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Mandatory IFRS adoption in Brazil and firm value

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Using diff-in-diff approaches and the propensity-score matching, this study focuses on firm-level Tobin´s q and Market-to-book outcomes for Brazilian firms who in 2008 were required by Law 11.638/07 to adopt the full International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by 2010. Brazil’s tier-system of corporate governance standards for publicly-traded firms, its uniquely wholesale adoption of the IFRS, and the previously considerable gap between its national GAAP and IFRS readily lend the scenario to research, which thus far finds small or inconsistent results when focused on IFRS adoption-related outcomes in Europe and China. However, while these features recommend the transitioned Brazilian equity market to analysis, additional unique features, such as its small population size and its limited historical data -- of varied quality – increase the challenge in selecting a suitable empirical methodology. Using quarterly data from 2006-2011, control firms in the Nivel II and Novo Mercado tiers of Bovespa which already complied with higher quality accounting standards are matched to treatment firms in the Regular and Nivel I tiers with similar averaged values of size and sector. Our results suggest that there is a positive impact on Tobin´s q and Market-to-book for firms who are forced to adopt IFRS in Brazil. We can observe the same results when we consider all variables winsorized at 5% level. We also find a positive relation between the firm value (measured by Tobin´s q and Market-to-book) and net income. Firms with higher net income are more likely to have higher Tobin´s q and Market-tobook. In an opposite way, we find a negative relation among firm value, size, Ebit-to-sales, sales growth and PPE-to-sales. All results are statistically significant at 1% level. '

Date: 2017-03

Authors:
Sampaio, Joelson Oliveira
Gallucci Netto, Humberto
Silva, Vinícius Augusto Brunassi

Published in: Education
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Mandatory IFRS adoption in Brazil and firm value

  1. 1. Working Paper 442 Mandatory IFRS Adoption in Brazil and Firm Value Joelson Oliveira Sampaio Humberto Gallucci Netto Vinícius Augusto Brunassi Silva CEQEF - Nº29 Working Paper Series 06 de março de 2017
  2. 2. WORKING PAPER 442 – CEQEF Nº 29 • MARÇO DE 2017 • 1 Os artigos dos Textos para Discussão da Escola de Economia de São Paulo da Fundação Getulio Vargas são de inteira responsabilidade dos autores e não refletem necessariamente a opinião da FGV-EESP. É permitida a reprodução total ou parcial dos artigos, desde que creditada a fonte. Escola de Economia de São Paulo da Fundação Getulio Vargas FGV-EESP www.eesp.fgv.br
  3. 3. 1 Mandatory IFRS Adoption in Brazil and Firm Value ABSTRACT Using diff-in-diff approaches and the propensity-score matching, this study focuses on firm-level Tobin´s q and Market-to-book outcomes for Brazilian firms who in 2008 were required by Law 11.638/07 to adopt the full International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by 2010. Brazil’s tier-system of corporate governance standards for publicly-traded firms, its uniquely wholesale adoption of the IFRS, and the previously considerable gap between its national GAAP and IFRS readily lend the scenario to research, which thus far finds small or inconsistent results when focused on IFRS adoption-related outcomes in Europe and China. However, while these features recommend the transitioned Brazilian equity market to analysis, additional unique features, such as its small population size and its limited historical data -- of varied quality – increase the challenge in selecting a suitable empirical methodology. Using quarterly data from 2006-2011, control firms in the Nivel II and Novo Mercado tiers of Bovespa which already complied with higher quality accounting standards are matched to treatment firms in the Regular and Nivel I tiers with similar averaged values of size and sector. Our results suggest that there is a positive impact on Tobin´s q and Market-to-book for firms who are forced to adopt IFRS in Brazil. We can observe the same results when we consider all variables winsorized at 5% level. We also find a positive relation between the firm value (measured by Tobin´s q and Market-to-book) and net income. Firms with higher net income are more likely to have higher Tobin´s q and Market-to- book. In an opposite way, we find a negative relation among firm value, size, Ebit-to-sales, sales growth and PPE-to-sales. All results are statistically significant at 1% level. Keywords: IFRS, Corporate Governance and Firm Value.  Corresponding author. E-mail adresses: * joelson.sampaio@fgv.br; ** humberto.gallucci@ufba.br; *** : vinicius.brunassi@fecap.br Joelson Oliveira Sampaio Fundação Getulio Vargas - EESP Fundação Escola de Comércio Alvares Penteado Humberto Gallucci Netto** Universidade Federal da Bahia Vinícius Augusto Brunassi Silva*** Fundação Escola de Comércio Alvares Penteado
