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# Fall Construction Gtech

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### Fall Construction Gtech

1. 1. Fall Protection for Construction A Survival Guide Georgia Tech
2. 2. Statistics <ul><li>Falls are the number one cause of fatalities in the construction industry. </li></ul><ul><li>150-200 workers are killed each year and more than 100,000 injured as a result of falls. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall (including general industry) falls are the number two biggest cause of fatalities in the U.S. (motor vehicle accidents are number one). </li></ul>
3. 3. Statistics <ul><li>Falls 33% </li></ul><ul><li>Struck By 18% </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical 17% </li></ul><ul><li>Caught In 18% </li></ul>
4. 4. Statistics <ul><li>40% of the fatalities were from heights over 40 feet </li></ul><ul><li>Most falls occur on scaffolds or roofs </li></ul><ul><li>25% of fall fatalities were from heights of 11-20 feet </li></ul><ul><li>25% of fall fatalities were from heights of 20-30 feet </li></ul>
5. 5. Most Frequently Cited Unprotected sides & edges - Fall protection Fall hazards training program Fall protection - Steep roofs Fall protection - Residential construction 6’ or more Fall protection - Roofing work on low-slope roofs
6. 6. Physics of a Fall <ul><li>A body in motion (free fall) can cover vast distances in a short period of time. Consider this: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A body in free fall can travel 4 ft in 0.5 seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A body in free fall can travel 16 ft. in 1 second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A body in free fall can travel 64 ft. in 2 seconds </li></ul></ul>
7. 7. Application of Regulations <ul><li>Subpart M (1926.500) applies to fall protection during construction activities. </li></ul><ul><li>There are a few exceptions from this rule for the following activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing conditions prior to or after the work is performed </li></ul></ul>
8. 8. Application of Regulations <ul><li>Other existing standards for fall protection are discussed in different standards (subpart M would not cover the following items): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaffolds (subpart L) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cranes (subpart N) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steel Erection (subpart R) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stairs and Ladders (subpart X) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Transmission (Subpart V) </li></ul></ul>
9. 9. Contents of Subpart M <ul><li>500: Scope, Application and definitions </li></ul><ul><li>501: Duty to have fall protection </li></ul><ul><li>502: Fall protection systems </li></ul><ul><li>503: Training Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Appendices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A: Roof widths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B: Guardrail systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C: Fall arrest systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D: Positioning device systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E: Fall Protection Plan </li></ul></ul>
10. 10. Duty to Have Fall Protection 1926.501 <ul><li>Fall protection is required when one or more employees have exposure to falls of six feet or greater to the lower level. </li></ul><ul><li>Surfaces must be inspected before the work begins. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees are only permitted to be on surfaces that are strong enough to support them. </li></ul>
11. 11. Duty to have Fall Protection <ul><li>The following areas require fall protection when employees are exposed to falls (six feet or greater): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading edges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ramps/runways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residential construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hoist areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wall and floor openings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unprotected sides and edges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Above dangerous equipment (any height) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overhand brick laying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steep or low slope roofs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walking surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form work and reinforcing steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excavations, wells, pits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precast concrete </li></ul></ul>
12. 12. Duty to have Fall Protection Low Slope Roofs <ul><li>Low slope roofs (under 50 feet in width): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fall protection systems or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety monitor (with elements required in this subpart) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low slope roofs (50 feet width or greater): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fall protection systems (safety nets, guardrails, PFAS) or combination of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warning lines and safety monitor or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warning lines and guardrails or PFAS </li></ul></ul>
13. 13. Protection from Falling Objects 1926.501(c) <ul><li>Protection from falling objects is a requirement. </li></ul><ul><li>Employee working in an area where there is a danger of falling objects must wear a hard hat. </li></ul><ul><li>Employer must take steps to protect employees from hazards (establish barricades or build canopies). </li></ul>
14. 14. Types of Fall Protection <ul><li>Passive are protective systems that do not involve the actions of employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Active includes systems and components that require manipulation by employees to make them effective in providing protection. </li></ul>
15. 15. Examples of Fall Protection <ul><li>Passive system include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guardrails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety nets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barricades </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active systems components (personal fall arrest system-PFAS) include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchorage points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lanyard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Snap hooks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body harness </li></ul></ul>
