxin-like toxicity and they are the subjects of this study. In addition to these 29 toxic congeners, the 7 so-called Marker PCBs were measured in all the samples. These do not exhibit dioxin-like toxicity, but have been previously used as indicators of PCB pollution. All of these compounds are lipophilic and resist degradation. These characteristics predispose them to long environmental persistence and to long-range transport. They accumulate in lipid tissue and in carbon rich matrices such as soils and ocean sediment. Dioxin and WHO-PCBs have similar chemical and toxic characteristics but the sources of release are different. Dioxins are essentially unintentional by-products in a number of chemical processes as well as almost all combustion processes. On the other hand, PCBs are intentionally produced compounds that were manufactured for decades until their use was banned in 1985. It is estimated that a total of 1,5 million tonnes were produced worldwide before the ban was enforced (5). Although dioxin is considerably more toxic than WHO-PCBs, the concentration of WHO-PCBs in the environment is much higher than dioxin. For this reason, the total toxic effect of the WHO-PCBs is often equal to or greater than that of dioxin. The 29 toxic congeners each exhibit very different levels of toxicity on mammals. For regulatory purposes, so called toxicity equivalency factors (TEF) have been internationally agreed for risk assessment of complex mixtures of these 29 congeners. The TEFs are based on acute toxicity values from in-vivo and in-vitro studies. This approach is based on the fact that there is a common, receptor-mediated mechanism of action for these compounds. It does not, however, take account of any synergistic or antagonistic effects between the individual congeners with regard to toxicity. Although the scientific basis cannot be considered to be flawless, the TEF approach has been adopted as an administrative tool by many agencies and permits conversion of quantitative analytical data for individual congeners into a single value of toxic equivalent (TEQ). It must be realised that the TEFs are based on the present state of knowledge and are subject to revision as new data becomes available. In 1997, at a meeting of the World Health Organization, the WHO-TEF values were established based on the existing knowledge (6). These factors have been used by the EU in their legislation and the results in this report are based on these WHO-TEFs. The toxic equivalents are therefore reported as concentration of WHO-TEQ. Table 1 lists these values along with an outline of the nomenclature of the toxic congeners involved in this study. 4
  6. 6. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Table 1: WHO toxic equivalency factors (TEF´s) for humans/mammals of dioxin (PCDD and PCDF) and the WHO-PCBs. (6) Congener TEF Structure DIOXIN (PCDD and PCDF) PCDD 2,3,7,8-TCDD 1,2,3,7,8-PentaCDD 1,2,3,4,7,8-HexaCDD 1,2,3,6,7,8-HexaCDD 1,2,3,7,8,9-HexaCDD 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HeptaCDD OctaCDD 1 1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,01 0,0001 PCDD - Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin Dibenzo-p-dioxin PCDF 2,3,7,8-TetraCDF 1,2,3,7,8-PentaCDF 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF 1,2,3,4,7,8-HexaCDF 1,2,3,6,7,8-HexaCDF 1,2,3,7,8,9-HexaCDF 2,3,4,6,7,8-HexaCDF 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HeptaCDF 1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HeptaCDF OctaCDF 0,1 0,05 0,5 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,01 0,01 0,0001 PCDF – Polychlorinated dibenzofurans Dibenzofuran WHO-PCB Non-ortho PCBs (IUPAC) 3,4,4´,5-TetraCB (81) 3,3´,4,4´-TetraCB (77) 3,3´,4,4´,5-PentaCB (126) 3,3´,4,4´,5,5´-HexaCB (169) Mono-ortho PCBs 2,3,3´,4,4´-PentaCB (105) 2,3,4,4´,5-PentaCB (114) 2,3´,4,4´,5-PentaCB (118) 2´,3,4,4´,5-PentaCB (123) 2,3,3´,4,4´,5-HexaCB (156) 2,3,3´,4,4´,5´-HexaCB (157) 2,3´,4,4´,5,5´-HexaCB (167) 2,3,3´,4,4´,5,5´-HeptaCB (189) 0,0001 0,0001 0,1 0,01 0,0001 0,0005 0,0001 0,0001 0,0005 0,0005 0,00001 0,0001 WHO-PCB - Polychlorinated biphenyls - Biphenyl Marker PCBs (IUPAC) 2,4,4´-TriCB (28) 2,2´5,5´-TetraCB (52) 2,2´,4,5,5´-PentaCB (101) 2,3´,4,4´,5-PentaCB (118) 2,2´,3,4,4´,5´-HexaCB (138) 2,2´,3,4,4´,5´-HexaCB (138) 2,2´,4,4´,5,5´-HexaCB (153) 2,2´,4,4´,5,5´-HexaCB (180) - - - - - - - - Marker PCB´s – Polychlorinated biphenyls Abbreviations: CDD, chlorinated dibenzodioxin; CDF, chlorinated dibenzofuran; CB, chlorinated biphenyls, - no dioxin-like toxicity. 5
  7. 7. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks 3.2 Fishmeal and oil production in Iceland and the Faroes During the years 2000 to 2002, an average of 1,7 million tonnes of fish was landed annually and processed into fishmeal and fish oil in Iceland and the Faroes. In order to provide information on the quantity of fishmeal and oil produced, average figures for yield were used for each month and for each fish species. The following two figures show the estimated monthly fishmeal production (figure 1) and fish oil production (figure 2) based on the recorded average monthly catch landings and the estimated fishmeal and oil yields. Figure 1: Estimated fishmeal production in Iceland and the Faroe Islands, based on average landed catches 2000 – 2002. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec %ofestimatedannualfishmealproduction Capelin Blue whiting Iceland herring Atlanto-Scandian herring Total average fishmeal production was 317.000 tonnes per annum Figure 2: Estimated fish oil production in Iceland and the Faroe Islands, based on average landed catches 2000 – 2002. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec %ofestimatedannualfishoilproduction Capelin Blue whiting Iceland herring Atlanto-Scandian herring Total average fish oil production was 110.000 tonnes per annum. 6
  8. 8. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks 4 Methods and materials The commercially important pelagic fish species of the northeast Atlantic area are: Capelin (Mallotus villosus) Two herring stocks (Clupea harengus) o Icelandic summer spawning herring o Atlanto-Scandian spring spawning herring Blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) The sampling was designed to assess the dioxin and PCB content of these 4 fish stocks during the principal fishing seasons as well as in the fishmeal and fish oil produced from them. It was, however, realised that it could be difficult to follow this plan due to lack of fishing at the time when sampling should take place. The sampling was done by government-approved inspectors both in Iceland and on the Faroe Islands. Samples were taken only when boats were landing one fish species, and the factory in question was processing only that same species. Mixtures of two or more species were avoided. The landed catch in each case was rarely less than 1000 tonnes except in the case of Icelandic herring catches where a minimum of 500 tonnes was necessary. These precautions were required in order to be certain that the meal and oil samples were definitely from the raw material that was being sampled. It should be pointed out that all of the fishmeal in this project was produced by indirect hot air drying or by steam drying. Samples were taken as shown in table 2. Table 2: Number and type of samples on a monthly basis. Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Capelin fish 2 2 2 4 5 fishmeal 2 2 2 4 3 fish oil 2 2 2 4 3 Iceland Herring fish 1 3 3 fishmeal 1 1 1 fish oil 1 1 1 Atl.-Scan. Herring fish 2 2 1 fishmeal 2 2 fish oil 2 2 Blue Whiting fish 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 fishmeal 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 fish oil 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 In some cases, only raw material samples were taken. There were two reasons for this deviation from the initial plan. Firstly, the catches of capelin in the autumn months were rather small during both years of the project. Five samples of capelin were taken during December 2001 and December 2002; thereof 3 sets complete with fishmeal and fish oil samples. The remaining two catches were too small (<500 mt) to justify sampling of the fishmeal and fish oil. Secondly, the herring catches were generally sorted according to size at landing, and the larger fish processed for human consumption. The smaller fish and the offcuts were processed into fishmeal and oil. 7
  9. 9. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks This meant that sampling of the fishmeal and fish oil would not have been representative of the total catch. Nevertheless, it was possible to take 7 sets of herring samples out of the 12 catches which were sampled. This made a total of 96 samples that were taken during 2001 and 2002 depending on the availability of the fish stocks. In 29 cases the samples were taken from the same material as it passed through the processing system so that the fishmeal and fish oil was directly comparable with the raw fish. In addition to these samples, on two separate occasions during the landing of blue whiting in the Faroe Islands, randomly taken raw fish samples were divided into three groups of 25 fish according to size and subsequently investigated in order to provide an insight into the effect of fish age on dioxin and WHO-PCB levels in blue whiting. 4.1 Sampling procedures Raw material: Only whole and undamaged fish were included in the sample. The size of the sample was as follows. Number of individual fish Capelin 100-110 Herring 30 - 40 Blue Whiting 100-110 Each catch was sampled throughout the landing in order to give a representative sample of the whole load. At all stages of sample collection it was essential to avoid contact of the sample with plastic, rubber, mineral oil and grease. All containers were thoroughly cleaned with appropriate solvents before use in order to prevent contamination of the samples. After sampling in Iceland, the fish were frozen as soon as possible to prevent deterioration. In the Faroe Islands, the measuring of biological parameters and collecting of otoliths for age determination was performed on the fresh fish. Fish meal: Sampling of the meal commenced when it was certain that meal from the catch which had been sampled, had started to emerge from the production line. A 50 –100g. meal sample was taken after the meal cooler at one hour intervals while it was certain that the meal was still from the catch under investigation. To prevent contamination of the sample, all contact with plastic, rubber, mineral oil and grease was avoided. At the end of the sampling period, the collective sample was mixed well prior to taking two subsamples which were placed in glass containers that had been thoroughly cleaned. Aluminium foil was placed between the container and the lid so that the sample did not touch the lid’s lining. Fish oil: Sampling of the fish oil from the final centrifuge commenced when it was certain that oil from the catch which was sampled, had started to emerge from the final centrifuge. A 100ml. fish oil sample was taken at the outlet from the centrifuge 8