  4. 4. 2 I. Introduction This paper presents empirical evidence regarding the firm-level effects on the introduction of mandatory IFRS reporting in Brazil. While a number of studies have focused on the economic consequences of firms’ increased financial disclosure in general – and recently, informational outcomes of the European Union’s 2005 adoption of IFRS specifically has become a popular area of inquiry – there are reasons why results obtained to date might not adequately capture the potential benefits of accounting standard convergence. First, the majority of existing literature estimates effects in countries where the information environment is already considerably rich, thus the effects of a marginal change in accounting quality may be difficult to identify with sufficient statistical significance. Secondly, studies of effects in the European Union should account for the specific terms of Regulation EC 1606/2002, which requires pre-approval by the European Commission for any changes in reporting standards to become mandatorily enforceable. This has resulted in a somewhat piecemeal adoption of the IFRS (KPMG, 2008); therefore, changes in European firms’ financial disclosure environment post-2005 capture less precisely the effects of adopting the IFRS as intended by the IASB inasmuch as a general convergence in accounting requirements. While preliminary research indicates that the quality of Brazilian firm compliance suffers from marked heterogeneity (Santos et al., 2010), the general consensus among foreign investment advisory statements and the IFRS Foundation has been to consider Brazil a case of uniquely high-level, full adoption and conformance. Because national Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) can vary substantially from each other, the subsequent lack of comparability in accounting statements across countries introduces an information asymmetry in the international market for equity. Economic theory suggests that this asymmetry can lead to several capital market inefficiencies including adverse selection (Leuz and Verrecchia, 2000; and Leuz, 2003), increased cost of capital (Baiman and Verrecchia, 1996), and substantial home bias in portfolio holdings (DeFond et al. 2011; Yu and Wahid, 2014). To address these and other potential market inefficiencies, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) have advocated global adoption of a uniform set of accounting standards, namely
  5. 5. 3 the former International Accounting Standards (IAS) whose current iteration is the ubiquitous International Foreign Reporting Standard (IFRS). The purpose of this paper is to address the efficacy of such uniform standard adoption in reducing information asymmetry. We analyze efficacy by studying the reduction of value discrepancy among Brazilian listed companies under different corporate governance requirements before Brazil’s IFRS adoption. In 2000, the Sao Paulo Stock Exchange created three high-governance listings (Level I, Level II and Novo Mercado – the highest) in order to improve governance patterns. Thus, we study the effect of IFRS adoption in a market ruled by firms adopting different governance patters and providing different level of information to investors. This paper enriches the scope of the current literature in the following respects: 1) it is one of only a few papers focused on IFRS adoption in an emerging economy, 2) its focus is more generally aimed at financial outcomes than accounting ones, 3) it calls attention to the identification strategy in order to evaluate the impact of IFRS adoption on firm value. Hence, it analyses the impact on value taking the adoption of IFRS and different governance patters into account. Using a propensity-score matching, this study focuses on firm value outcomes for Brazilian firms who in 2008 were required by Law 11.638/07 to adopt the full International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by 2010. While Brazil’s tier-system of corporate governance standards for publicly-traded firms, its uniquely wholesale adoption of the IFRS, and the previously considerable gap between its national GAAP and IFRS readily lend the scenario to research, Bovespa’s small population size and its firms’ limited historical data (of heterogeneous quality) increase the challenge in selecting a suitable empirical methodology. Using quarterly data from 2004 to 2015, non-treated firms in the Level II (N2) and Novo Mercado(NM) tiers of Bovespa which already complied with higher quality accounting standards are matched to treatment firms in the Regular (Reg) and Level I (N1) tiers with similar averaged values of size in the same industry. Our results suggest that there is a positive impact on Tobin´s q and Market-to-book for firms who are forced to adopt IFRS in Brazil. We can observe the same results when we consider all variables winsorized at 5% level. We also find a positive relation between the firm value (measured by Tobin´s q and Market-to-book) and net income. Firms with higher net income are