16. 16. Active Systems <ul><li>Designed to operate in free fall situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be connected to other systems/components or activated to provide protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Active systems are designed to protect employees from the following items: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Falls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forces that can cause injury </li></ul></ul>
17. 17. Guardrails 1926.502(b) <ul><li>Guardrails are the most common form of fall protection. </li></ul><ul><li>May be made of wood, pipe, structural steel, or wire rope. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flags must be provided on wire rope to increase visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must have top rail, mid rail, posts and toe board </li></ul><ul><li>System must be strong enough to support 200 pounds of force applied to the top rail </li></ul><ul><li>Steel or plastic bands are not acceptable </li></ul>
18. 18. Guardrails-Design Criteria 1926.502(b) <ul><li>The top rail must be elevated above the surface 39-45 inches and must be free of jagged edges. </li></ul><ul><li>The mid rail must be located between the top rail and the walking surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Posts must be spaced no greater than 8 feet. </li></ul><ul><li>Toe boards must be made of a solid material with no openings greater than one inch and be 3.5 inches high. </li></ul><ul><li>Chains or movable rails must be used near hoists. </li></ul>
19. 19. Safety Net Systems 1926.502(c) <ul><li>Placed beneath the working surface (not to exceed 30 feet) to catch personnel or falling material. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be placed as close to the hazard as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment must be drop tested and certified. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be inspected weekly and after impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Openings can not exceed six inches. </li></ul><ul><li>Defective equipment can not be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Safety nets must extend outward from the outer most projection of the work surfaces. </li></ul>
20. 20. PFAS 1926.502(d) <ul><li>PFAS shall not be tied to a guardrail system or hoists </li></ul><ul><li>All components of a fall arrest system must be inspected before each use and after impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Action must be taken promptly to rescue fallen employees. </li></ul>
21. 21. PFAS 1926.502(d) <ul><li>When stopping a fall, a PFAS must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit the arresting force to 1800 pounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be rigid so that an employee can not fall more than 6 feet of contact a lower level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring an employee to a complete stop and limit maximum deceleration distance an employee travels to 3.5 feet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength to withstand 2X potential impact of employee falling 6 ft. or permitted fall distance. </li></ul></ul>
22. 22. Inspecting Equipment 1926.502(d) <ul><li>Equipment must be inspected before each use for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Degradation due to ultraviolet light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any other condition that is not normal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The following items must be inspected: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tears or other wear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deformed eyelets, D rings or other parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labels/placards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirt, grease, and oil </li></ul></ul>
23. 23. PFAS (Harness) 1926.502(d) <ul><li>Harness systems consist of either nylon or polyester and the best system will encompass the entire body (full body harness). </li></ul><ul><li>Body belts can not be used for fall protection. </li></ul><ul><li>A full body harness will evenly distribute weight across the waist, pelvis, and thighs. </li></ul>
24. 24. PFAS (Lanyard) 1926.502(d) <ul><li>Lanyards connect the harness to the anchorage point. </li></ul><ul><li>Must have a minimum breaking strength of 5000 pounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be attached to a D ring between the shoulder blades above the employee. </li></ul><ul><li>There are several types of lanyards that include: synthetic webbing, synthetic rope and shock absorbing. </li></ul>
25. 25. Types of Lanyards <ul><li>Self retracting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates excess slack in the lanyard (cable, rope, or web) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shock absorbing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Device slows and eventually stops decent and absorbs the forces (i.e.: rip stitch controlled tearing) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synthetic rope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbs some of the force by stretching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synthetic webbing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong but not flexible (absorbs little force) </li></ul></ul>
26. 26. PFAS (life Lines) 1926.502(d) <ul><li>Life lines consist of flexible material connected at one or both ends to an anchorage point. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of life lines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical:hangs vertically (5000 pound minimum breaking strength) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal: connects at both points to stretch horizontally (serves as connection point for other components of PFAS-total system must have safety factor of two). </li></ul></ul>
27. 27. PFAS (Snap hooks) 1926.502(d) <ul><li>Used to connect lanyards to D rings on a body harness. </li></ul><ul><li>D rings must be compatible. Must be connected to harness or anchorage point only. </li></ul><ul><li>Snap hooks must have 5,000 tensile strength and be proof tested to 3600 pounds. </li></ul><ul><li>When using snap hooks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use only one snap hook per D ring to prevent rollout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All snap hooks must have a locking mechanism </li></ul></ul>