  10. 10. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks at one hour intervals while it was certain that the oil was still from the catch under investigation. To prevent contamination of the sample, all contact with plastic, rubber, mineral oil and grease was avoided. At the end of the sampling period, the collective sample was mixed well prior to taking three subsamples which placed in the glass containers that had been thoroughly cleaned. Aluminium foil was placed between the container and the lid so that the sample did not touch the lid’s lining. 4.2 Sample handling In Iceland, when all 3 samples in a set (i.e. 1 fish sample, 1 fishmeal sample and 1 fish oil sample) had been collected, they were sent to the Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories (IFL) in Reykjavík. On the Faroe Islands, a technician from the Faroese Fisheries Laboratory (FFL) registered all the biological parameters and collected the otoliths from the fresh fish immediately after landing at the Havsbrún plant. The otoliths were subsequently labelled and sent to FFL in Tórshavn for age determination. The samples were accompanied by the following information on the catch. Fish species Name and number of vessel Date of catch Area of catch Port of landing Size of catch Processing plant Date of sampling At IFL, Reykjavík and at the Havsbrún laboratory in the Faroes, each sample was identified with a serial number as follows: Raw material – Iceland RM/IS -1, RM/IS -2 etc Fishmeal – Iceland FM/IS -1, FM/IS -2 etc Fishoil – Iceland FO/IS -1, FO/IS -2 etc Raw material – Faroes RM/FO -1, RM/FO -2 etc Fishmeal – Faroes FM/FO -1, FM/FO -2 etc Fishoil – Faroes FO/FO -1, FO/FO -2 etc Raw material. In Iceland, after thawing out the raw material samples, the fish were individually weighed, measured for length and in the case of capelin and blue whiting, their sex was determined. In order to determine the sex of herring, it would have been necessary to open the abdomen. It was decided not to do this since it would possibly have had an effect on the composition of the fish that were subsequently homogenised and analysed. Samples were taken for age assessment (otholith sample for blue whiting and capelin. Scale sample for herring). All care was taken not to 9
  11. 11. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks damage nor contaminate the fish in this process of measurement. Immediately after the tissue samples had been taken, the fish was coarsely minced and a portion was homogenized as finely as possible before it was placed in a glass container with aluminium foil inside the lid. The container was then labelled with the allocated sample code number e.g. RM/IS – 1. On the Faroe Islands, an official from the Faroese Fisheries Laboratory prepared the samples in a similar way as in Iceland immediately after the biological parameters had been measured and the otoliths removed as described previously. On two occasions on the Faroe Islands, an additional blue whiting sample was taken and divided into 3 groups of 25 fish. Each fish was then weighed, measured for length, the sex was determined and then the otholiths removed for age determination. Each group was then homogenised separately before it was placed in a glass container. These samples were labelled RM-A/FO -# (smallest fish), RM-B/FO-# (medium sized fish) and RM-C/FO-# (largest fish). Fish meal: Each meal sample, as received from the factory inspector, was labelled with the allocated serial number e.g. FM/IS -1. Fish oil: Each oil sample as received from the factory inspector, was labelled with the allocated serial number e.g. FO/IS –1. All samples were deep frozen before being sent for dioxin and PCB analysis. 4.3 Chemical analyses Fat: IFL measured fat in all raw material samples and fishmeal samples using extraction with petroleum ether (7). Moisture: IFL measured moisture in all raw material samples and fishmeal samples using oven drying at 105°C (8). Dioxin and PCBs: The steering committee selected the laboratory ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH in Hamburg to perform these analysis. This laboratory has taken part in international interlaboratory quality control studies, organized by WHO and EU. ERGO is regarded as one of the laboratories most experienced in this type of analysis and has worked with the European fishmeal and fish oil industry for several years. ERGO’s experience of the fish matrices involved in this project, has proved to be important to the credibility of the results. The measurements were made by high resolution gas chromatography together with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Prior to extraction, 13 C-UL- labelled internal standards were added to the sample as listed in tables 3 and 4. After spiking, the samples were extracted with nanograde solvents for ultratrace-analyses by using a solid / lipid extraction. The extract was cleaned up on a multicolumn system 10
  12. 12. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks involving carbon-on-glassfibre. The measurement was then made by means of high- resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) with VG-AutoSpec and/or Finnigan MAT 95 XL using DB-5 capillary columns. Two isotope masses were measured for each component. The quantification was carried out by the use of internal/external standard mixtures (isotope dilution method). Table 3: Internal standards (13 C-UL), PCDDs/PCDFs PCDDs PCDFs 2,3,7,8 -Tetra-CDD 2,3,7,8 -Tetra-CDF 1,2,3,7,8 -Penta-CDD 1,2,3,7,8 2,3,4,7,8 -Penta-CDF -Penta-CDF 1,2,3,4,7,8 1,2,3,6,7,8 1,2,3,7,8,9 -Hexa-CDD -Hexa-CDD -Hexa-CDD 1,2,3,4,7,8 1,2,3,6,7,8 1,2,3,7,8,9 2,3,4,6,7,8 -Hexa-CDF -Hexa-CDF -Hexa-CDF -Hexa-CDF 1,2,3,4,6,7,8 -Hepta-CDD 1,2,3,4,6,7,8 1,2,3,4,7,8,9 -Hepta-CDF -Hepta-CDF 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9 -Octa-CDD 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9 -Octa-CDF Table 4: Internal standards (13 C-UL), WHO-PCB Compound IUPAC Code 3,3´,4,4´ -Tetra-CB PCB 77 3,4,4´,5 -Tetra-CB PCB 81 3,3´,4,4´,5 -Penta-CB PCB 126 Non- ortho PCBs 3,3´,4,4´,5,5´ -Hexa-CB PCB 169 2,3,3´,4,4´ -Penta-CB PCB 105 2,3,4,4´,5 -Penta-CB PCB 114 2,3´,4,4´,5 -Penta-CB PCB 118 2´,3,4,4´,5 -Penta-CB PCB 123 2,3,3´,4,4´,5 -Hexa-CB PCB 156 2,3,3´,4,4´,5´ -Hexa-CB PCB 157 2,3´,4,4´,5,5´ -Hexa-CB PCB 167 Mono-orthoPCBs 2,3,3´,4,4´,5,5´ -Hepta-CB PCB 189 Compound IUPAC Code 2,4,4' -Tri-PCB PCB-28 2,2',5,5' -Tetra-PCB PCB-52 2,2',4,5,5' -Penta-PCB PCB-101 2,2',3,4,4',5' -Hexa-PCB PCB 138 2,2',4,4',5,5'´ -Hexa-PCB PCB 153 MarkerPCBs 2,2',3,4,4',5,5' -Hepta-PCB PCB 180 11
  13. 13. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks 5 Results The results of these analyses are summarised in table 5 (capelin), table 6 (blue whiting), table 7 (Iceland herring) and table 8 (Atlanto-Scandian herring). All results are presented as upperbound1 values on a lipid basis in order to make it easier to compare raw material with the fishmeal and oil produced. In these tables the notation N/A means “not available”. For fishmeal and fish oil, the results are also expressed on a sample basis related to a feedingstuff with 12% moisture. This is presented in table 9 (capelin), table 10 (blue whiting), table 11 (Iceland herring) and table 12 (Atlanto-Scandian herring). This method of presentation is based on the requirement as stated in the EU Directive 2001/102/EC (1). On this basis, the Directive specifies that the maximum permissible limits are as follows: Fishmeal 1,25 ng WHO-TEQ per kg fishmeal Fish oil 6,00 ng WHO-TEQ per kg fish oil The results in these three tables are presented as upperbound, lowerbound2 and mediumbound3 values as required by the EU Directive 2002/70/EC (9) dated 26.July 2002. The congener results in full can be found in appendix 1 on pages 39 - 50. The TEQ figures are expressed as upperbound values and the results in brackets indicate the limit of detection when the congener could not be detected. These tables in appendix 1 also include the results for the 7 marker PCBs that are used as a possible predictive tool in multivariate analysis reported in appendix 3. The summary of the results of the age division in the two separate landings of blue whiting, are presented in table 13. The details of the congener analyses for these two samples are presented separately in appendix 2 on page 51 – 52. 1 Upperbound values are calculated by using the limit of quantification for the contribution of each non-quantified congener to the TEQ. 2 Lowerbound values are calculated by using zero for the contribution of each non quantified congener to the TEQ. 3 Mediumbound values are calculated by using half of the limit of quantification for the contribution of each non-quantified congener to the TEQ. 12
  14. 14. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Figure 3: A map of the NE Atlantic showing the approximate position of the catches. The numbers refer to the sample numbers as described in the sample handling, and as used in the following tables. 13
  15. 15. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Table 5: Capelin. Summary of dioxin and WHO-PCB expressed on a lipid basis. Upperbound values. Dioxin Non ortho PCB mono ortho PCB WHO-PCB Code Sampletype Averageage (yrs) FishFat% Catchdate Catchlocation ng WHO-TEQ/kg lipid RM/IS-1 Fish 3,2 16,0 10-Jan-01 64°50'N 11°26'W 1,5 2,5 0,6 3,1 FM/IS-1 Fishmeal 1,9 2,0 0,5 2,5 FO/IS-1 Fish oil 1,5 2,3 0,6 2,9 RM/IS-2 Fish 3,1 13,9 26-Jan-01 64°30'N 11°30'W 1,8 3,0 0,7 3,6 FM/IS-2 Fishmeal 1,8 2,2 0,6 2,8 FO/IS-2 Fish oil 1,8 2,7 0,7 3,5 RM/IS-3 Fish 3,1 12,7 05-Feb-01 65°30'N 25°30'W 2,0 2,3 0,6 2,8 FM/IS-3 Fishmeal 1,9 2,5 0,6 3,1 FO/IS-3 Fish oil 2,0 3,0 0,8 3,8 RM/IS-4 Fish 3,1 8,8 27-Feb-01 64°21'N 22°52'W 2,9 4,5 1,0 5,5 FM/IS-4 Fishmeal 3,0 3,6 0,9 4,5 FO/IS-4 Fish oil 2,9 3,9 0,9 4,8 RM/IS-5 Fish 3,2 9,0 05-Mar-01 63°47'N 22°40'W 3,0 4,9 1,1 6,1 FM/IS-5 Fishmeal 2,8 4,2 0,9 5,1 FO/IS-5 Fish oil 3,1 4,6 1,3 5,9 RM/IS-6 Fish 3,2 6,8 22-Mar-01 63°15'N 20°30'W 4,3 6,0 1,5 7,5 FM/IS-6 Fishmeal 3,9 4,6 1,2 5,8 FO/IS-6 Fish oil 5,0 6,7 1,6 8,3 RM/IS-9 Fish 2,0 10,2 04-Jul-01 66°20'N 24°15'W 2,2 2,7 0,5 3,2 FM/IS-9 Fishmeal 2,5 2,8 0,7 3,4 FO/IS-9 Fish oil 2,5 3,2 0,8 4,0 RM/IS-10 Fish 2,0 12,5 11-Jul-01 66°45'N 22°30'W 1,1 1,4 0,4 1,8 FM/IS-10 Fishmeal 1,5 1,6 0,4 2,0 FO/IS-10 Fish oil 1,3 1,8 0,4 2,2 RM/IS-21 Fish 2,0 16,7 23-Jul-02 68°20'N 19°30'W 1,0 1,5 0,4 2,0 FM/IS-21 Fishmeal 1,5 1,3 0,3 1,6 FO/IS-21 Fish oil 0,9 1,3 0,3 1,6 RM/IS-11 Fish 2,0 14,2 24-Jul-01 68°20'N 18°40'W 1,1 1,3 0,3 1,6 FM/IS-11 Fishmeal 1,3 1,3 0,3 1,6 FO/IS-11 Fish oil 1,1 1,5 0,4 1,9 RM/IS-25 Fish 2,1 13,3 03-Dec-02 67°15'N 16°40'W 1,5 1,9 0,8 2,7 N/A N/A RM/IS-26 Fish 2,1 13,7 09-Dec-02 67°20'N 16°21'W 1,4 1,9 0,6 2,5 N/A N/A RM/IS-17 Fish 2,6 14,3 10-Dec-01 67°20'N 17°30'W 1,7 2,0 0,6 2,6 FM/IS-17 Fishmeal 1,8 1,9 0,5 2,4 FO/IS-17 Fish oil 1,7 2,2 0,7 2,9 RM/IS-27 Fish 2,1 15,0 10-Dec-02 67°15'N 16°30'W 1,3 1,7 0,6 2,3 FM/IS-27 Fishmeal 1,5 2,1 0,6 2,8 FO/IS-27 Fish oil 1,5 2,1 0,6 2,7 RM/IS-18 Fish 2,6 12,7 17-Dec-01 67°20'N 13°30'W 1,8 2,1 0,7 2,8 FM/IS-18 Fishmeal 1,9 2,0 0,6 2,6 FO/IS-18 Fish oil 1,9 2,0 0,7 2,7 14