  6. 6. 4 more likely to have higher Tobin´s q and Market-to-book In an opposite way, we find a negative relation among firm value, size, Ebit-to-sales, sales growth and PPE-to-sales. All results are statistically significant at 1% level. The structure of this paper proceeds as follows. The second section discusses the related literature and provides information regarding the types of governance listings in Brazil. The third section shows a description of our data and the fourth section presents our identification strategy. The fifth section provides our empirical results and conclusions. II. Relevant Literature This study relates most closely to the ‘association-based’ studies in the financial literature on disclosure, which generally attempt to document the effects on trading volume, cost of capital and value of the reduced information asymmetry (Kanodia, 2006). Both previous theoretical and empirical work suggest that a negative relationship exists between information asymmetry and trade volume (Admati and Pfleiderer, 1988). For example, Leuz and Verrecchia (2001) consider voluntary commitment to increased disclosure levels in Germany and finds that for firms who switch from German GAAP to IAS or US GAAP, trade volume increases. They conclude that this suggests disclosure lowers the information asymmetry component of the cost of capital. Cofee (1984), Dye (1990) and Lambert, Leuz and Verrecchia (2007) specify that investors can better compare companies around the world due to IFRS reporting. Daske, Hail, Leuz and Verdi (2008) evaluate the economic consequences of mandatory IFRS around the world. They show that market liquidity, equity valuation and the cost of capital improved after the IFRS (market liquidity and equity valuation increased while the cost of capital decreased). According to Verrecchia (2001) and Lambert, Leuz and Verrecchia (2007) higher quality financial reporting and better disclosure help to mitigate adverse selection problems. Moreover, Botosan and Plumlee (2002) argue that the firm implied cost of capital is negatively related to better governance patters. In a nutshell, IFRS adoption has a positive effect on information quality. However, the positive effects depend on country’s features and companies’ attributes. Jeanjean and Stolowy (2008) point out that IFRS provide necessary but no sufficient condition for creating a common business language. In addition, some papers highlighting reporting incentives question the consequences of better reporting policies, Ball, Kothari and Robin, (2000), Ball, Robin and Wu (2003) and Daske et al (2008). The effective
  7. 7. 5 implementation of IFRS in firm’s report also plays an important role (Ball, 2006; Armstrong, Barth, & Riedl, 2010). Dask et al. (2008) show that cost of capital and Tobin’s q are affected by the change in accounting rules. However, they did not measure the IFRS’ effects in Brazil due to the period of analysis. Santos, Ponte and Mapurunga (2014) present low levels of compliance after the first year of mandatory IFRS’ adoption in Brazil and point out that institutional support conditions must be improved. Lourenço and Branco (2015) study the existing literature regarding the consequences of IFRS’ adoption. They conclude that IFRS adoption has a positive effect on capital markets and information use. On the other hand, enforcement must be improved (country’s characteristics) in order to reach out better results. Verriest et al. (2012) show that within a mandatory increased disclosure setting, compliance is associated with previous marks of higher quality governance. Our paper differs from this in that we examine the effects of a case in which the increase in disclosure is mandatory, and uniformly applied across all firms. Alencar (2005) looks at voluntary commitment to increased disclosure in Brazil and finds that it does not alter the cost of capital for firms in Brazil. We study the effects of lower information asymmetry on firm value. What we look at here is a mandatory change by everyone as opposed to a voluntary change by some. Something about theoretical underpinnings leading to different expectations because now there is no ‘optimal disclosure’, there is a different kind of public goods story. Our expectation is that everyone benefits from an improved information environment only if there was a ‘reverse tragedy of the commons’ going on. This paper exploits the specific distinction between the tiers’ accounting standard requirements in Brazil. We expect that firm value and firm’s reporting quality are positively related. BM&F Bovespa1 is Brazil’s leading stock exchange, currently listing 365 firms. It is organized as of 2000 into four tiers of corporate governance quality. Each tier, from Regular (Reg), Level I (L1), Level II (L2), to Novo Mercado (NM) corresponds to increasingly higher standards of corporate governance and shareholder rights protection requirements; members must adhere or be subject to penalties and enforcements by the Brazilian equivalent of the 1 Sao Paulo Stock exchange, www.bmfbovespa.com.