28. 28. PFAS (Anchorage Points) 1926.502(d) <ul><li>The anchorage point is most effective when it is above the employee’s head. Located as to not allow an employee fall more than 6 feet. </li></ul><ul><li>All anchorage points must be a solid immovable object that is capable of supporting 5000 pounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Must not be used to support anything else. </li></ul>
29. 29. Positioning Device Systems 1926.502(e) <ul><li>Allows employee to be supported from a vertical surface (i.e.: wall or telephone pole). </li></ul><ul><li>Must be inspected before each use for defects. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be rigid for no more than a 2 foot free fall. </li></ul><ul><li>Not a fall arrest system! </li></ul><ul><li>The anchorage point must be capable of withstanding twice the potential impact of an employee’s fall or 3000 pounds, whichever is greater. </li></ul>
30. 30. Warning Line System 1926.502(f) <ul><li>Rope, wire, or chains are used to warn employees of an unprotected edge. </li></ul><ul><li>Used mainly on roofs , where PFAS- impractical. </li></ul><ul><li>Established not less than six feet from the edge. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials must have sufficient strength and complete structure must withstand 16 pound tipping force. </li></ul>
31. 31. Controlled Access Zones (CAZ) 1926.502(g) <ul><li>Only qualified personnel involved in the operation are allowed to enter the zone. </li></ul><ul><li>Ropes, wires, or chains are used to designate the area. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be erected not less than six feet nor more than twenty five feet away from edge. </li></ul><ul><li>Shall be connected on each side to wall. </li></ul>
32. 32. Controlled Access Zones (CAZ) 1926.502(g) <ul><li>CAZ must be defined by a control line (strength of 200 pounds) erected 10-15 feet from the edge </li></ul><ul><li>Lines must be flagged at six foot intervals. </li></ul>
33. 33. Safety Monitoring System 1926.502(h) <ul><li>Uses a monitor (competent person) to patrol the area and warn employees of the dangers. </li></ul><ul><li>All safety monitors must comply with the following criteria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be on the same level the work is being performed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be close enough to orally communicate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have no other assigned duties </li></ul></ul>
34. 34. Safety Monitoring System 1926.502(h) <ul><li>Employees must comply with all instructions from the monitor. </li></ul><ul><li>The full attention of the monitor must focus on protecting the employees. </li></ul><ul><li>It is recommended that you have a written plan for using the safety monitoring system to address: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of the monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roles of employees in a monitoring system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training for using the monitoring system. </li></ul></ul>
35. 35. Covers 1926.502(i) <ul><li>Used to protect personnel from falling through holes in walking surfaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Covers must be secured in place and the word “Hole” must be written on the cover. </li></ul><ul><li>Covers must have sufficient strength to support: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twice the weight to be imposed upon it for pedestrians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twice the largest axle weight of vehicle traffic </li></ul></ul>
36. 36. Falling Objects 1926.502(j) <ul><li>Employers are required to protect their employees from falling objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Some methods that might have to be used (when necessary) consist of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Installation of toe boards (at least 3.5 inches wide) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building barricade and restricting entrance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Installation of screens </li></ul></ul>
37. 37. Fall Protection Plan 1926.502(k) <ul><li>Fall protection plans are allowed for the following operations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Residential construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading edge construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precast concrete erection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The plan should be strictly enforced. </li></ul><ul><li>The employer must demonstrate that it is impractical to use fall protection before a fall protection plan can be used as an alternative. </li></ul>
38. 38. Fall Protection Plan 1926.502(k) <ul><li>Plan must be developed by qualified person and made specific for each site (also must be up to date). </li></ul><ul><li>Only as qualified person can make changes to a plan. </li></ul><ul><li>A copy of the plan must be maintained at the site. </li></ul>
39. 39. Elements of a Fall Protection Plan <ul><li>Statement of Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Fall Protection Systems to be Used </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Accident Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Changes to the Plan </li></ul>
40. 40. Training 1926.503 <ul><li>All employees exposed to fall hazards must receive training by a competent person that addresses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The nature of fall hazards in the work area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures for erecting, maintaining, disassembling and inspecting fall arrest equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use and operation of fall arrest equipment </li></ul></ul>
41. 41. Training 1926.503 <ul><li>Training elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of employee in a safety monitoring system (when used) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations on the use of mechanical equipment for low slope roofs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of employees in fall protection plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards contained in 1926.500-503 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure for handling and storage of equipment </li></ul></ul>
42. 42. Training 1926.503 <ul><li>Fall protection training must be certified by the employer through a written record. </li></ul><ul><li>The latest training certificate must be maintained. </li></ul><ul><li>Retraining is required when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are changes in the work place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in the type of fall protection used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are inadequacies in employee’s skills </li></ul></ul>