  16. 16. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Table 6: Blue Whiting. Summary of dioxin and WHO-PCB expressed on a lipid basis. Upperbound values. Dioxin Non ortho PCB mono ortho PCB WHO-PCB Code Sampletype Averageage (yrs) FishFat% Catchdate Catchlocation ng WHO-TEQ/kg lipid RM/FO-1 Fish 3,8 4,7 10-Feb-01 53°48'N 14°25'W 6,1 14,0 4,6 18,6 FM/FO-1 Fishmeal 4,1 10,8 3,1 13,9 FO/FO-1 Fish oil 4,5 10,5 4,0 14,5 RM/FO-2 Fish N/A 3,9 24-Feb-01 53°00'N 15°15'W 6,7 15,5 5,1 20,6 FM/FO-2 Fishmeal 5,0 13,3 4,2 17,5 FO/FO-2 Fish oil 5,1 13,8 3,9 17,7 RM/FO-3 Fish 3,5 2,9 18-Mar-01 55°20'N 12°40'W 9,9 25,8 6,8 32,6 FM/FO-3 Fishmeal 6,3 27,5 5,5 32,9 FO/FO-3 Fish oil 9,3 33,7 7,6 41,3 RM/FO-4 Fish 3,6 1,5 18-Apr-01 60°40'N 7°10'W 20,4 57,3 12,7 70,0 FM/FO-4 Fishmeal 16,2 58,2 13,1 71,3 FO/FO-4 Fish oil 15,8 66,8 14,3 81,1 RM/FO-5 Fish 3,6 1,4 05-May-01 60°05'N 6°05'W 13,2 27,8 11,1 38,9 FM/FO-5 Fishmeal 16,5 47,7 11,8 59,5 FO/FO-5 Fish oil 10,0 30,1 9,5 39,6 RM/FO-6 Fish 3,4 6,0 20-Aug-01 63°17'N 11°54'W 4,0 5,7 2,2 7,9 FM/FO-6 Fishmeal 3,1 5,2 2,9 8,1 FO/FO-6 Fish oil 3,0 9,0 3,0 12,0 RM/FO-7 Fish 2,2 7,1 06-Sep-01 62°25'N 9°00'W 2,2 3,6 1,4 5,0 FM/FO-7 Fishmeal 2,1 2,7 1,1 3,8 FO/FO-7 Fish oil 1,1 2,0 0,9 2,9 RM/FO-8 Fish 1,7 7,6 15-Sep-01 60°10'N 8°10'W 1,7 2,2 0,8 3,0 FM/FO-8 Fishmeal 1,6 2,0 0,9 2,9 FO/FO-8 Fish oil 1,0 1,9 0,9 2,7 RM/IS-13 Fish 3,8 8,2 14-Nov-01 63°10'N 10°00'W 2,1 5,4 1,9 7,2 FM/IS-13 Fishmeal 2,7 6,0 2,0 8,0 FO/IS-13 Fish oil 2,2 4,7 2,0 6,7 RM/IS-14 Fish 4,1 9,7 15-Nov-01 63°10'N 10°00'W 2,2 5,7 2,1 7,8 FM/IS-14 Fishmeal 2,0 5,2 1,9 7,1 N/A 15
  17. 17. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Table 7: Iceland Herring. Summary of dioxin and WHO-PCB expressed on a lipid basis. Upperbound values. Dioxin Non ortho PCB mono ortho PCB WHO-PCB Code Sampletype Averageage (yrs) FishFat% Catchdate Catchlocation ng WHO-TEQ/kg lipid RM/IS-22 Fish 7,2 19,1 28-Oct-02 65°55'N 26°30'W 2,0 2,7 1,7 4,4 FM/IS-22 Fishmeal 2,4 2,4 1,2 3,6 FO/IS-22 Fish oil 1,7 2,5 1,4 3,9 RM/IS-23 Fish 5,5 16,8 16-Nov-02 65°20'N 27°30'W 1,8 2,4 1,4 3,8 FM/IS-23 Fishmeal 2,5 2,5 1,3 3,8 FO/IS-23 Fish oil 1,5 2,1 1,1 3,2 RM/IS-15 Fish 5,1 13,0 26-Nov-01 65°30'N 27°00'W 2,4 3,1 1,6 4,7 N/A N/A RM/IS-16 Fish 3,2 16,7 28-Nov-01 65°30'N 27°00'W 1,2 1,4 0,7 2,1 N/A N/A RM/IS-24 Fish 8,2 16,5 02-Dec-02 66°05'N 25°25'W 2,9 3,5 2,8 6,3 FM/IS-24 Fishmeal 3,0 2,9 1,7 4,6 FO/IS-24 Fish oil 1,9 2,8 1,6 4,4 RM/IS-28 Fish 9,3 15,9 04-Dec-02 66°15'N 13°30'W 3,9 5,1 3,3 8,4 N/A N/A RM/IS-29 Fish 7,8 17,4 09-Dec-02 66°15'N 13°30'W 3,5 4,9 3,0 7,9 N/A N/A 16
  18. 18. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Table 8: Atlanto-Scandian Herring. Summary of dioxin and WHO-PCB expressed on a lipid basis. Upperbound values. Dioxin Non ortho PCB mono ortho PCB WHO-PCB Code Sampletype Averageage (yrs) FishFat% Catchdate Catchlocation ng WHO-TEQ/kg lipid RM/IS-19 Fish 10,2 15,6 26-May-02 70°20'N 4°30'W 5,7 6,0 2,2 8,3 FM/IS-19 Fishmeal 5,4 5,6 2,4 8,0 FO/IS-19 Fish oil 5,0 5,8 2,5 8,3 RM/IS-7 Fish 9,3 8,1 28-May-01 71°50'N 00°50'E 11,9 11,4 4,9 16,4 FM/IS-7 Fishmeal 11,7 11,4 4,6 16,0 FO/IS-7 Fish oil 11,7 12,8 4,8 17,6 RM/IS-20 Fish 9,9 14,9 07-Jun-02 72°56'N 6°42'W 5,3 5,9 2,1 8,0 FM/IS-20 Fishmeal 5,8 6,1 2,4 8,5 FO/IS-20 Fish oil 5,0 5,9 2,4 8,2 RM/IS-8 Fish 8,6 12,7 15-Jun-01 73°11'N 6°51'W 7,1 7,2 2,6 9,8 FM/IS-8 Fishmeal 6,9 7,2 2,7 9,9 FO/IS-8 Fish oil 5,4 6,8 2,4 9,2 RM/IS-12 Fish 5,4 20,0 10-Sep-01 69°00'N 11°30'W 2,9 3,6 1,1 4,6 N/A N/A 17
  19. 19. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Table 9: Capelin. Summary of dioxin and WHO-PCB expressed on a sample basis assuming 12% moisture. Upperbound, medium bound and lowerbound values. ng WHO-TEQ/kg sample (basis of 12% moisture) Dioxin WHO--PCB Dioxin WHO-PCB Dioxin WHO-PCB Code Sampletype Averageage(yrs) FishFat% Catchdate Catchlocation Upperbound Lowerbound Mediumbound FM/IS-1 Fishmeal 3,2 16,0 10-Jan-01 64°50'N 11°26'W 0,21 0,27 0,16 0,27 0,19 0,27 FO/IS-1 Fish oil 1,30 2,59 1,26 2,59 1,28 2,59 FM/IS-2 Fishmeal 3,1 13,9 26-Jan-01 64°30'N 11°30'W 0,20 0,30 0,14 0,30 0,17 0,30 FO/IS-2 Fish oil 1,62 3,06 1,57 3,06 1,60 3,06 FM/IS-3 Fishmeal 3,1 12,7 05-Feb-01 65°30'N 25°30'W 0,22 0,35 0,21 0,35 0,22 0,35 FO/IS-3 Fish oil 1,80 3,37 1,77 3,37 1,79 3,37 FM/IS-4 Fishmeal 3,1 8,8 27-Feb-01 64°21'N 22°52'W 0,31 0,47 0,30 0,47 0,31 0,47 FO/IS-4 Fish oil 2,56 4,23 2,48 4,23 2,52 4,23 FM/IS-5 Fishmeal 3,2 9,0 05-Mar-01 63°47'N 22°40'W 0,29 0,53 0,27 0,53 0,28 0,53 FO/IS-5 Fish oil 2,76 5,23 2,74 5,23 2,75 5,23 FM/IS-6 Fishmeal 3,2 6,8 22-Mar-01 63°15'N 20°30'W 0,40 0,60 0,40 0,60 0,40 0,60 FO/IS-6 Fish oil 4,42 7,29 4,42 7,29 4,42 7,29 FM/IS-9 Fishmeal 2,0 10,2 04-Jul-01 66°20'N 24°15'W 0,25 0,34 0,24 0,34 0,25 0,34 FO/IS-9 Fish oil 2,22 3,54 2,20 3,54 2,21 3,54 FM/IS-10 Fishmeal 2,0 12,5 11-Jul-01 66°45'N 22°30'W 0,18 0,24 0,12 0,24 0,15 0,24 FO/IS-10 Fish oil 1,13 1,93 1,11 1,93 1,12 1,93 FM/IS-21 Fishmeal 2,0 16,7 23-Jul-02 68°20'N 19°30'W 0,17 0,18 0,16 0,03 0,17 0,11 FO/IS-21 Fish oil 0,83 1,45 0,76 1,45 0,80 1,45 FM/IS-11 Fishmeal 2,0 14,2 24-Jul-01 68°20'N 18°40'W 0,16 0,19 0,09 0,19 0,13 0,19 FO/IS-11 Fish oil 0,97 1,67 0,95 1,67 0,96 1,67 FM/IS-17 Fishmeal 2,6 14,3 10-Dec-01 67°20'N 17°30'W 0,20 0,27 0,16 0,27 0,18 0,27 FO/IS-17 Fish oil 1,46 2,51 1,46 2,51 1,46 2,51 FM/IS-27 Fishmeal 2,1 15,0 10-Dec-02 67°15'N 16°30'W 0,16 0,30 0,14 0,30 0,15 0,30 FO/IS-27 Fish oil 1,30 2,40 1,28 2,40 1,29 2,40 FM/IS-18 Fishmeal 2,6 12,7 17-Dec-01 67°20'N 13°30'W 0,23 0,31 0,22 0,31 0,23 0,31 FO/IS-18 Fish oil 1,67 2,35 1,65 2,35 1,66 2,35 18
  20. 20. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Table 10: Blue Whiting. Summary of dioxin and WHO-PCB expressed on a sample basis assuming 12% moisture. Upperbound, medium bound and lowerbound values. ng WHO-TEQ/kg sample (basis of 12% moisture) Dioxin WHO-PCB Dioxin WHO-PCB Dioxin WHO-PCB Code Sampletype Averageage(yrs) FishFat% Catchdate Catchlocation Upperbound Lowerbound Mediumbound FM/FO-1 Fishmeal 3,8 4,7 10-Feb-01 53°48'N 14°25'W 0,22 0,75 0,22 0,75 0,22 0,75 FO/FO-1 Fish oil 3,95 12,74 3,93 12,74 3,94 12,74 FM/FO-2 Fishmeal N/A 3,9 24-Feb-01 53°00'N 15°15'W 0,37 1,28 0,36 1,28 0,37 1,28 FO/FO-2 Fish oil 4,53 15,62 4,50 15,62 4,52 15,62 FM/FO-3 Fishmeal 3,5 2,9 18-Mar-01 55°20'N 12°40'W 0,36 1,85 0,35 1,85 0,36 1,85 FO/FO-3 Fish oil 8,18 36,34 8,16 36,34 8,17 36,34 FM/FO-4 Fishmeal 3,6 1,5 18-Apr-01 60°40'N 7°10'W 0,82 3,60 0,81 3,60 0,82 3,60 FO/FO-4 Fish oil 13,91 71,38 13,89 71,38 13,90 71,38 FM/FO-5 Fishmeal 3,6 1,4 05-May-01 60°05'N 6°05'W 0,72 2,60 0,71 2,60 0,72 2,60 FO/FO-5 Fish oil 8,77 34,84 8,77 34,84 8,77 34,84 FM/FO-6 Fishmeal 3,4 6,0 20-Aug-01 63°17'N 11°54'W 0,27 0,71 0,23 0,71 0,25 0,71 FO/FO-6 Fish oil 2,60 10,52 2,60 10,52 2,60 10,52 FM/FO-7 Fishmeal 2,2 7,1 06-Sep-01 62°25'N 9°00'W 0,13 0,25 0,05 0,25 0,09 0,25 FO/FO-7 Fish oil 0,97 2,55 0,92 2,55 0,95 2,55 FM/FO-8 Fishmeal 1,7 7,6 15-Sep-01 60°10'N 8°10'W 0,12 0,22 0,06 0,22 0,09 0,22 FO/FO-8 Fish oil 0,90 2,40 0,85 2,40 0,88 2,40 FM/IS-13 Fishmeal 3,8 8,2 14-Nov-01 63°10'N 10°00'W 0,22 0,67 0,18 0,67 0,20 0,67 FO/IS-13 Fish oil 1,93 5,89 1,93 5,89 1,93 5,89 FM/IS-14 Fishmeal 4,1 9,7 15-Nov-01 63°10'N 10°00'W 0,25 0,88 0,24 0,88 0,25 0,88 N/A 19
  21. 21. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Table 11: Iceland Herring. Summary of dioxin and WHO-PCB expressed on a sample basis assuming 12% moisture. Upperbound, medium bound and lowerbound values. ng WHO-TEQ/kg sample (basis of 12% moisture) Dioxin WHO-PCB Dioxin WHO-PCB Dioxin WHO-PCB Code Sampletype Averageage(yrs) FishFat% Catchdate Catchlocation Upperbound Lowerbound Mediumbound FM/IS-22 Fishmeal 7,2 19,1 28-Oct-02 65°55'N 26°30'W 0,22 0,33 0,21 0,33 0,22 0,33 FO/IS-22 Fish oil 1,52 3,42 1,38 3,42 1,45 3,42 FM/IS-23 Fishmeal 5,5 16,8 16-Nov-02 65°20'N 27°30'W 0,21 0,31 0,20 0,31 0,21 0,31 FO/IS-23 Fish oil 1,29 2,78 1,28 2,78 1,28 2,78 FM/IS-24 Fishmeal 8,2 16,5 02-Dec-02 66°05'N 25°25'W 0,30 0,47 0,29 0,47 0,30 0,47 FO/IS-24 Fish oil 1,65 3,89 1,63 3,89 1,64 3,89 Table 12: Atlanto-Scandian Herring. Summary of dioxin and WHO-PCB expressed on a sample basis assuming 12% moisture. Upperbound, medium bound and lowerbound values. ng WHO-TEQ/kg sample (basis of 12% moisture) Dioxin WHO-PCB Dioxin WHO-PCB Dioxin WHO-PCB Code Sampletype Averageage(yrs) FishFat% Catchdate Catchlocation Upperbound Lowerbound Mediumbound FM/IS-19 Fishmeal 10,2 15,6 26-May-02 70°20'N 4°30'W 0,45 0,67 0,44 0,67 0,45 0,67 FO/IS-19 Fish oil 4,44 7,29 4,40 7,29 4,42 7,29 FM/IS-7 Fishmeal 9,3 8,1 28-May-01 71°50'N 00°50'E 0,81 1,11 0,81 1,11 0,81 1,11 FO/IS-7 Fish oil 10,26 15,47 10,26 15,47 10,26 15,47 FM/IS-20 Fishmeal 9,9 14,9 07-Jun-02 72°56'N 6°42'W 0,45 0,65 0,44 0,65 0,45 0,65 FO/IS-20 Fish oil 4,43 7,25 4,42 7,25 4,43 7,25 FM/IS-8 Fishmeal 8,6 12,7 15-Jun-01 73°11'N 6°51'W 0,56 0,80 0,55 0,80 0,57 0,80 FO/IS-8 Fish oil 4,74 8,12 4,73 8,12 4,74 8,12 20
  22. 22. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Table 13: Two sets of age division. Summary of dioxin and WHO-PCB expressed on a lipid basis. Upperbound values. Dioxin Non ortho PCB mono ortho PCB WHO-PCB Code Averageage(yrs) FishFat% Catchdate Catchlocation Sexratio(M:F) FishLength(cm) Fishweight(g) ng WHO-TEQ/kg lipid RM-A/FO-3 2,1 4,3 18-Mar-01 55°20'N 12°40'W 1 : 0.19 22,8 52,6 5,0 11,9 3,0 14,9 RM-B/FO-3 4,2 3,1 1 : 0.47 27,1 93,8 10,1 26,5 6,1 32,5 RM-C/FO-3 5,7 2,5 1 : 2.60 32,5 159,8 20,0 72,2 18,7 90,8 RM-A/FO-7 0,5 8,8 06-Sep-01 62°25'N 9°00'W 1 : 1.78 17,8 33,6 1,5 2,1 0,7 2,8 RM-B/FO-7 1,5 8,5 1 : 1.27 23,0 73,3 2,0 3,7 1,3 5,0 RM-C/FO-7 2,2 6,6 1 : 1.78 26,1 95,8 3,0 5,6 2,0 7,6 21
  23. 23. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks It is not the intention of this report to analyse all of these results statistically. A multivariate analysis was made, however, to find the best regressions within the available data. This work was done by Gudny Vang (p/f Havsbrún, Faroe Islands) and is presented in Appendix 3 on pages 53 - 57 The main purpose of the project was to collect data systematically in order to provide a solid base for future discussion on the subject of dioxin and PCBs in the fishmeal and fish oil produced from the four fish stocks under examination. The Steering Group would, however, like to draw the reader’s attention to the following trends and supports its observations by the use of graphs and histograms. 5.1 Capelin During the past 30 years, capelin has been the most important pelagic stock fished in the area of the NE Atlantic, and has been utilised for fishmeal and fish oil production. The stock lives in the waters off the north of Iceland as far as Jan Mayen and to the East Greenland coast. Capelin becomes sexually mature at about one year of age and usually spawns at the end of their third year. The fish die after the spawning has taken place in March or April (10). The average annual capelin landings in Iceland and the Faroes amounted to a total of 1.075.000 tonnes during the past 3 years (2000 – 2002). Capelin has comprised about 64% of the catch landed for meal and oil production in these two countries, and has provided approximately 60% of fishmeal and 67% of fish oil produced there. Figure 4: Concentration of dioxin in all capelin samples, expressed on a lipid basis, together with the variation in fat level in the raw fish samples. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 10.01.01 26.01.01 05.02.01 27.02.01 05.03.01 22.03.01 04.07.01 11.07.01 23.07.02 24.07.01 03.12.02 09.12.02 10.12.01 10.12.02 17.12.01 Dioxin ngWHO-TEQ/kglipid 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Fishfat% Raw material Fish meal Fish oil Fish fat % A B Fat content and roe content are closely related to the capelin’s lifecycle. The fat content starts to increase during the third year of the lifespan usually reaching a 22