  8. 8. 6 Securities Exchange Commission, the Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (CVM). All firms with Level 2 and Novo Mercado status were already required to use IAS/IFRS since 2000, while Level 1 and Regular firms were allowed to use Brazilian GAAP. Therefore, when Regulation 11.638/07 was voted into law and required all publicly traded firms to adopt IFRS, this only required a change in reporting practices for Level 1 and Regular firms. III. Data We have collected data from 595 Brazilian firms from 2004 to 2015. We capture all financial and company information from Economatica2 . Table 1 provides a brief description of our variables. [Table 1] Each company in our sample belongs to one of the corporate governance tiers (Regular, Level I, Level II and Novo Mercado). Novo Mercado presents the highest standards of corporate governance. Companies listed in Level II maintain most of the Novo Mercado requirements. The main difference is that Level II allows non-voting shares. Level I provides improved disclosure standards while the Regular Level has no corporate governance requirement beyond the ordinary one required by law. The numbers in tables 2 and 3 allow us to adopt median comparison tests that compare Tobin’s q, market to book, assets, leverage, Net Income/assets, sales, EBIT/sales, growth and PPE/sales for our corporate governance tiers. Regular and Level I firms present extensive use of non-voting shares and low levels of disclosure. Hence, we grouped Regular and Level I firms as treated and Level II and Novo Mercado as non-treated. [Table 2] [Table 3] 2 www.economatica.com
  9. 9. 7 Several filters were applied to the original database. First, we take stable corporate governance into account. Hence, we cut companies that did not maintain the same tier for the entire period. Second, we drop all over-the-counter listed companies and do not consider companies listed in “Bovespa Mais” (similar to Novo Mercado, but usually for smaller firms and with some restrictions, e.g., there is no need for 25% free float) and BDRs (Brazilian Depositary Receipts). Third, we drop all firms with any change in its ADR status. Fourth, we do not include firms facing negative equity value in any period of our sample. In the last filter we excluded all financial firms. The final panel data collected was given in quarterly format starting with the first quarter of 2006 and ending in the fourth quarter of 2012. We have 50 treated and 40 non-treated companies. The mandatory adoption of full IFRS in Brazil, after a transition starting in 2008, was effective in 2010. This paper consider data before 2008 and after 2010 in order to avoid problem related to transition period. IV. Identification Strategy This paper exploits the specific distinction between the tiers’ accounting standard requirements: firms with N2 and NM status were already required to use IAS/IFRS since 2000, while N1 and Reg firms were allowed to use Brazilian GAAP. Therefore when Regulation 11.638/07 was voted into law and required all publicly traded firms to adopt IFRS, this only required a change in reporting practices for N1 and Reg firms. While this difference clearly identifies a treatment (Reg and N1 firms) and non-treated (N2 and NM) group, group assignment is decidedly nonrandom. Selection into tiers was originally chosen by the firms themselves, and a preliminary examination of descriptive statistics (see table 2 and table 3) indicates that there are significant differences between the treatment and control group across variables known to correlate with Ebit-to-sales, sales growth and PPE-to- sales. In order to minimize this problem we adopted the propensity score matching approach for this study. To better identify the treatment effect of IFRS adoption, treated firms – Reg and N1 firms who adopted IFRS by 2010 – were matched with non-treated firms of similar average size and sector. We use mandatory IFRS’ adoption (required by Law 11.638/07) as an exogenous shock in order to measure firm’s value. First, we separate all firms in the sample following each