  24. 24. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks maximum of 15 – 16% fat in October / November (section marked “B” on figures 4 and 5). During the following 3 months, the reproductive organs increase rapidly in size and the fish cease feeding. Therefore the body fat content drops rapidly during the period from late December until spawning takes place in March or early April when the fat level has dropped to 3% (section marked “A” on figures 4 and 5). On average during the past 3 years, 80% of the capelin has been fished during the months January to March. At that time of year the 3-year-old spawning fish is separated from the younger fish and the catches are therefore almost entirely comprised of 3-year-old fish. Since dioxin and PCBs are lipophilic and persistant, then when the fat level of the fish decreases rapidly as it does in the capelin during the last months of its life, it can be expected that dioxin and PCBs would become more concentrated in the lipid phase. This is reflected in the capelin results for January, February and March when the concentration of these compounds shows a steady increase in the lipid phase (Figure 4 dioxin and figure 5 WHO-PCB). Figure 5: Concentration of WHO-PCBs in all capelin samples, expressed on a lipid basis, together with the variation in fat level in the raw fish samples. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10.01.0126.01.0105.02.0127.02.0105.03.0122.03.01 04.07.0111.07.0123.07.0224.07.0103.12.0209.12.0210.12.0110.12.0217.12.01 WHO-PCB ngWHO-TEQ/kglipid 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Fishfat% Raw material Fish meal Fish oil Fish fat % A B During the summer capelin season in July, the 2-year-old fish is feeding and gradually becoming fatter. The fat level in July is normally about 11% and increases to about 16% in November as mentioned earlier. This means that dioxin and WHO-PCB levels in July are even lower than those in the winter-capelin (figures 4 and 5). On average, the level of WHO-PCB in the lipid phase of capelin is 70% higher than the dioxin level. The results for the dioxin concentration in fishmeal and fish oil were also expressed on a sample basis assuming 12% moisture content. In figure 6 these results are 23
  25. 25. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks compared to the maximum permissible levels for dioxin in fishmeal and fish oil as stated in the EU Directive. Figure 6: Concentration of dioxin in all capelin-meal and -oil samples, expressed on a sample basis assuming 12% moisture. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10.01.01 26.01.01 05.02.01 27.02.01 05.03.01 22.03.01 04.07.01 11.07.01 23.07.02 24.07.01 03.12.02 09.12.02 10.12.01 DioxinngWHO-TEQ/kgsample Fish meal Fish oil Limit fish meal Limit fish oil 5.2 Blue Whiting Blue whiting is a migratory stock living in the Atlantic waters from Portugal and north to the Barents Sea. It consists of several stocks but is treated by ICES as one stock since it has not been possible to define clear divisions between populations. It has been fished by EU, Norway and Russia as well as Iceland and the Faroes (11). The average annual blue whiting landings in Iceland and the Faroes amounted to a total of 474.000 tonnes during the past 3 years (2000 – 2002). Blue whiting has comprised about 28% of the catch landed for meal and oil production in these two countries, and has provided approximately 30% of fishmeal and 16% of fish oil production. Blue whiting spawn mostly in an area to the west of Scotland and Ireland in March – April, although there are other spawning areas off Portugal, the Faroe Islands, SW Iceland and in the Norwegian fjords. The fish can reach sexual maturity between 2-7 years old and can live for up to 20 years (10). This fish stores most of its fat reserves in the liver. The fat level of whole fish can vary from 1% in April / May directly after spawning, up to 8% during the winter months. It would seem that dioxin and WHO-PCB levels in the lipid phase vary inversely with the fat level in the fish (figure 7 dioxin and figure 8 WHO-PCB). 24
  26. 26. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Figure 7: Concentration of dioxin in all blue whiting samples, expressed on a lipid basis, together with the variation in fat level in the raw fish samples. 0,0 5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0 10.02.01 24.02.01 18.03.01 18.04.01 05.05.01 20.08.01 06.09.01 15.09.01 14.11.01 15.11.01 Dioxin ngWHO-TEQ/kglipid 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Fishfat% Raw material Fish meal Fish oil Fish fat % Figure 8: Concentration of WHO-PCBs in all blue whiting samples, expressed on a lipid basis, together with the variation in fat level in the raw fish samples. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10.02.01 24.02.01 18.03.01 18.04.01 05.05.01 20.08.01 06.09.01 15.09.01 14.11.01 15.11.01 WHO-PCB ngWHO-TEQ/kglipid 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Fishfat% Raw material Fish meal Fish oil Fish fat % Levels of these compounds in the whole fish fat is highest in April / May and lowest from September to November. 25
  27. 27. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks On average, the level of WHO-PCB in the lipid phase of blue whiting is 265% higher than the dioxin level. The results for the dioxin concentration in fishmeal and fish oil were also expressed on a sample basis assuming 12% moisture content. In figure 9 these results are compared to the maximum permissible levels for dioxin in fishmeal and fish oil as stated in the EU Directive. Figure 9: Concentration of dioxin in all blue whiting-meal and -oil samples, expressed on a sample basis assuming 12% moisture. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 10.02.01 24.02.01 18.03.01 18.04.01 05.05.01 20.08.01 06.09.01 15.09.01 14.11.01 15.11.01 DioxinngWHO-TEQ/kgsample Fish meal Fish oil Limit fish meal Limit fish oil 5.3 Iceland Herring The Icelandic spring spawning herring lives in coastal waters around Iceland and has been utilised since the mid 1970’s. The stock spawns in July off the SW and SE of Iceland and then migrates in search of feeding grounds off the west and east coasts. This herring stock becomes sexually mature at about 4 years of age and can live for 20 – 25 years (10). The catch is seasonal, mostly taking place in October to January off the east, south and west coasts of Iceland. The average annual landings of Icelandic herring in Iceland, which were used for fishmeal and fish oil production, amounted to a total of 40.000 tonnes during the past 3 years (2000 – 2002). Icelandic herring has comprised about 3% of the catch landed for meal and oil production, and has provided approximately 3% of fishmeal and 6% of fish oil production. These figures can be variable depending on the proportion of the total catch that is processed for human consumption. The average age of the catches in this study ranged from 3 to 9 years, which can be considered quite normal for this stock. The fat content of whole fish during the fishing season (September – January) is fairly stable at about 16% and does therefore not 26
  28. 28. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks have an influence on dioxin and WHO-PCB levels. (figure 10 dioxin and figure 11 WHO-PCB). Figure 10: Concentration of dioxin in all Iceland herring samples, expressed on a lipid basis, together with the variation in fat level in the raw fish samples. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 28.10.02 16.11.02 26.11.01 28.11.01 02.12.02 04.12.02 09.12.02 Dioxin ngWHO-TEQ/kglipid 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Fishfat% Raw material Fish meal Fish oil Fish fat % Figure 11: Concentration of WHO PCBs in all Iceland herring samples, expressed on a lipid basis, together with the variation in fat level in the raw fish samples. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 28.10.02 16.11.02 26.11.01 28.11.01 02.12.02 04.12.02 09.12.02 WHO-PCB ngWHO-TEQ/kglipid 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Fishfat% Raw material Fish meal Fish oil Fish fat % 27
  29. 29. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks On average, the level of WHO-PCB in the lipid phase of Icelandic herring is 100% higher than the dioxin level. The results for the dioxin concentration in fishmeal and fish oil were also expressed on a sample basis assuming 12% moisture content. In figure 12 these results are compared to the maximum permissible levels for dioxin in fishmeal and fish oil as stated in the EU Directive. Figure 12: Concentration of dioxin in all Iceland herring-meal and -oil samples, expressed on a sample basis assuming 12% moisture. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 28.10.02 16.11.02 02.12.02 DioxinngWHO-TEQ/kgsample Fish meal Fish oil Limit fish meal Limit fish oil 5.4 Atlanto-Scandian Herring The Atlanto-Scandian herring stock (spring spawning herring) is found in the open seas of the northeast Atlantic. This stock spawns in February to April off western Norway, and the immature fish stay in Norwegian waters while the adult fish migrate in search of feed further out into the northeast Atlantic. (10) The average annual landings of Atlanto-Scandian herring in Iceland that were used for fishmeal and fish oil production, amounted to a total of 100.000 tonnes during the past 3 years (2000 – 2002). Atlanto-Scandian herring has comprised about 6% of the catch landed for meal and oil production, and has provided approximately 7% of fishmeal and 12% of fish oil production. These figures can be variable depending on the proportion of the total catch that is processed for human consumption. Fat content of whole fish during the months of fishing (May – September) can be very variable depending on the proportions of immature fish (high in fat) and newly spawned fish (low in fat) in the catch. Dioxin and WHO-PCB levels in the lipid phase are therefore quite variable, both because of the effect of fat level and also the effect of age. (figure 13, dioxin and figure 14, WHO-PCB). 28
  30. 30. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Figure 13: Concentration of dioxin in all Atlanto-Scandian herring samples, expressed on a lipid basis, together with the variation in fat level in the raw fish samples. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 26.05.02 28.05.01 07.06.02 15.06.01 10.09.01 Dioxin ngWHO-TEQ/kglipid 0 5 10 15 20 25 Fishfat% Raw material Fish meal Fish oil Fish fat % Figure 14: Concentration of WHO PCBs in all Atlanto-Scandian herring samples, expressed on a lipid basis, together with the variation in fat level in the raw fish samples. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 26.05.02 28.05.01 07.06.02 15.06.01 10.09.01 WHO-PCB ngWHO-TEQ/kglipid 0 5 10 15 20 25 Fishfat% Raw material Fish meal Fish oil Fish fat % On average, the level of WHO-PCB in the lipid phase of Atlanto-Scandian herring is 50% higher than the dioxin level. The results for the dioxin concentration in fishmeal and fish oil were also expressed on a sample basis assuming 12% moisture content. In figure 15 these results are 29
  31. 31. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks compared to the maximum permissible levels for dioxin in fishmeal and fish oil as stated in the EU Directive. Figure 15: Concentration of dioxin in all Atlanto-Scandian herring-meal and -oil samples, expressed on a sample basis assuming 12% moisture. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 26.05.02 28.05.01 07.06.02 15.06.01 DioxinngWHO-TEQ/kgsample Fish meal Fish oil Limit fish meal Limit fish oil 30
  32. 32. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks 5.5 Age division of Blue Whiting Fish samples from two of the landings of blue whiting in the Faroe Islands, were separated according to size. Despite the fact that the fish fat levels and sex ratios were very different in these six samples, it is nevertheless apparent that the levels of dioxin and WHO-PCB increase with age (figure 16 dioxin and figure 17 WHO-PCB). Figure 16: Regression of dioxin concentration in the lipid against fish age. R2 = 0,9162 0,0 5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Age (yrs) Dioxin ngWHO-TEQ/kglipid Figure 17: Regression of WHO-PCB concentration in the lipid against fish age R2 = 0,852 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 Age (yrs) WHO-PCB ngWHO-TEQ/kglipid 6 31
  33. 33. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Fish length (figure 18, dioxin and figure 19, WHO-PCB) and fish weight (figure 20, dioxin and figure 21, WHO-PCB) are not as well correlated with the levels of these compounds. Figure 18: Regression of dioxin concentration in the lipid, against fish length. R2 = 0,7586 0,0 5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0 10 15 20 25 30 35 Fish Length (cm) Dioxin ngWHO-TEQ/kglipid Figure 19: Regression of WHO-PCB concentration in the lipid, against fish length R2 = 0,73 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 10 15 20 25 30 35 Fish Length (cm) WHO-PCB ngWHO-TEQ/kglipid 32
  34. 34. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Figure 20: Regression of dioxin concentration in the lipid, against fish weight R 2 = 0,7603 0,0 5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0 10 30 50 70 90 110 130 150 170 Fish Weight (g) Dioxin ngWHO-TEQ/kglipid Figure 21: Regression of WHO-PCB concentration in the lipid, against fish weight. R2 = 0,774 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 10 30 50 70 90 110 130 150 170 Fish Weight (g) WHO-PCB ngWHO-TEQ/kglipid 33
  35. 35. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks 5.6 Ratio of WHO-PCB : dioxin The following table shows the average levels of dioxin and of WHO-PCB for the 4 fish stocks in this investigation. All types of samples were included. The upperbound results in the lipid phase were used for this comparison as reported in tables 5, 6, 7 and 8. Table 14: Comparison of average levels of dioxin and WHO-PCB Dioxin WHO-PCB ng WHO-TEQ /kg lipid Ratio PCB / dioxins Number of samples Capelin 2,0 3,4 1,7 41 Blue Whiting 6,2 22,6 3,6 29 Iceland Herring 2,3 4,6 2,0 13 Atlanto-Scandian Herring 6,9 10,2 1,5 13 The age division samples of blue whiting show that there is a good correlation between the ratio of WHO-PCB : dioxin when compared to age. This is shown in the following figure 22. Figure 22: Blue whiting age division samples. Regression of the ratio WHO- PCB : dioxin, against age. R2 = 0,9138 0,00 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00 5,00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Age (yrs) Ratio WHO-PCB/Dioxin 34
  36. 36. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks 6 Discussion According to the EU Directive 2002/32 (12), after 1.August 2003 it will be prohibited within the EEA, to blend down feed materials that exceed the maximum limit for dioxin. This will mean that fish oil which exceeds the limit for dioxin of 6 ng WHO- TEQ per kg oil will either have to be sold for industrial use, or must be sent for decontamination. Fishmeal exceeding the maximum limit for dioxin of 1,25 ng TEQ per kg meal must be destroyed in a controlled manner or else be decontaminated. The results from this project demonstrate that most of the raw material is suitable for production of fishmeal and fish oil showing dioxin levels well below the EU limits. All of the fishmeal produced from these 4 fish stocks is within the given maximum limit for dioxin of 1,25ng WHO-TEQ per kg meal. Based on the production figures of the past 3 years in Iceland and the Faroes, it is estimated that more than 85% of the fish oil production in these countries would have been below the permissible maximum level for dioxin of 6 ng WHO-TEQ per kg fishoil. All capelin products were well within the given dioxin limits. All blue whiting meal was well within the limit for fishmeal. Blue whiting oil produced when the fish fat level is below approximately 4%, should be kept separate from other production until it has been measured for dioxin. There is a strong likelihood that the level of dioxin in this production is above the EU limit. During the period 2000 – 2001, there was an average blue whiting oil production of approximately 3000 tonnes in Iceland and the Faroes during the critical months of March, April and May. This is less than 3% of the total fish oil production during these 3 years. All Icelandic herring products were well within the given dioxin limits. All Atlanto-Scandian herring meal was well within the limit for dioxin. Fish oil produced from Atlanto-Scandian herring was close to or above the EU maximum limit for dioxin. The results indicate that if fish fat level in this stock goes below 13% then the dioxin level could be close to or above the EU maximum limit. This production should be kept separate from other fish oil until it has been measured for dioxin. During the three years from 2000 – 2002, there was an average herring oil production from this stock of approximately 12.000 tonnes in Iceland and the Faroes during the months of May, June and July. This is less than 12% of the total fish oil production during these 3 years. It is evident that concentrations of dioxin and WHO-PCBs are inversely related to the level of fat in the fish, but increase with the age of the fish. The age division samples of blue whiting indicate that in this species there could be a greater tendency to accumulate WHO-PCBs as opposed to dioxin, since the ratio of WHO-PCB to dioxin increases with age. Although similar data are not available for 35
  37. 37. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks the other fish species in this study, it would appear that this tendency is not apparent in herring nor capelin. In addition to fish fat level and age there are at least three other factors that could possibly influence the relative levels of these compounds in the fish. Migration area. The ratio of WHO-PCB compared to dioxin is variable between fish stocks. This reflects the fact that the sources for these two groups of compounds are very different. It can be concluded that migration area has probably a direct effect on the levels of dioxin and WHO-PCB. Blue whiting is a migratory fish and as such could have been living in an area of the NE Atlantic that is very distant from the area where it is caught. Sex ratio of the catch. Females are able to reduce their dioxin and PCB load, each time they spawn. Evidence of this effect could not be seen in the results of the blue whiting. Capelin spawns only once and therefore the effect cannot be seen in that species. Sex was not determined on the herring samples as explained previously. Physiology. Blue whiting is a species that stores most of of its body fat in the liver, as opposed to capelin and herring that store their fat in adipose tissue throughout the body. This means that the blue whiting has most of the dioxin and PCBs in the liver tissue, which is where biotransformation of such compounds normally takes place. Further studies of the congener data in appendix 1 could clarify whether this could be a significant contributing factor to explain the higher WHO-PCB : dioxin ratio which is observed in the blue whiting results. This, however, is not within the scope of the present report. All of these five factors could be affecting the levels of dioxin and PCBs simultaneously. The results of this investigation, however, give a much clearer idea of the variations involved with these 4 pelagic stocks in the NE Atlantic and are most useful in clarifying the limitations the EU directives impose on the products from these stocks. 36
  38. 38. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks 7 Acknowledgements The steering committee should like to thank the Award Committee of Nordisk Atlantsamarbejde (NORA) for supporting this project. Without their understanding these valuable results would not be available to the industry. In addition we should like to thank the staff of the Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories, The Icelandic Marine Research Institute and the Faroese Fisheries Laboratory for their professional assistance with age determination and sample preparation. We also greatly appreciate the coordination work done by Miss Claudia Collingro and Dr Thomas Herrmann of ERGO with regard to the analysis and transfer of results. We should like to thank Thorhallur Jonasson, Quality Manager of SR-mjöl hf for his help in coordinating the sampling in Iceland. And finally we are grateful to Gudjon Atli Audunsson of IFL for the many useful discussions regarding the results and their presentation. 37
  39. 39. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks 8 References 1. Council Directive 2001/102/EC of 27.November 2001 on "the undesirable substances and products in animal nutrition”, Official Journal of the European Communities L6, 10/01/2002 pp. 45 – 49 2. Council Directive 1999/29/EC of 27.April 1999 on “the undesirable substances and products in animal nutrition”, Official Journal of the European Communities L115, 04/05/1999 pp. 32 – 46 3. Council Regulation 2375/2001 of 29.November 2001 on “setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs”, Official Journal of the European Communities L321, 06/12/2001 pp. 1 – 5 4. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition on Dioxin Contamination of Feedingstuffs and their Contribution to the Contamination of Food of Animal Origin, 6th November 2000 5. J. Rantanen, Industrial and Environmental Emergencies; Lessons Learned. Organohalogen Compd. 10 (1992) 291 – 294 6. Martin Van den Berg et al. Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for Humans and Wildlife, Environmental Health Perspectives 106 (1997) 775 – 792 7. AOCS Official Method Ba 3-38, 1997 8. ISO 6496-1999 9. Council Directive 2000/70/EC of 26.July 2002 on “establishing requirements for the determination of levels of dioxins and dioxin-lke PCBs in feedingstuffs”, Official Journal of the European Communities L209, 06/08/2002 pp. 15 – 21 10. Sjávarnytjar við Ísland (1998), Gunnarsson, K., Jónsson, G., and Pálsson, Ó., Mál and Menning, Reykjavík 11. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea: Report nr 255 of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, December 2002 12. Council Directive 2002/32/EC of 7.May 2002 on “the undesirable substances in animal feed”, Official Journal of the European Communities L140, 30/05/2002 pp. 10 – 21 38
  40. 40. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks 9 Appendix 1 The congener results are presented on pages 40 – 50. The figures in brackets indicate the limit of determination when the congener could not be detected. These results can be provided electronically by contacting the members of the steering committee. Derek Mundell derek@srmjol.is Magnus Pauli Magnussen magnuspm@hfs.fo Jón Reynir Magnusson jr@fif.is Gudny Vang gur@havsbrun.fo 39