  10. 10. 8 corporate governance tier. Selection into tiers was originally chosen by the firms themselves. It clearly identifies a treatment (Regular and Level 1 firms) and non-treatment (Level 2 and Novo Mercado) group, hence, group assignment is decidedly nonrandom and one can find significant differences between the treatment and non-treated group across variables. We use the following specification: 𝑇𝑜𝑏𝑖𝑛𝑠´𝑞𝑖,𝑡 = 𝛼(𝐼𝐹𝑅𝑆𝑖,𝑡 𝑇𝑖,𝑡) + Γ0 𝑇𝑖,𝑡 + Γ1 𝐼𝐹𝑅𝑆𝑖,𝑡 + 𝛽′ 𝑋𝑖,𝑡 + 𝜀𝑖,𝑡 (1) Where: 𝐼𝐹𝑅𝑆𝑖,𝑡 is a dummy variable for firms that adopted IFRS prior to X; 𝑇𝑖,𝑡 is a dummy variable of time; 𝑋𝑖,𝑡 is a matrix of control variables; V. Results Tables 2 and 3 show a considerable bias prior to the matching. This allows us to proceed to estimating of the average treatment effect on the treated – the average changes in Tobin´s q and Market-to-book of firms in the post-IFRS adoption period 2010 to 2014 (quarter 1). We follow this procedure because post match, all differences between treated and non-treated firms across these variables is no longer statistically significant. The main variable of interest is the parameter α, which accounts for the differential impact from IFRS adoption for voluntary and mandatory adopters. The results (see table 4) suggest that there is a positive impact on Tobin´s q for firms who are forced to adopt IFRS. This result confirms the hypothesis that if a firm adopts IFRS as part of a commitment to increase transparency and disclosure, the impact of such adoption on the firm value could be more pronounced than for firms who did not adopt it (Daske et al. 2011). We can observe the same result with Market-to-book variable. All results are statistically significant at 1% level. The underlying idea for this result is that reporting incentives play a significant role for firms’ reporting strategies as well as the need to adopt IFRS. Based on this logic, we attempt to
  11. 11. 9 identify firms that experience substantial increases in their reporting incentives due to IFRS adoption. These firms are likely to make major improvements to their reporting strategy. (Daske et al. 2008). Table 5 shows the same estimation, but considering all variables winsorized at 5% level. We can observe the same results, but there is a difference in terms of magnitudes of the coefficients. All results are controlled for industry fixed effects and quarter dummies. Figures 1 to 4 show the route of Tobin's q and Market-to-book for the period of analysis. [Figure 1] [Figure 2] [Figure 3] [Figure 4] In addition, we find a positive relation between firm value (measured by Tobin´s q and Market- to-book) and net income. Firms with higher net income are more likely to have higher Tobin´s q and Market-to-book. In an opposite way, we find a negative relation among firm value, size, Ebit-to-sales, sales growth and PPE-to-sales. All results are statistically significant at 1% level. [Table 4] [Table 5] VI. Conclusion In this paper, we examine how the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards reporting in Brazil affects the firm value in terms of Tobin´s q and Market-to-book. The potential
  12. 12. 10 benefits from IFRS adoption (e.g. increased transparency and comparability of financial statement information across countries) would suggest that the adoption of IFRS could lead to an improvement in the information environment that would have a positive impact on firm value. On the other hand, the implementation of IFRS is likely to be inconsistent across firms, and even more so across nations, which may lead to a reduction in the comparability of the resulting financial statement information. As such, IFRS may not have any impact, or potentially an adverse impact on firm value. Our results are in line with the hypothesis that if a firm adopts IFRS as part of a commitment to increased transparency and disclosure, the impact of such adoption on firm value could be more pronounced than for firms who did not adopt it. The results suggest that there is a positive impact on Tobin´s q and Market-to-book for firms who are forced to adopt IFRS in Brazil. We can observe the same results when we consider all variables winsorized at 5% level. Finally, we also find a positive relation between the firm value (measured by Tobin´s q and Market-to-book) and net income. Firms with higher net income are more likely to have higher Tobin´s q and Market-to-book. In an opposite way, we find a negative relation among firm value, size, Ebit-to-sales, sales growth and PPE-to-sales. All results are statistically significant at 1% level. References Admati, A. and P. Pfleiderer, 1988, "A Theory of Intraday Trading Patterns: Volume and Price Variability," Review of Financial Studies, 1, 3-40. Alencar, Roberta, 2005. Cost of Equity Capital and Disclosure Level in Brazilian Companies. Brazilian Business Review 2, 1-12. Armstrong, C. S., Barth, M. E., & Riedl, E. J. (2010). Market reaction to the adoption of IFRS in Europe. The Accounting Review, 85 (1), 31-61. Bacidore, Jeffery M, John A. Boquist, Todd T. Milbourn, and Anjan V. Thakor, 1997. The Search for the Best Financial Performance Measure. Financial Analysts Journal, 11-20.