  41. 41. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Sample code RM/IS-1 FM/IS-1 FO/IS-1 RM/IS-2 FM/IS-2 FO/IS-2 RM/IS-3 FM/IS-3 FO/IS-3 Fish species Capelin Capelin Capelin Capelin Capelin Capelin Capelin Capelin Capelin Sample type Fish Fishmeal Fishoil Fish Fishmeal Fishoil Fish Fishmeal Fishoil Average fish length (cm) 16,1 15,5 15,6 Average fish weight (g) 25,1 20,1 22,2 Sex ratio (m/f) 1,6 : 1 1 : 1.29 1 : 1.08 Average fish age (yrs) 3,22 3,09 3,14 Date of catch 10.1.2001 26.1.2001 5.2.2001 Area of catch 64°50' N / 11°26' W 64°30' N / 11°30 W 65°30' N / 25°30' W Sample moisture content % 67,8 6,1 0 68,6 6,4 0 70,2 8,6 0 Sample fat content %(pet. ether) 16,0 11,5 100,0 13,9 11,6 100,0 12,7 11,8 100,0 Dioxin (PCDD / F) ng WHO-TEQ / kg 2.3.7.8-Tetra-CDD 0,137 0,226 0,112 0,154 (0,200) 0,149 0,163 0,200 0,177 1.2.3.7.8-Penta-CDD 0,240 (0,300) 0,219 0,288 (0,200) 0,255 0,280 0,200 0,298 1.2.3.4.7.8-Hexa-CDD (0,007) (0,030) (0,007) (0,007) (0,020) (0,012) (0,024) (0,020) (0,008) 1.2.3.6.7.8-Hexa-CDD 0,001 0,029 (0,009) 0,017 (0,020) (0,012) (0,024) (0,020) 0,013 1.2.3.7.8.9-Hexa-CDD (0,007) (0,030) (0,007) (0,007) (0,020) (0,010) (0,024) (0,020) (0,006) 1.2.3.4.6.7.8-Hepta-CDD 0,002 0,023 (0,001) 0,003 (0,009) (0,001) (0,004) (0,009) (0,001) OCDD 0,000 0,000 (0,000) 0,000 (0,000) (0,000) 0,000 (0,000) (0,000) 2.3.7.8-Tetra-CDF 0,674 0,787 0,648 0,796 0,823 0,828 0,826 0,928 0,912 1.2.3.7.8-Penta-CDF 0,022 0,020 0,024 0,028 0,022 0,029 0,030 0,026 0,033 2.3.4.7.8-Penta-CDF 0,410 0,340 0,405 0,470 0,402 0,500 0,493 0,434 0,555 1.2.3.4.7.8-Hexa-CDF 0,015 0,040 0,016 0,012 0,031 0,017 (0,024) 0,020 0,014 1.2.3.6.7.8-Hexa-CDF 0,006 (0,030) 0,008 0,008 (0,020) 0,007 (0,024) (0,020) 0,009 1.2.3.7.8.9-Hexa-CDF (0,007) (0,030) (0,008) (0,007) (0,020) (0,012) (0,024) (0,020) (0,009) 2.3.4.6.7.8-Hexa-CDF (0,008) (0,030) (0,011) (0,009) (0,020) (0,011) (0,024) (0,020) (0,011) 1.2.3.4.6.7.8-Hepta-CDF 0,002 (0,004) (0,001) 0,003 (0,004) (0,001) (0,003) (0,004) (0,001) 1.2.3.4.7.8.9-Hepta-CDF (0,001) (0,003) (0,001) (0,001) (0,003) (0,001) (0,003) (0,003) (0,001) OCDF (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) 0,000 (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) WHO-PCBs ng WHO-TEQ/ kg PCB 77 0,014 0,010 0,011 0,018 0,012 0,014 0,009 0,013 0,015 PCB 81 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,001 PCB 126 2,459 1,944 2,260 2,903 2,198 2,675 2,210 2,470 2,941 PCB 169 0,038 0,031 0,037 0,044 0,032 0,044 0,043 0,038 0,050 PCB 105 0,139 0,104 0,143 0,159 0,113 0,156 0,111 0,142 0,178 PCB 114 0,031 0,024 0,039 0,038 0,035 0,047 0,035 0,036 0,047 PCB 118 0,322 0,244 0,317 0,364 0,275 0,386 0,295 0,231 0,451 PCB 123 0,008 0,007 0,010 0,011 0,009 0,011 0,000 0,006 0,013 PCB 156 0,093 0,082 0,098 0,103 0,092 0,103 0,104 0,110 0,104 PCB 157 0,025 0,027 0,028 0,003 0,025 0,034 0,033 0,035 0,030 PCB 167 0,002 0,001 0,002 0,002 0,001 0,002 0,002 0,002 0,002 PCB 189 0,001 0,002 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,002 0,002 0,002 0,002 ng WHO-TEQ/ kg on lipid basis Based on PCDD/F 1,540 1,923 1,477 1,810 1,814 1,846 1,968 1,945 2,049 Based on non-ortho-PCB 2,512 1,986 2,309 2,966 2,243 2,734 2,262 2,522 3,007 Based on mono-ortho-PCB 0,620 0,491 0,638 0,682 0,551 0,741 0,582 0,562 0,826 Based on total-WHOPCBs 3,132 2,477 2,947 3,648 2,793 3,474 2,844 3,084 3,832 ng WHO-TEQ/ kg on dry matter basis Based on PCDD/F 0,765 0,235 1,477 0,801 0,225 1,846 0,839 0,251 2,049 Based on non-ortho-PCB 1,248 0,243 2,309 1,313 0,278 2,734 0,964 0,326 3,007 Based on mono-ortho-PCB 0,308 0,060 0,638 0,302 0,068 0,741 0,248 0,073 0,826 Based on total-WHOPCBs 1,556 0,303 2,947 1,615 0,346 3,474 1,212 0,398 3,832 ng WHO-TEQ/ kg on sample basis Based on PCDD/F 0,246 0,221 1,477 0,252 0,210 1,846 0,250 0,229 2,049 Based on non-ortho-PCB 0,402 0,228 2,309 0,412 0,260 2,734 0,287 0,298 3,007 Based on mono-ortho-PCB 0,099 0,056 0,638 0,095 0,064 0,741 0,074 0,066 0,826 Based on total-WHOPCBs 0,501 0,285 2,947 0,507 0,324 3,474 0,361 0,364 3,832 Marker-PCBs µg / kg on lipid basis PCB 28 1,3 0,8 1,4 1,5 0,8 1,7 1,7 0,8 1,6 PCB 52 4,2 3,1 4,1 4,8 3,6 4,6 4,8 4,3 5,1 PCB 101 3,5 2,9 3,3 3,7 3,2 3,2 3,5 4,0 4,0 PCB 118 3,2 2,4 3,2 3,6 2,7 3,9 2,9 2,3 4,5 PCB 138 5,6 3,9 4,8 5,8 4,5 4,8 5,5 5,3 6,0 PCB 153 5,0 3,4 5,0 5,5 4,4 4,8 5,3 5,0 6,2 PCB 180 1,2 1,0 1,1 1,4 1,1 1,3 1,3 1,3 1,6 Total Marker-PCB's 24 18 23 26 20 24 25 23 29 40
  42. 42. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Sample code RM/IS-4 FM/IS-4 FO/IS-4 RM/IS-5 FM/IS-5 FO/IS-5 RM/IS-6 FM/IS-6 FO/IS-6 Fishspecies Capelin Capelin Capelin Capelin Capelin Capelin Capelin Capelin Capelin Sample type Fish Fishmeal Fishoil Fish Fishmeal Fishoil Fish Fishmeal Fishoil Average fish length(cm) 15,8 16,2 16,1 Average fish weight (g) 22,6 24,4 20,9 Sex ratio(m/f) 1,22 : 1 1,08 : 1 1 : 2.33 Average fish age (yrs) 3,14 3,18 3,18 Date of catch 27.2.2001 5.3.2001 22.3.2001 Area of catch 64°21' N/ 22°52'W 63°47' N/ 22°40' W 63°15' N/ 20°30' W Sample moisture content % 74 9,4 0 74,1 5,6 0 75,3 7,2 0 Sample fat content %(pet. ether) 8,8 10,8 100,0 9,0 11,2 100,0 6,8 10,8 100,0 Dioxin(PCDD/ F) ng WHO-TEQ/ kg 2.3.7.8-Tetra-CDD 0,241 0,268 0,188 0,233 0,374 0,284 0,171 0,310 0,375 1.2.3.7.8-Penta-CDD 0,453 0,414 0,434 0,488 0,292 0,443 0,638 0,506 0,795 1.2.3.4.7.8-Hexa-CDD (0,009) (0,020) (0,010) 0,009 (0,030) (0,008) 0,030 (0,034) 0,016 1.2.3.6.7.8-Hexa-CDD 0,022 (0,020) (0,022) 0,022 (0,030) 0,026 0,041 (0,048) 0,037 1.2.3.7.8.9-Hexa-CDD (0,009) (0,020) (0,019) (0,008) (0,030) (0,007) 0,028 (0,034) 0,014 1.2.3.4.6.7.8-Hepta-CDD 0,003 0,032 (0,024) 0,004 0,011 (0,001) 0,006 (0,014) 0,005 OCDD (0,000) 0,004 (0,002) 0,000 (0,000) (0,000) 0,000 (0,000) (0,000) 2.3.7.8-Tetra-CDF 1,265 1,362 1,237 1,304 1,217 1,400 1,917 1,791 2,150 1.2.3.7.8-Penta-CDF 0,043 0,040 0,048 0,049 0,036 0,051 0,065 0,059 0,080 2.3.4.7.8-Penta-CDF 0,750 0,652 0,845 0,845 0,632 0,845 1,223 0,913 1,408 1.2.3.4.7.8-Hexa-CDF 0,018 0,041 0,032 0,021 0,031 0,032 0,046 0,050 0,056 1.2.3.6.7.8-Hexa-CDF 0,011 (0,020) 0,016 0,012 (0,030) 0,016 0,031 (0,029) 0,032 1.2.3.7.8.9-Hexa-CDF (0,009) (0,020) (0,008) (0,008) (0,030) (0,009) (0,028) (0,029) 0,011 2.3.4.6.7.8-Hexa-CDF 0,015 0,028 0,015 0,016 (0,030) 0,016 0,034 (0,034) 0,039 1.2.3.4.6.7.8-Hepta-CDF 0,003 0,007 (0,003) 0,004 0,008 (0,001) (0,005) (0,005) 0,003 1.2.3.4.7.8.9-Hepta-CDF (0,001) (0,003) (0,001) (0,001) (0,004) (0,001) (0,004) (0,004) 0,002 OCDF 0,000 0,000 (0,000) 0,000 0,000 (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) 0,000 WHO-PCBs ngWHO-TEQ/ kg PCB77 0,024 0,017 0,015 0,027 0,019 0,022 0,029 0,022 0,023 PCB81 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,002 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,001 PCB126 4,382 3,496 3,785 4,810 4,117 4,515 5,855 4,537 6,588 PCB169 0,071 0,056 0,070 0,078 0,056 0,080 0,106 0,074 0,120 PCB105 0,233 0,194 0,171 0,250 0,203 0,285 0,302 0,242 0,292 PCB114 0,052 0,051 0,064 0,049 0,053 0,087 0,081 0,077 0,093 PCB118 0,519 0,438 0,469 0,599 0,454 0,695 0,760 0,583 0,780 PCB123 0,015 0,012 0,000 0,014 0,010 0,024 0,014 0,007 0,000 PCB156 0,164 0,159 0,171 0,179 0,153 0,176 0,254 0,198 0,291 PCB157 0,050 0,043 0,052 0,051 0,044 0,050 0,082 0,057 0,093 PCB167 0,004 0,002 0,003 0,003 0,003 0,003 0,004 0,003 0,005 PCB189 0,002 0,002 0,003 0,003 0,003 0,003 0,004 0,003 0,004 ngWHO-TEQ/ kgonlipidbasis Based on PCDD/F 2,852 2,950 2,904 3,024 2,785 3,141 4,263 3,859 5,021 Based on non-ortho-PCB 4,479 3,570 3,871 4,916 4,193 4,619 5,992 4,634 6,732 Based on mono-ortho-PCB 1,038 0,901 0,932 1,146 0,922 1,322 1,500 1,170 1,557 Based on total-WHOPCBs 5,517 4,471 4,802 6,062 5,115 5,941 7,492 5,804 8,289 ngWHO-TEQ/ kgondrymatter basis Based on PCDD/F 0,965 0,352 2,904 1,051 0,330 3,141 1,174 0,449 5,021 Based on non-ortho-PCB 1,516 0,426 3,871 1,708 0,497 4,619 1,650 0,539 6,732 Based on mono-ortho-PCB 0,351 0,107 0,932 0,398 0,109 1,322 0,413 0,136 1,557 Based on total-WHOPCBs 1,867 0,533 4,802 2,107 0,607 5,941 2,063 0,675 8,289 ngWHO-TEQ/ kgonsample basis Based on PCDD/F 0,251 0,319 2,904 0,272 0,312 3,141 0,290 0,417 5,021 Based on non-ortho-PCB 0,394 0,386 3,871 0,442 0,470 4,619 0,407 0,500 6,732 Based on mono-ortho-PCB 0,091 0,097 0,932 0,103 0,103 1,322 0,102 0,126 1,557 Based on total-WHOPCBs 0,485 0,483 4,802 0,546 0,573 5,941 0,509 0,627 8,289 Marker-PCBs µg/ kgonlipidbasis PCB28 1,8 0,8 2,1 2,3 1,2 2,6 3,5 3,2 3,5 PCB52 6,6 6,0 6,4 7,0 6,2 7,2 9,6 8,1 10,5 PCB101 5,7 5,7 4,7 6,3 6,0 6,0 7,9 6,3 7,9 PCB118 5,2 4,4 4,7 6,0 4,5 6,9 7,6 5,8 7,8 PCB138 8,9 7,5 8,0 9,2 7,7 9,3 12,5 9,5 13,3 PCB153 8,1 6,8 7,7 9,5 7,9 10,3 12,5 9,1 13,1 PCB180 2,1 1,8 2,0 2,3 1,9 2,9 3,1 2,2 3,4 Total Marker-PCB's 38 33 36 43 36 45 57 44 59 41
  43. 43. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Sample code RM/IS-7 FM/IS-7 FO/IS-7 RM/IS-8 FM/IS-8 FO/IS-8 RM/IS-9 FM/IS-9 FO/IS-9 Fishspecies A-SHerring A-SHerring A-SHerring A-SHerring A-SHerring A-SHerring Capelin Capelin Capelin Sample type Fish Fishmeal Fishoil Fish Fishmeal Fishoil Fish Fishmeal Fishoil Average fish length(cm) 34,6 34,0 15,4 Average fish weight (g) 306,1 300,7 17,4 Sex ratio(m/f) n/a n/a 3,35:1 Average fish age (yrs) 9,3 8,6 2,0 Date of catch 28.5.2001 15.6.2001 4.7.2001 Area of catch 71°50' N/ 00°50' E 73°11' N/ 6°51' E 66°20' N/ 24°15' W Sample moisture content % 73,2 7,1 0 68,6 7,2 0 73,2 8,1 0 Sample fat content %(pet. ether) 8,1 7,3 100,0 12,7 8,5 100,0 10,2 10,4 100,0 Dioxin(PCDD/ F) ng WHO-TEQ/ kg 2.3.7.8-Tetra-CDD 0,624 0,675 0,624 0,369 0,415 0,315 0,182 0,195 0,218 1.2.3.7.8-Penta-CDD 2,535 2,671 2,672 1,534 1,570 1,171 0,335 0,482 0,422 1.2.3.4.7.8-Hexa-CDD 0,037 0,050 0,055 0,027 0,038 0,022 (0,010) 0,063 0,013 1.2.3.6.7.8-Hexa-CDD 0,233 0,222 0,211 0,137 0,140 0,101 0,014 0,039 0,020 1.2.3.7.8.9-Hexa-CDD 0,050 0,044 0,051 0,028 (0,035) 0,031 0,008 0,032 0,043 1.2.3.4.6.7.8-Hepta-CDD 0,005 (0,012) 0,010 0,004 (0,010) 0,005 0,003 0,011 (0,004) OCDD (0,000) 0,001 (0,000) (0,000) 0,000 (0,000) 0,000 (0,000) (0,000) 2.3.7.8-Tetra-CDF 2,634 2,468 2,679 1,708 1,533 1,281 0,921 0,941 1,010 1.2.3.7.8-Penta-CDF 0,175 0,161 0,164 0,105 0,091 0,074 0,038 0,038 0,041 2.3.4.7.8-Penta-CDF 5,250 4,975 4,800 3,000 2,820 2,210 0,650 0,610 0,685 1.2.3.4.7.8-Hexa-CDF 0,092 0,105 0,109 0,070 0,055 0,049 0,023 (0,029) 0,021 1.2.3.6.7.8-Hexa-CDF 0,115 0,123 0,119 0,070 0,063 0,053 0,012 (0,029) 0,013 1.2.3.7.8.9-Hexa-CDF (0,010) (0,040) (0,011) (0,010) (0,035) (0,008) (0,010) (0,029) (0,010) 2.3.4.6.7.8-Hexa-CDF 0,132 0,144 0,144 0,083 0,077 0,064 0,016 (0,029) 0,016 1.2.3.4.6.7.8-Hepta-CDF (0,002) 0,006 0,005 0,002 (0,005) 0,002 0,003 (0,004) (0,002) 1.2.3.4.7.8.9-Hepta-CDF (0,001) (0,005) 0,002 (0,001) (0,005) (0,001) 0,002 (0,004) (0,001) OCDF (0,000) 0,001 (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) 0,000 (0,000) (0,000) WHO-PCBs ngWHO-TEQ/ kg PCB77 0,014 0,017 0,016 0,012 0,011 0,011 0,010 0,010 0,011 PCB81 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,001 0,001 0,001 PCB126 10,978 11,047 12,389 6,934 6,954 6,619 2,627 2,628 3,145 PCB169 0,443 0,362 0,398 0,229 0,212 0,177 0,052 0,131 0,054 PCB105 0,875 0,895 0,888 0,478 0,523 0,446 0,086 0,119 0,143 PCB114 0,291 0,240 0,246 0,156 0,158 0,129 0,032 0,036 0,048 PCB118 2,422 2,264 2,361 1,298 1,362 1,213 0,244 0,349 0,433 PCB123 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 PCB156 1,042 0,887 0,962 0,545 0,523 0,489 0,085 0,123 0,138 PCB157 0,287 0,269 0,289 0,150 0,155 0,133 0,026 0,039 0,049 PCB167 0,011 0,010 0,011 0,006 0,006 0,005 0,001 0,001 0,002 PCB189 0,017 0,015 0,016 0,008 0,009 0,008 0,001 0,002 (0,002) ngWHO-TEQ/ kgonlipidbasis Based on PCDD/F 11,895 11,702 11,655 7,148 6,892 5,386 2,227 2,535 2,519 Based on non-ortho-PCB 11,436 11,426 12,804 7,175 7,178 6,807 2,689 2,769 3,210 Based on mono-ortho-PCB 4,943 4,579 4,772 2,640 2,735 2,422 0,475 0,668 0,815 Based on total-WHOPCBs 16,379 16,005 17,576 9,815 9,913 9,229 3,164 3,438 4,025 ngWHO-TEQ/ kgondrymatter basis Based on PCDD/F 3,595 0,920 11,655 2,891 0,631 5,386 0,848 0,287 2,519 Based on non-ortho-PCB 3,456 0,898 12,804 2,902 0,657 6,807 1,024 0,313 3,210 Based on mono-ortho-PCB 1,494 0,360 4,772 1,068 0,251 2,422 0,181 0,076 0,815 Based on total-WHOPCBs 4,950 1,258 17,576 3,970 0,908 9,229 1,204 0,389 4,025 ngWHO-TEQ/ kgonsample basis Based on PCDD/F 0,964 0,854 11,655 0,908 0,586 5,386 0,227 0,264 2,519 Based on non-ortho-PCB 0,926 0,834 12,804 0,911 0,610 6,807 0,274 0,288 3,210 Based on mono-ortho-PCB 0,400 0,334 4,772 0,335 0,233 2,422 0,048 0,070 0,815 Based on total-WHOPCBs 1,327 1,168 17,576 1,246 0,843 9,229 0,323 0,358 4,025 Marker-PCBs µg/ kgonlipidbasis PCB28 6,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 3,0 3,0 1,8 2,2 1,9 PCB52 19,0 18,0 18,9 11,0 11,0 12,0 2,7 4,0 5,0 PCB101 31,0 29,0 30,5 17,0 16,0 15,0 1,9 2,5 2,6 PCB118 24,0 23,0 23,8 13,0 14,0 12,0 2,4 3,5 4,3 PCB138 44,0 38,0 41,6 23,0 22,0 21,0 3,9 5,6 6,7 PCB153 40,0 35,0 38,3 21,0 21,0 19,0 3,8 5,3 6,9 PCB180 9,0 7,0 8,4 4,0 4,0 4,0 0,8 1,2 1,4 Total Marker-PCB's 173 156 166 93 91 86 17 24 29 42