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  14. 14. 12 Dye, R. 1990. Mandatory Versus Voluntary Disclosures: The Cases of Financial and Real Externalities.” The Accounting Review 65, p. 1–24. Houqe, Muhammed Nurul and Samuel Easton, 2013. Does Mandatory IFRS Adoption Improve Information Quality in Low Investor Protection Countries? Evidence from France, Sweden and Switzerland. School of Accounting and Commercial Law – Victoria University of Wellington, Working Paper. Horton, Joanne, George Serafeim, and ioanna Serafeim, 2010. Does Mandatory IFRS Adoption Improve the Information Environment? Harvard Business School, Working Paper. Hughes, Patricia J., 1986. Signalling by Direct Disclosure under Asymmetric Information. Journal of Accounting and Economics 8, 119-142. IFRS Foundation, 2013. IFRS Application around the World; Jurisdictional Profile: Brazil. Retrieved from: http://www.ifrs.org/Use-around-the-world/Documents/Jurisdiction- profiles/Brazil-IFRS-Profile.pdf Kanodia, C. 2006. Accounting Disclosure and Real Effects. Foundations and Trends in Accounting Vol.1, No.3, 167-258. KPMG, 2008. Brazil and International Financial Reporting Standards, First-time Adoption of IFRS: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved from: http://www.kpmg.com.br/publicacoes/audit/IFRS/Folder_IFRS_Perguntas_Respostas_ingles_25 06.pdf Jeanjean, T., & Stolowy, H. (2008). Do accounting standards matter? An exploratory analysis of earnings management before and after IFRS adoption. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 27(6), 480-494. Lambert, R. Leuz, C & Verrecchia, R. 2007. Accounting Information, Disclosure, and the Cost of Capital. Journal of Accounting Research 45, p. 385–420. Leuz, C. 2003. IFRS versus USGAAP: Information Asymmetry-based Evidence from Germany’s new Markets. Journal of Accounting Research, 41, p. 445 – 472. Leuz, C., Verrecchia, R.E. 2001. The Economic Consequences of Increased Disclosure. Journal of Accounting Research 38, 91-124. Li, Siqi, 2008. Does Mandatory Adoption of International Accounting Standards Reduce the Cost of Equity Capital? University of Southern California, Working Paper. Liu, Chunhui, Lee J. Yao, Nan Hu and Ling Liu, 2011. The Impact of IFRS on Accounting Quality in a Regulated Market: An Empirical Study of China. Journal of Accounting.
  15. 15. 13 Lorenço, I.M.E.C., Branco, M.E.M.A.D.C. 2015. Main Consequences of IFRS Adoption: Analysis of Exiting Literature and Suggestions for Future Research. Revista de Contabilidade e Finanças. Mora, R., Reggio, I. 2012. Treatment Effect Identification Using Alternative Parallel Assumptions. Departmento de Economia – Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Working Paper 12-33. PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2013. Brazil. IFRS Adoption by Country, 42-43. Santana, V.F., Sarquis, R.W., Lourenço, I., Salotti, B.M & Murcia, F.D.R. 2014. Economic Effects of IFRS Adoption in Brazil: an Empirical Analysis of Stock Price Synchronicity. University of Sao Paulo, Working Paper. Santos, E.S., Ponte, V.M.R., Mapurunga, P.V.R. 2014. Mandatory IFRS Adoption in Brazil (2010): Index of Compliance with Disclosure Requirements and Some Explanatory Factors of Firms Reporting. Revista de Contabilidade e Finanças, v.25, n.65, p. 161-176. Shalit, S. S. and U Sankar, 1977. The Measurement of Firm Size. The Review of Economics and Statistics 59, 290-298. Tsalavoutas, Ioannis, 2011. Transition to IFRS and compliance with mandatory disclosure requirements: What is the signal? Advances in Accounting, incorporating Advances in International Accounting 27, 390-405. Verrecchia, R. 2001. Essays on Disclosure. Journal of Accounting & Economics 32, p. 91– 180. Verriest, A., Gaereminck, A., & Thornton, D. B. (2012). Corporate governance and properties of IFRS adoption. Working Paper. Retrieved onhttp://www.econtrack.nl/uploads/document/coporate%20governance%20and%20properties%2 0of%20IFRS%20Adoption.pdf. [ Links ] Yu, G., Wahid, A.S. 2014. Accounting Standards and International Portfolio Holdings. The Accounting Review, 89 1895 – 1930.
  16. 16. 14 Table 1 Variables Definition Tobin’s q (book value of debt + market value of common stock)/ book value of assets Market-to-book market value of shares / book value of assets ln (assets) natural logarithm of book value of assets Leverage (Total liabilities)/total book value of assets. Net Income/assets Ratio of net income over assets EBIT/sales Earnings before interest and tax (EBIT)/total sales One year sales growth Geometric average sales growth during past three years (or available period if less) PPE/sales Ratio of property, plant, and equipment (PPE) to sales industry dummies Two digit NAICS sectors.