  44. 44. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Sample code RM/IS-10 FM/IS-10 FO/IS-10 RM/IS-11 FM/IS-11 FO/IS-11 RM/IS-12 RM/IS-13 FM/IS-13 Fishspecies Capelin Capelin Capelin Capelin Capelin Capelin A-SHerring Blue Whiting Blue Whiting Sample type Fish Fishmeal Fishoil Fish Fishmeal Fishoil Fish Fish Fishmeal Average fish length(cm) 13,6 13,5 31,5 28,1 Average fish weight (g) 14,5 13,4 280 143,1 Sex ratio(m/f) 2,23:1 1,86:1 n/a n/a Average fish age (yrs) 2,0 2,2 5,4 3,8 Date of catch 11.7.2001 24.7.2001 10.9.2001 14.11.2001 Area of catch 66°45' N/ 22°30' W 68°20' N/ 18°40' W 69°00' N/ 11°30' W 63°10' N/ 10°00' W Sample moisture content % 71,3 8,6 0 69,9 7,3 0 61,2 72,1 6,2 Sample fat content %(pet. ether) 12,5 12,9 100,0 14,2 12,7 100,0 20,0 8,2 8,9 Dioxin(PCDD/ F) ng WHO-TEQ/ kg 2.3.7.8-Tetra-CDD 0,092 (0,155) 0,128 0,109 (0,157) 0,128 0,256 0,327 0,395 1.2.3.7.8-Penta-CDD 0,166 (0,233) 0,175 0,172 (0,236) 0,161 0,570 (0,220) (0,340) 1.2.3.4.7.8-Hexa-CDD (0,008) (0,023) 0,006 (0,014) (0,024) (0,006) 0,017 (0,024) (0,036) 1.2.3.6.7.8-Hexa-CDD 0,008 (0,023) 0,011 (0,014) (0,024) 0,010 0,040 0,049 0,068 1.2.3.7.8.9-Hexa-CDD (0,008) (0,023) 0,009 (0,014) (0,024) 0,009 (0,015) (0,024) (0,035) 1.2.3.4.6.7.8-Hepta-CDD 0,003 (0,007) (0,004) (0,002) 0,007 (0,004) 0,004 0,007 0,011 OCDD 0,000 (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) 0,000 2.3.7.8-Tetra-CDF 0,467 0,550 0,544 0,458 0,443 0,454 0,756 1,100 1,214 1.2.3.7.8-Penta-CDF 0,015 0,021 0,020 0,014 0,015 0,015 0,035 0,055 0,081 2.3.4.7.8-Penta-CDF 0,310 0,350 0,360 0,289 0,268 0,290 1,150 0,190 0,260 1.2.3.4.7.8-Hexa-CDF 0,013 0,023 0,008 (0,014) (0,024) 0,005 0,030 0,040 0,074 1.2.3.6.7.8-Hexa-CDF (0,008) (0,023) 0,003 (0,014) (0,024) 0,004 0,028 0,030 0,041 1.2.3.7.8.9-Hexa-CDF (0,008) (0,023) (0,007) (0,014) (0,024) (0,008) (0,016) (0,032) (0,034) 2.3.4.6.7.8-Hexa-CDF 0,008 (0,023) (0,009) (0,014) (0,024) (0,009) 0,026 0,044 0,063 1.2.3.4.6.7.8-Hepta-CDF 0,003 (0,003) (0,002) (0,001) (0,003) (0,002) (0,002) (0,003) (0,006) 1.2.3.4.7.8.9-Hepta-CDF 0,001 (0,003) (0,001) (0,002) (0,003) (0,001) (0,003) (0,004) (0,004) OCDF 0,000 (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) WHO-PCBs ngWHO-TEQ/ kg PCB77 0,005 0,006 0,007 0,005 0,005 0,005 0,011 0,010 0,007 PCB81 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 PCB126 1,406 1,553 1,714 1,284 1,238 1,488 3,457 5,238 5,850 PCB169 0,024 0,024 0,030 0,022 0,017 0,023 0,096 0,119 0,127 PCB105 0,068 0,071 0,079 0,063 0,057 0,071 0,178 0,312 0,352 PCB114 0,024 0,023 0,027 0,025 0,022 0,022 0,093 0,175 0,121 PCB118 0,193 0,203 0,242 0,175 0,155 0,201 0,509 0,880 0,978 PCB123 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 PCB156 0,094 0,063 0,067 0,054 0,048 0,061 0,205 0,395 0,417 PCB157 0,019 0,022 0,021 0,018 0,019 0,020 0,055 0,102 0,135 PCB167 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,005 0,008 0,006 PCB189 0,001 0,001 (0,001) 0,001 0,001 (0,002) 0,007 (0,005) 0,008 ngWHO-TEQ/ kgonlipidbasis Based on PCDD/F 1,118 1,483 1,286 1,145 1,300 1,105 2,947 2,149 2,662 Based on non-ortho-PCB 1,436 1,583 1,751 1,311 1,260 1,517 3,564 5,368 5,984 Based on mono-ortho-PCB 0,400 0,382 0,438 0,336 0,303 0,376 1,050 1,877 2,015 Based on total-WHOPCBs 1,835 1,965 2,188 1,647 1,563 1,893 4,615 7,245 7,999 ngWHO-TEQ/ kgondrymatter basis Based on PCDD/F 0,487 0,209 1,286 0,540 0,178 1,105 1,519 0,631 0,253 Based on non-ortho-PCB 0,625 0,223 1,751 0,618 0,173 1,517 1,837 1,578 0,568 Based on mono-ortho-PCB 0,174 0,054 0,438 0,158 0,042 0,376 0,541 0,552 0,191 Based on total-WHOPCBs 0,799 0,277 2,188 0,777 0,214 1,893 2,379 2,129 0,759 ngWHO-TEQ/ kgonsample basis Based on PCDD/F 0,140 0,191 1,286 0,163 0,165 1,105 0,589 0,176 0,237 Based on non-ortho-PCB 0,179 0,204 1,751 0,186 0,160 1,517 0,713 0,440 0,533 Based on mono-ortho-PCB 0,050 0,049 0,438 0,048 0,038 0,376 0,210 0,154 0,179 Based on total-WHOPCBs 0,229 0,254 2,188 0,234 0,199 1,893 0,923 0,594 0,712 Marker-PCBs µg/ kgonlipidbasis PCB28 1,1 (1,6) 1,0 1,1 1,3 0,9 2,0 5,0 3,0 PCB52 2,5 2,5 3,1 2,4 2,0 2,6 5,0 7,0 8,0 PCB101 1,5 1,5 1,8 1,7 1,4 1,6 9,0 14,0 14,0 PCB118 1,9 2,0 2,4 1,7 1,6 2,0 5,0 9,0 10,0 PCB138 2,9 3,1 3,4 2,8 2,5 3,1 8,0 15,0 19,0 PCB153 2,9 3,0 3,5 2,8 2,4 2,8 10,0 21,0 21,0 PCB180 0,5 0,6 0,6 0,6 0,5 0,6 2,0 6,0 6,0 Total Marker-PCB's 13 14 16 13 12 14 41 77 81 43
  45. 45. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Samplecode FO/IS-13 RM/IS-14 FM/IS-14 RM/IS-15 RM/IS-16 RM/IS-17 FM/IS-17 FO/IS-17 RM/IS-18 Fishspecies BlueWhiting BlueWhiting BlueWhiting ICEHerring ICEHerring Capelin Capelin Capelin Capelin Sampletype Fishoil Fish Fishmeal Fish Fish Fish Fishmeal Fishoil Fish Averagefishlength(cm) 28,9 31,9 28,7 15,4 15,7 Averagefishweight (g) 159,5 263,5 195,2 18,3 19,4 Sexratio(m/f) n/a n/a n/a 1.0: 1 1.50: 1 Averagefishage(yrs) 4,1 5,1 3,2 2,6 2,6 Dateof catch 15.11.2001 26.11.2001 28.11.2001 10.12.2001 17.12.2001 Areaofcatch 63°10' N/ 10°00' W 65°30' N/ 27°00' W 65°30' N/ 27°00' W 67°20' N/ 17°30' W 67°20' N/ 13°30' W Samplemoisturecontent % 0 71,3 4,7 68,0 64,1 70,8 7,4 0 71,2 Samplefat content %(pet. ether) 100,0 9,7 13,3 13,0 16,7 14,3 11,5 100,0 12,7 Dioxin(PCDD/ F) ngWHO-TEQ/ kg 2.3.7.8-Tetra-CDD 0,276 0,300 0,271 0,190 0,160 0,190 0,200 0,109 (0,150) 1.2.3.7.8-Penta-CDD 0,230 (0,260) 0,247 (0,250) (0,200) (0,200) (0,250) 0,321 (0,250) 1.2.3.4.7.8-Hexa-CDD 0,008 (0,020) (0,020) (0,020) (0,016) (0,023) (0,026) 0,006 (0,024) 1.2.3.6.7.8-Hexa-CDD 0,061 0,046 0,049 (0,020) (0,017) (0,024) 0,035 0,015 (0,024) 1.2.3.7.8.9-Hexa-CDD 0,011 (0,024) (0,024) (0,021) (0,018) (0,020) (0,027) (0,003) (0,020) 1.2.3.4.6.7.8-Hepta-CDD 0,007 0,007 0,008 0,004 0,003 0,003 0,017 (0,001) (0,003) OCDD 0,000 (0,000) 0,000 (0,000) (0,000) 0,000 0,001 (0,000) (0,000) 2.3.7.8-Tetra-CDF 1,128 1,067 0,901 0,925 0,400 0,623 0,643 0,662 0,680 1.2.3.7.8-Penta-CDF 0,064 0,062 0,068 0,032 0,013 0,025 0,021 0,027 0,026 2.3.4.7.8-Penta-CDF 0,285 0,235 0,285 0,795 0,285 0,505 0,465 0,480 0,485 1.2.3.4.7.8-Hexa-CDF 0,032 0,040 0,037 0,024 (0,018) (0,021) 0,035 0,017 (0,023) 1.2.3.6.7.8-Hexa-CDF 0,033 0,033 0,033 (0,025) (0,017) (0,019) (0,030) 0,007 (0,025) 1.2.3.7.8.9-Hexa-CDF (0,003) (0,023) (0,023) (0,024) (0,017) (0,020) (0,024) (0,003) (0,026) 2.3.4.6.7.8-Hexa-CDF 0,051 0,053 0,054 (0,021) (0,016) (0,018) (0,027) 0,010 (0,022) 1.2.3.4.6.7.8-Hepta-CDF 0,003 (0,003) 0,004 (0,003) (0,002) (0,003) 0,007 (0,001) (0,003) 1.2.3.4.7.8.9-Hepta-CDF 0,001 (0,003) (0,003) (0,003) (0,002) (0,003) (0,004) (0,001) (0,003) OCDF 0,000 (0,000) 0,000 (0,000) (0,000) 0,000 0,000 (0,000) (0,000) WHO-PCBs ngWHO-TEQ/ kg PCB77 0,007 0,010 0,009 0,009 0,005 0,011 0,009 0,008 0,011 PCB81 0,000 0,000 0,001 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,001 0,000 0,001 PCB126 4,529 5,577 5,093 2,998 1,343 1,968 1,882 2,145 2,088 PCB169 0,117 0,144 0,121 0,105 0,041 0,043 0,034 0,042 0,048 PCB105 0,341 0,309 0,303 0,261 0,125 0,104 0,094 0,121 0,117 PCB114 0,187 0,195 0,199 0,180 0,085 0,079 0,036 0,048 0,052 PCB118 0,951 0,945 0,960 0,778 0,300 0,265 0,264 0,341 0,347 PCB123 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 PCB156 0,437 0,457 0,348 0,253 0,127 0,096 0,088 0,107 0,122 PCB157 0,110 0,153 0,105 0,119 0,037 0,040 0,029 0,036 0,048 PCB167 0,009 0,006 0,005 0,007 0,003 0,002 0,001 0,002 0,002 PCB189 0,007 0,005 0,005 (0,008) (0,004) (0,003) (0,002) 0,002 (0,003) ngWHO-TEQ/ kgonlipidbasis BasedonPCDD/F 2,194 2,176 2,027 2,357 1,185 1,697 1,811 1,663 1,764 Basedonnon-ortho-PCB 4,653 5,732 5,224 3,113 1,389 2,023 1,925 2,195 2,148 Basedonmono-ortho-PCB 2,042 2,070 1,925 1,604 0,679 0,589 0,512 0,657 0,691 Basedontotal-WHOPCBs 6,695 7,801 7,148 4,716 2,068 2,612 2,438 2,852 2,839 ngWHO-TEQ/ kgondrymatterbasis BasedonPCDD/F 2,194 0,735 0,283 0,958 0,551 0,831 0,225 1,663 0,778 Basedonnon-ortho-PCB 4,653 1,937 0,729 1,264 0,646 0,991 0,239 2,195 0,947 Basedonmono-ortho-PCB 2,042 0,700 0,269 0,652 0,316 0,288 0,064 0,657 0,305 Basedontotal-WHOPCBs 6,695 2,637 0,998 1,916 0,962 1,279 0,303 2,852 1,252 ngWHO-TEQ/ kgonsamplebasis BasedonPCDD/F 2,194 0,211 0,270 0,306 0,198 0,243 0,208 1,663 0,224 Basedonnon-ortho-PCB 4,653 0,556 0,695 0,405 0,232 0,289 0,221 2,195 0,273 Basedonmono-ortho-PCB 2,042 0,201 0,256 0,209 0,113 0,084 0,059 0,657 0,088 Basedontotal-WHOPCBs 6,695 0,757 0,951 0,613 0,345 0,373 0,280 2,852 0,361 Marker-PCBsµg/ kgonlipidbasis PCB28 1,4 2,0 2,0 2,0 (1,1) 2,6 2,1 1,5 2,0 PCB52 16,5 7,0 17,0 7,0 2,5 4,3 3,6 4,4 4,8 PCB101 13,7 14,0 15,0 14,0 4,4 3,2 2,4 2,7 3,3 PCB118 9,5 9,0 10,0 8,0 3,1 2,6 2,6 3,3 3,5 PCB138 14,4 15,0 14,0 11,0 3,7 3,8 4,4 5,0 4,4 PCB153 18,4 21,0 20,0 18,0 5,4 5,4 4,7 5,2 5,6 PCB180 5,7 6,0 5,0 4,0 1,2 1,1 1,0 1,1 1,4 Total Marker-PCB's 80 74 83 64 21 23 21 23 25 44