  17. 17. 15 Table 2 Median Comparison Medians and means for treated and non-treated firms in the last quarter of 2007. Tobin’s Q Market- to-book ln (assets) Leverage Net Income/ Assets EBIT/ Sales PPE/ Sales Panel A: Medians for Treated and Non-Treated Firms in 2007 Treated 1.26 1.03 14.79 0.53 0.08 0.17 0.52 Non-Treated 1.63 1.55 14.30 0.49 0.06 0.14 0.33 Difference -0.37 -0.52 0.49 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.19 Median Test p-value 0.02 0.02 0.13 0.70 0.25 0.25 0.06 Panel B: Medians for Treated and Control Firms in 2007 Treated 1.26 1.03 14.69 0.53 0.08 0.17 0.52 Control 1.63 1.55 14.30 0.49 0.06 0.14 0.33 Difference -0.37 -0.52 0.39 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.19 Median Test p-value 0.02 0.02 0.44 0.70 0.24 0.44 0.24
  18. 18. 16 Table 3 Mean Comparison Medians and means for treated and non-treated firms in the last quarter of 2007. Tobin’s Q Market- to-book ln (assets) Leverage Net Income /Assets EBIT/ Sales PPE/ sales Panel A: Means for Treated and Non-Treated Firms in 2007 Treated 1.50 1.32 14.76 0.51 0.08 0.19 0.71 Non-Treated 1.90 1.74 14.45 0.50 0.06 0.17 0.75 Difference -0.41 -0.42 0.31 0.01 0.01 0.02 -0.04 Mean Test p- value 0.02 0.03 0.31 0.76 0.28 0.54 0.79 Panel B: Means for Treated and Control Firms in 2007 Treated 1.54 1.35 14.49 0.51 0.08 0.18 0.64 Control 1.91 1.75 14.45 0.50 0.06 0.17 0.73 Difference -0.37 -0.41 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.02 -0.09 Mean Test p- value 0.02 0.04 0.89 0.86 0.29 0.62 0.56
  19. 19. 17 Table 4 Medians and means for treated and non-treated firms in the last quarter of 2007. 25th % Median 75th % Kolgomorov-Smirnov Test p-value Tobin’s Q Treated 0.90 1.26 1.77 0.04 Control 1.19 1.63 2.36 Market-to- book Treated 0.69 1.03 1.59 0.03 Control 0.99 1.55 2.12 ln (assets) Treated 13.13 14.69 15.81 0.47 Control 13.61 14.30 15.48 Leverage Treated 0.41 0.53 0.64 0.76 Control 0.40 0.49 0.64 Net Income /Assets Treated 0.03 0.08 0.12 0.27 Control 0.03 0.06 0.09 EBIT/ Sales Treated 0.05 0.16 0.27 0.60 Control 0.07 0.14 0.27 PPE/ sales Treated 0.22 0.52 0.84 0.06 Control 0.10 0.33 0.84
  20. 20. 18 Table 5 Difference by variable between the average of variables in 2010 and the average of variables at 2010. 25th % Median 75th % Mean Tobins’ Q Treated -21.4% -25.2% -18.5% -23.7% Control -39.6% -40.3% -36.8% -32.9% Difference 18.2% 15.1% 18.3% 9.2% Market-to- book Treated -29.1% -23.6% -20.9% -26.6% Control -47.6% -50.8% -38.2% -38.3% Difference 18.5% 27.2% 17.3% 11.7% ln (assets) Treated 1.1% 2.0% 3.2% 2.1% Control 5.6% 4.1% 5.1% 4.6% Difference -4.4% -2.1% -1.9% -2.6% Leverage Treated -2.9% 3.6% -3.1% 1.4% Control 28.1% 18.9% 1.4% 12.8% Difference -31.1% -15.3% -4.5% -11.4% Net Income /Assets Treated -0.7% -22.1% -12.1% -11.7% Control 51.2% 9.3% -3.2% 3.5% Difference -51.9% -31.3% -8.9% -15.3% EBIT/ Sales Treated 115.9% -17.3% -18.9% -8.2% Control 39.4% 18.7% -17.6% 10.8% Difference 76.5% -36.0% -1.3% -18.9% PPE/ sales Treated -37.9% -13.0% -5.8% -3.1% Control -68.3% -60.1% -45.9% -44.1% Difference 30.4% 47.1% 40.0% 41.0%
  21. 21. 19 Table 4 Results This Table presents treatment effect of IFRS adoption. Dependent variables are Tobin’s q: (book value of debt + market value of common stock)/ book value of assets; Market-to-book: market value of shares / book value of assets. Independent variables are Treatment: dummy variable that is equal to one if a firm is in Regular or Level I governance tier and after the period is after 2010; Treated: dummy variable that is equal to one if a firm is in Regular or Level I governance tier; After 2010 dummy is equal to one if the quarter is after 2010; ln (assets): natural logarithm of book value of assets; Leverage: (Total liabilities)/total book value of assets.; Net Income/assets: Ratio of net income over assets; EBIT/sales: Earnings before interest and tax (EBIT)/total sales; One year sales growth: Geometric average sales growth during past three years (or available period if less); PPE/sales: Ratio of property, plant, and equipment (PPE) to sales. T-values are given in brackets. Tobin’s q Tobin’s q Market-to- book Market-to- book Treatment 0.788*** 0.495*** 0.738*** 0.478*** (3.79) (5.24) (3.55) (5.12) Treated -1.002*** -0.597*** -0.998*** -0.597*** (-5.04) (-6.90) (-5.00) (-7.00) After 2010 dummy -0.821*** -0.436*** -0.811*** -0.415*** (-4.14) (-6.32) (-4.07) (-5.98) ln (assets) -0.109*** -0.102*** (-3.64) (-3.52) Leverage 0.233 -0.024 (1.29) (-0.14) Net Income/assets 7.366*** 7.870*** (8.81) (9.66) EBIT/sales -0.152*** -0.155*** (-3.50) (-3.51) One year sales growth -0.006*** -0.006*** (-3.07) (-3.37) PPE/sales -0.099*** -0.072*** (-3.47) (-2.74) Industry dummies yes Yes Quarter Observations 2,238 2,098 2,238 2,098 Adjusted-R2 0.04 0.38 0.04 0.41 The symbols ***, ** and * denote significance at the 1% level, 5% level and 10% level, respectively.
  22. 22. 20 Table 5 Winsorized Results This Table presents treatment effect of IFRS adoption using 5% winsorization for all variables. Dependent variables are Tobin’s q: (book value of debt + market value of common stock)/ book value of assets; Market-to-book: market value of shares / book value of assets. Independent variables are Treatment: dummy variable that is equal to one if a firm is in Regular or Level I governance tier and after the period is after 2010; Treated: dummy variable that is equal to one if a firm is in Regular or Level I governance tier; After 2010 dummy is equal to one if the quarter is after 2010; ln (assets): natural logarithm of book value of assets; Leverage: (Total liabilities)/total book value of assets.; Net Income/assets: Ratio of net income over assets; EBIT/sales: Earnings before interest and tax (EBIT)/total sales; One year sales growth: Geometric average sales growth during past three years (or available period if less); PPE/sales: Ratio of property, plant, and equipment (PPE) to sales. T-values are given in brackets. Tobin’s q Tobin’s q Market-to- book Market-to- book Treatment 0.571*** 0.435*** 0.524*** 0.407*** (5.12) (5.34) (4.65) (5.01) Treated -0.827*** -0.605*** -0.815*** -0.586*** (-8.16) (-7.64) (-7.98) (-7.46) After 2010 dummy -0.653*** -0.507*** -0.632*** -0.472*** (-6.38) (-7.36) (-6.08) (-6.83) ln (assets) -0.068*** -0.056** (-3.01) (-2.56) Leverage 0.158 -0.116 (1.08) (-0.81) Net Income/assets 6.635*** 7.072*** (9.90) (10.72) EBIT/sales 0.001 -0.001 (0.26) (-0.24) One year sales growth -0.004** -0.003** (-2.40) (-2.23) PPE/sales -0.067** -0.043* (-2.48) (-1.77) Industry dummies yes Yes Observations 2,238 2,098 2,238 2,098 Adjusted-R2 0.04 0.39 0.04 0.42 The symbols ***, ** and * denote significance at the 1% level, 5% level and 10% level, respectively.
  23. 23. 21 Figure 1 Median Tobin’s q Quarter median for each group. Treated are firms in the Regular and Level 1 governance tiers; Non-treated are firms in the Level 2 and Novo Mercado governance tiers.
  24. 24. 22 Figure 2 Mean Tobins’q Quarter median for each group. Tobin’s q is winsorized at 5% level. Treated are firms in the Regular and Level 1 governance tiers; Non-treated are firms in the Level 2 and Novo Mercado governance tiers.
  25. 25. 23 Figure 3 Median Market to book Quarter median for each group.Treated are firms in the Regular and Level 1 governance tiers; Non-treated are firms in the Level 2 and Novo Mercado governance tiers.
  26. 26. 24 Figure 4 Mean Market to book Quarter median for each group. Market to book is winsorized at 5% level. Treated are firms in the Regular and Level 1 governance tiers; Non-treated are firms in the Level 2 and Novo Mercado governance tiers.

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