  46. 46. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Samplecode FM/IS-18 FO/IS-18 RM/IS-19 FM/IS-19 FO/IS-19 RM/IS-20 FM/IS-20 FO/IS-20 RM/IS-21 Fishspecies Capelin Capelin A-SHerring A-SHerring A-SHerring A-SHerring A-SHerring A-SHerring Capelin Sampletype Fishmeal Fishoil Fish Fishmeal Fishoil Fish Fishmeal Fishoil Fish Averagefishlength(cm) 34,1 33,8 29,8 Averagefishweight (g) 341,4 305,8 19,3 Sexratio(m/f) n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 4,0:1 Averagefishage(yrs) 10,2 9,9 2 Dateof catch 26.5.2002 7.6.2002 23.7.2002 Areaofcatch 70°20' N/ 4°30' W 72°56' N/ 6°42' E 68°20' N/ 19°30' W Samplemoisturecontent % 5,4 0 66,4 7,3 0 66,4 8,2 0 68,6 Samplefat content %(pet. ether) 13,0 100,0 15,6 8,8 100,0 14,9 8,0 100,0 16,7 Dioxin(PCDD/ F) ngWHO-TEQ/ kg 2.3.7.8-Tetra-CDD 0,240 0,158 0,316 0,360 0,267 0,303 0,400 0,354 0,060 1.2.3.7.8-Penta-CDD 0,245 0,333 1,316 1,237 1,175 1,208 1,306 1,153 0,145 1.2.3.4.7.8-Hexa-CDD (0,025) 0,008 0,024 (0,032) (0,021) 0,019 0,043 0,019 0,006 1.2.3.6.7.8-Hexa-CDD (0,023) 0,014 0,097 0,096 0,104 0,090 0,113 0,092 0,015 1.2.3.7.8.9-Hexa-CDD (0,022) 0,007 0,022 (0,036) (0,020) 0,021 0,038 0,025 0,004 1.2.3.4.6.7.8-Hepta-CDD 0,013 (0,003) (0,007) 0,006 0,002 (0,007) 0,019 0,002 (0,006) OCDD 0,001 (0,000) (0,000) 0,000 0,000 (0,000) 0,000 (0,000) (0,000) 2.3.7.8-Tetra-CDF 0,675 0,792 1,491 1,115 1,135 1,398 1,219 1,143 0,464 1.2.3.7.8-Penta-CDF 0,028 0,028 0,077 0,065 0,072 0,073 0,071 0,066 0,018 2.3.4.7.8-Penta-CDF 0,555 0,515 2,225 2,260 2,080 2,035 2,340 2,025 0,265 1.2.3.4.7.8-Hexa-CDF 0,024 0,014 0,042 0,059 0,045 0,037 0,083 0,041 0,009 1.2.3.6.7.8-Hexa-CDF (0,022) 0,007 0,054 0,047 0,050 0,048 0,062 0,048 0,006 1.2.3.7.8.9-Hexa-CDF (0,022) (0,003) (0,003) (0,037) (0,004) (0,003) (0,033) (0,005) (0,003) 2.3.4.6.7.8-Hexa-CDF (0,024) (0,012) 0,061 0,053 0,064 0,057 0,083 0,059 (0,008) 1.2.3.4.6.7.8-Hepta-CDF (0,003) (0,002) (0,003) (0,005) (0,001) (0,003) 0,011 (0,001) 0,009 1.2.3.4.7.8.9-Hepta-CDF (0,003) (0,001) (0,001) (0,004) (0,001) (0,001) (0,005) (0,001) (0,001) OCDF (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) 0,000 (0,000) 0,000 WHO-PCBs ngWHO-TEQ/ kg PCB77 0,009 0,009 0,009 0,008 0,008 0,008 0,010 0,008 0,004 PCB81 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 PCB126 1,936 1,909 5,805 5,396 5,624 5,700 5,886 5,672 1,500 PCB169 0,043 0,042 0,199 0,184 0,200 0,190 0,198 0,197 0,030 PCB105 0,102 0,115 0,434 0,457 0,455 0,372 0,466 0,427 0,077 PCB114 0,074 0,082 0,140 0,163 0,155 0,126 0,166 0,144 0,035 PCB118 0,264 0,349 1,027 1,205 1,176 0,973 1,170 1,137 0,220 PCB123 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 PCB156 0,115 0,122 0,474 0,443 0,493 0,465 0,473 0,490 0,064 PCB157 0,036 0,036 0,153 0,145 0,159 0,166 0,147 0,151 0,024 PCB167 0,002 0,003 0,008 0,005 0,006 0,007 0,005 0,006 0,001 PCB189 0,003 0,003 0,009 0,008 0,009 0,008 0,008 0,009 0,001 ngWHO-TEQ/ kgonlipidbasis BasedonPCDD/F 1,925 1,896 5,739 5,412 5,041 5,304 5,827 5,034 1,020 Basedonnon-ortho-PCB 1,989 1,960 6,013 5,589 5,833 5,899 6,094 5,878 1,535 Basedonmono-ortho-PCB 0,594 0,709 2,244 2,424 2,452 2,116 2,435 2,363 0,421 Basedontotal-WHOPCBs 2,583 2,669 8,257 8,013 8,284 8,015 8,529 8,241 1,955 ngWHO-TEQ/ kgondrymatterbasis BasedonPCDD/F 0,265 1,896 2,665 0,514 5,041 2,352 0,508 5,034 0,543 Basedonnon-ortho-PCB 0,273 1,960 2,792 0,531 5,833 2,616 0,531 5,878 0,816 Basedonmono-ortho-PCB 0,082 0,709 1,042 0,230 2,452 0,938 0,212 2,363 0,224 Basedontotal-WHOPCBs 0,355 2,669 3,834 0,761 8,284 3,554 0,743 8,241 1,040 ngWHO-TEQ/ kgonsamplebasis BasedonPCDD/F 0,250 1,896 0,895 0,476 5,041 0,790 0,466 5,034 0,170 Basedonnon-ortho-PCB 0,259 1,960 0,938 0,492 5,833 0,879 0,488 5,878 0,256 Basedonmono-ortho-PCB 0,077 0,709 0,350 0,213 2,452 0,315 0,195 2,363 0,070 Basedontotal-WHOPCBs 0,336 2,669 1,288 0,705 8,284 1,194 0,682 8,241 0,327 Marker-PCBsµg/ kgonlipidbasis PCB28 1,4 (1,2) 2,0 5,0 3,0 1,5 4,0 2,0 1,1 PCB52 2,7 6,8 10,0 24,0 22,0 9,1 11,0 10,0 2,6 PCB101 3,1 3,9 20,0 22,0 24,0 17,4 18,0 20,0 1,9 PCB118 2,6 3,5 10,0 12,0 12,0 9,7 12,0 11,0 2,0 PCB138 3,7 4,0 21,0 21,0 21,0 19,6 21,0 20,0 2,9 PCB153 5,1 5,3 23,0 24,0 22,0 21,6 22,0 20,0 3,5 PCB180 1,2 1,4 6,0 4,0 6,0 5,1 4,0 6,0 0,8 Total Marker-PCB's 20 26 92 112 110 84 92 89 15 45
  47. 47. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Samplecode FM/IS-21 FO/IS-21 RM/IS-22 FM/IS-22 FO/IS-22 RM/IS-23 FM/IS-23 FO/IS-23 RM/IS-24 Fishspecies Capelin Capelin ICEHerring ICEHerring ICEHerring ICEHerring ICEHerring ICEHerring ICEHerring Sampletype Fishmeal Fishoil Fish Fishmeal Fishoil Fish Fishmeal Fishoil Fish Averagefishlength(cm) 34,5 32,2 34,4 Averagefishweight(g) 362,2 280,1 351,44 Sexratio(m/f) n/a n/a n/a Averagefishage(yrs) 7,2 5,5 8,2 Dateof catch 28.10.2002 16.11.2002 2.12.2002 Areaof catch 65°55' N/ 26°30' W 65°20' N/ 27°30' W 66°05' N/ 25°25' W Samplemoisturecontent % 7,3 0 61,7 6,7 0 63,5 7,7 0 64,7 Samplefat content%(pet. ether) 11,9 100,0 19,1 9,7 100,0 16,8 8,6 100,0 16,5 Dioxin(PCDD/ F) ngWHO-TEQ/ kg 2.3.7.8-Tetra-CDD 0,146 (0,030) 0,100 (0,100) (0,100) 0,100 (0,100) 0,110 0,150 1.2.3.7.8-Penta-CDD 0,210 0,121 0,250 0,280 0,240 0,200 0,310 0,180 0,390 1.2.3.4.7.8-Hexa-CDD (0,006) (0,003) (0,005) 0,010 (0,010) (0,005) (0,007) (0,006) (0,009) 1.2.3.6.7.8-Hexa-CDD 0,017 0,008 0,020 0,019 (0,010) 0,018 0,016 0,012 0,026 1.2.3.7.8.9-Hexa-CDD (0,005) 0,003 (0,004) (0,006) (0,010) (0,003) (0,006) (0,004) (0,007) 1.2.3.4.6.7.8-Hepta-CDD (0,006) (0,004) 0,001 (0,005) (0,002) 0,002 (0,003) 0,001 0,001 OCDD (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,001) (0,000) 0,000 (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) 2.3.7.8-Tetra-CDF 0,626 0,466 0,830 1,100 0,680 0,760 1,200 0,620 1,100 1.2.3.7.8-Penta-CDF 0,019 0,010 0,028 0,037 0,026 0,029 0,036 0,021 0,046 2.3.4.7.8-Penta-CDF 0,380 0,260 0,700 0,750 0,600 0,600 0,750 0,480 1,100 1.2.3.4.7.8-Hexa-CDF 0,008 (0,012) 0,010 0,048 (0,009) 0,014 0,054 0,010 0,015 1.2.3.6.7.8-Hexa-CDF 0,008 (0,004) 0,011 0,039 0,012 0,013 0,029 0,008 0,019 1.2.3.7.8.9-Hexa-CDF (0,005) (0,003) (0,004) (0,004) (0,010) (0,004) (0,004) 0,005 (0,008) 2.3.4.6.7.8-Hexa-CDF (0,017) (0,013) 0,010 0,035 0,012 0,009 0,018 0,010 0,020 1.2.3.4.6.7.8-Hepta-CDF 0,006 (0,005) 0,001 0,007 (0,001) 0,001 0,005 0,001 0,001 1.2.3.4.7.8.9-Hepta-CDF 0,002 (0,002) (0,000) 0,001 (0,001) (0,001) (0,000) (0,001) (0,001) OCDF (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) WHO-PCBs ngWHO-TEQ/ kg PCB77 (0,006) 0,004 0,004 0,004 0,004 0,004 0,004 0,004 0,004 PCB81 (0,000) 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 PCB126 (1,252) 1,295 2,600 2,300 2,400 2,300 2,400 2,000 3,300 PCB169 (0,037) 0,024 0,093 0,083 0,081 0,081 0,082 0,067 0,150 PCB105 0,083 0,058 0,302 0,217 0,260 0,255 0,198 0,198 0,475 PCB114 0,015 0,020 0,097 0,081 0,073 0,080 0,135 0,058 0,182 PCB118 0,180 0,170 0,886 0,623 0,700 0,731 0,588 0,546 1,440 PCB123 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 PCB156 (0,055) 0,050 0,337 0,210 0,267 0,281 0,277 0,216 0,537 PCB157 (0,007) 0,019 0,109 0,079 0,090 0,092 0,086 0,061 0,188 PCB167 0,002 0,001 0,005 0,004 0,004 0,004 0,003 0,003 0,007 PCB189 (0,002) 0,002 0,005 (0,006) 0,004 0,004 0,004 0,003 0,008 ngWHO-TEQ/ kgonlipidbasis BasedonPCDD/F 1,461 0,943 1,974 2,441 1,722 1,758 2,538 1,468 2,893 Basedonnon-ortho-PCB 1,296 1,324 2,697 2,387 2,485 2,385 2,487 2,071 3,455 Basedonmono-ortho-PCB 0,342 0,319 1,740 1,219 1,397 1,446 1,289 1,084 2,836 Basedontotal-WHOPCBs 1,638 1,642 4,437 3,606 3,883 3,831 3,776 3,155 6,291 ngWHO-TEQ/ kgondrymatterbasis BasedonPCDD/F 0,188 0,943 0,984 0,254 1,722 0,809 0,237 1,468 1,352 Basedonnon-ortho-PCB 0,166 1,324 1,345 0,248 2,485 1,098 0,232 2,071 1,615 Basedonmono-ortho-PCB 0,044 0,319 0,868 0,127 1,397 0,666 0,120 1,084 1,326 Basedontotal-WHOPCBs 0,210 1,642 2,213 0,375 3,883 1,763 0,352 3,155 2,940 ngWHO-TEQ/ kgonsamplebasis BasedonPCDD/F 0,174 0,943 0,377 0,237 1,722 0,295 0,218 1,468 0,477 Basedonnon-ortho-PCB 0,154 1,324 0,515 0,232 2,485 0,401 0,214 2,071 0,570 Basedonmono-ortho-PCB 0,041 0,319 0,332 0,118 1,397 0,243 0,111 1,084 0,468 Basedontotal-WHOPCBs 0,195 1,642 0,847 0,350 3,883 0,644 0,325 3,155 1,038 Marker-PCBsµg/ kgonlipidbasis PCB28 (1,6) (1,0) 1,8 2,6 1,7 1,6 2,2 1,5 2,0 PCB52 3,1 2,5 5,8 6,2 4,0 4,7 5,5 3,3 6,9 PCB101 2,4 2,1 13,0 8,7 9,2 11,0 10,0 8,1 18,0 PCB118 1,8 1,8 8,7 6,2 7,0 7,2 5,9 5,5 15,0 PCB138 3,8 2,8 16,0 13,0 12,0 13,0 12,0 9,9 26,0 PCB153 4,3 3,3 17,0 16,0 13,0 14,0 13,0 11,0 29,0 PCB180 0,9 0,9 4,0 3,8 3,0 3,3 3,1 2,5 7,0 Total Marker-PCB's 18 14 66 57 50 55 52 42 104 46
  48. 48. Dioxin and PCBs in pelagic fish stocks Samplecode FM/IS-24 FO/IS-24 RM/IS-25 RM/IS-26 RM/IS-27 FM/IS-27 FO/IS-27 RM/IS-28 RM/IS-29 Fishspecies ICEHerring ICEHerring Capelin Capelin Capelin Capelin Capelin ICEHerring ICEHerring Sampletype Fishmeal Fishoil Fish Fish Fish Fishmeal Fishoil Fish Fish Averagefishlength(cm) 29,1 29,7 29,6 35,2 34,7 Averagefishweight (g) 17,53 17,59 17,43 383,1 358,0 Sexratio(m/f) Averagefishage(yrs) 2,05 2,06 2,08 9,3 7,8 Dateof catch 3.12.2002 9.12.2002 10.12.2002 4.12.2002 9.12.2002 Areaofcatch 67°15' N/ 16°40' W 67°20' N/ 16°21' W 67°15' N/ 16°30' W 66°15' N/ 13°30' W 66°15' N/ 13°30' W Samplemoisturecontent % 8,2 0 70,3 70,4 69,2 6,8 0 65,3 63,6 Samplefat content %(pet. ether) 10,6 100,0 13,3 13,7 15,0 11,5 100,0 15,9 17,4 Dioxin(PCDD/ F) ngWHO-TEQ/ kg 2.3.7.8-Tetra-CDD (0,100) 0,087 0,190 0,060 0,120 (0,140) 0,150 0,250 0,160 1.2.3.7.8-Penta-CDD 0,340 0,260 0,180 0,160 0,180 0,230 0,220 0,650 0,570 1.2.3.4.7.8-Hexa-CDD 0,010 (0,009) (0,008) (0,006) (0,007) (0,005) (0,006) 0,012 0,010 1.2.3.6.7.8-Hexa-CDD 0,019 0,014 0,008 0,008 0,008 0,011 0,008 0,029 0,033 1.2.3.7.8.9-Hexa-CDD 0,007 (0,007) (0,005) (0,004) (0,005) (0,004) (0,004) 0,007 (0,004) 1.2.3.4.6.7.8-Hepta-CDD (0,003) 0,002 (0,001) (0,001) 0,001 0,019 0,002 0,002 0,002 OCDD (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) 0,000 0,004 (0,000) 0,000 0,000 2.3.7.8-Tetra-CDF 1,400 0,770 0,620 0,610 0,560 0,660 0,630 1,400 1,300 1.2.3.7.8-Penta-CDF 0,047 0,030 0,023 0,037 0,020 0,019 0,022 0,060 0,050 2.3.4.7.8-Penta-CDF 0,900 0,650 0,390 0,445 0,350 0,360 0,410 1,400 1,250 1.2.3.4.7.8-Hexa-CDF 0,055 0,012 0,009 0,012 0,008 0,011 0,009 0,028 0,024 1.2.3.6.7.8-Hexa-CDF 0,036 0,013 0,007 0,006 0,006 0,007 0,006 0,025 0,024 1.2.3.7.8.9-Hexa-CDF (0,004) (0,007) (0,006) (0,004) (0,006) (0,003) (0,005) (0,004) (0,003) 2.3.4.6.7.8-Hexa-CDF 0,030 0,011 0,007 0,006 0,005 (0,010) (0,009) 0,025 0,022 1.2.3.4.6.7.8-Hepta-CDF 0,005 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,002 0,000 0,002 0,002 1.2.3.4.7.8.9-Hepta-CDF (0,001) (0,001) (0,001) (0,001) (0,001) (0,000) (0,001) (0,000) (0,000) OCDF (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) (0,000) 0,000 (0,000) 0,000 0,000 WHO-PCBs ngWHO-TEQ/ kg PCB77 0,005 0,005 0,007 0,007 0,006 0,006 0,007 0,006 0,007 PCB81 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 PCB126 2,800 2,700 1,900 1,900 1,700 2,100 2,100 4,900 4,700 PCB169 0,100 0,092 0,037 0,038 0,037 0,042 0,042 0,170 0,150 PCB105 0,268 0,278 0,128 0,103 0,098 0,111 0,107 0,570 0,489 PCB114 0,099 0,091 0,052 0,031 0,035 0,044 0,035 0,182 0,232 PCB118 0,907 0,869 0,378 0,295 0,292 0,317 0,308 1,600 1,466 PCB123 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 PCB156 0,354 0,288 0,169 0,099 0,099 0,105 0,098 0,695 0,627 PCB157 0,096 0,087 0,040 0,031 0,034 0,035 0,031 0,215 0,169 PCB167 0,004 0,004 0,002 0,002 0,002 0,002 0,002 0,009 0,008 PCB189 0,005 0,004 0,003 0,001 0,001 (0,001) 0,002 0,011 0,010 ngWHO-TEQ/ kgonlipidbasis BasedonPCDD/F 2,957 1,873 1,455 1,360 1,277 1,485 1,482 3,894 3,454 Basedonnon-ortho-PCB 2,905 2,797 1,944 1,945 1,743 2,149 2,149 5,076 4,857 Basedonmono-ortho-PCB 1,733 1,621 0,771 0,561 0,561 0,614 0,581 3,281 3,000 Basedontotal-WHOPCBs 4,638 4,418 2,715 2,506 2,304 2,763 2,731 8,358 7,857 ngWHO-TEQ/ kgondrymatterbasis BasedonPCDD/F 0,341 1,873 0,651 0,629 0,622 0,183 1,482 1,784 1,651 Basedonnon-ortho-PCB 0,335 2,797 0,871 0,900 0,849 0,265 2,149 2,326 2,322 Basedonmono-ortho-PCB 0,200 1,621 0,345 0,260 0,273 0,076 0,581 1,504 1,434 Basedontotal-WHOPCBs 0,536 4,418 1,216 1,160 1,122 0,341 2,731 3,830 3,756 ngWHO-TEQ/ kgonsamplebasis BasedonPCDD/F 0,313 1,873 0,193 0,186 0,192 0,171 1,482 0,619 0,601 Basedonnon-ortho-PCB 0,308 2,797 0,259 0,266 0,262 0,247 2,149 0,807 0,845 Basedonmono-ortho-PCB 0,184 1,621 0,103 0,077 0,084 0,071 0,581 0,522 0,522 Basedontotal-WHOPCBs 0,492 4,418 0,361 0,343 0,346 0,318 2,731 1,329 1,367 Marker-PCBsµg/ kgonlipidbasis PCB28 2,0 1,8 2,0 1,3 1,5 1,2 1,4 2,6 3,1 PCB52 8,4 4,5 5,8 2,5 3,1 4,3 2,9 11,0 14,0 PCB101 12,0 11,0 5,9 2,2 2,5 3,3 2,4 21,0 20,0 PCB118 9,1 8,7 3,7 2,9 3,0 3,2 3,1 16,0 15,0 PCB138 15,0 14,0 7,3 4,4 4,4 5,0 4,7 28,0 25,0 PCB153 15,0 16,0 7,6 4,4 4,7 5,5 5,1 30,0 26,0 PCB180 3,8 3,6 1,7 1,0 1,1 1,5 1,1 8,2 7,1 Total Marker-PCB's 65 60 34 19 20 24 21 117 110 47

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